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Full text of "Journal and proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales."

JOURNAL 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



-VOL. 2TVI- 



NOTICE. 

The Smithsonian Institute, Washington, U.S.A., 

and Messrs. Trainer & Co., 57, Lad gate Hill, London, 

have kindly undertaken to receive and forward parcels 

of books and printed matter intended for the Society. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



OSSm 
JOTTBNAL 

PROCEEDINGS 

EOYAL SOCIETY 

NEW SOUTH WALES, 

1882. 

INCORPORATED 1881. 
VOL. XVI. 



A. LIVERSIDGE, F.R.S., 

: Chemistry and Mineralogy in the University of Sydney. 



Mo. Bot. Girder 

1S97. 



NOTICE. 

The Royal Society of New South Wales originated in 1821 
as the " Philosophical Society of Australasia" ; after an interval 
of inactivity, it was resuscitated in 1850, under the name of the 
"Australian Philosophical Society," by which title it was known 
until 1856, when the name was changed to the "Philosophical 
Society of New South Wales"; in 1866, by the sanction of Her 
Most Gracious Majesty the Queen, it assumed its present title, 
and was incorporated by Act of the Parliament of New South 
Wales in 1881. 



CONTENTS. 



VOLUME XVI. 



By H. C. Russell, B. A. , F. R. A. S. , 

. II.— On the Deniliquin or Barratta Meteorite. (Second notice). 
"rA, Liversidge, F. R. 8. , F. C. S. ( Th m; Plata) 

. III.— On the Bingera Meteorite, X. -w South Wales. By A. 
Liversidge, F.R.S., F.C.S. (On: Plate) 

. IV. — On the Chen rtain Rocks, New- 

South "Wales, kc By A. Liversidge, 

F.R.S., F.C.S. (Two Plates) 

'.— Rocks from New Britain and New Ireland. (Preliminary 
notice.) By A. Liv. sidge, F.R.S., F.C.S 

, VI.— The Hawkesbury Sandstone. By the Rev. J. E. 

" '• ' , F.L.S., &c 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., 

VIII.— New Method of determining True North. By J. S. 
(.'hard, District Surveyor 

IX. — Notes on the Progress of >, 
Ten Years 1872-1881. By Christopher Rolleston, C.M.G., 

Auditor-General, President 

e Fossils. By the Rev. J. 



. Tenison- Woods, F.C.S., F.L.S. 
[. — On some Mesozoic 
ueensland. By the Re 
.L.S., &c. (Three Plat 



E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.! 

-Notes on the Aborigines of New Holland. By Jam 

ain S 

—On the Ashes of some Epiphytic Orchids. By W. . 

n, F.I.C., F.C.S 

—A Fossil Plant Formation of Central Queensland. ] 
lev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S., &c. (T, 

-The Aborigines of New South Wales. By J. Fras( 



Art. XVI.— On the Influence of th< 

Pastures upon the Growth of Wool (in abstract). By Dr. 

.Andrew Ross, M.L.A., Molong 

Proceedings 

Additions to the Library 

List of Presentations made by the Royal Society of New 



Abstract of the Meteorological Observations i 



Sydney Observatory. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F, 

Rainfall Map for the year 1882. 

F.R.A.S. 
List of Publications 



8/fre Clonal <§ocictn of Ifofo Stout!) Males. 



OFFH'FU.S FOR lsS2-8:t. 



r<>li.e<tox. c.ir.i 



H. G. A. WRIGHT, M.R.C.S., E. 



HONORARY SECRETARIES: 



DIXON. W. A., F.C.S. EUS-ELL, H. C, B.A., F.RJ 
HIRST, G. D. F.M <.. tc 

MOORE, C., F.L.S. WILKINSON, C. S., F.G.S. 
V W. G. 



KOYAL SOCIETY OE NEW SOUTH 
WALES INCORPORATION. 

An Act to incorporate a Society called " The 
Royal Society of New South Wales." [16 
December, 1881.] 

WHEREAS a Society called (with the sanction of Her p 
Most ( Queen) "The Royal 

Society of New South Wales" has under certain rules and 
h\ I ivs 1m en i nm 1 at Sv,J!m.\ in the Colony of New South 
"Wales for the encourage;,, .-ligations 

in Science Art Literature and Philosophy And whereas 
the Council of the said Society is at the present time 
composed of the following office-hearer - ; ml n. n • ■• ~ His 
as LoftusP.C. 
G.C.B. Honorary President The ilon.-ruhlo John Smith 
C.M.G. M.D. LL.D. President and Charles Moore Esquire 
F.L.S. Director of the E I md H eta y 

ine Russell Esquire B.A. (Sydney) F.R.A.S. 
P.. M.S. London < > owrnment Astronomer for New South 
Wales Vice-Presidents and H. G. A. Wright Esquire 
M.R.C.S. H ; idge Esquire 

Associate of the Royal School of Mines London Fellow of 
the Institute of Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland and 
Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of 
Sv.luey •-.,! (';,:■! Ai'.l,,h L-ii.i.is Esquire Doctor of Philo- 
sophy of the IT ni . iry »>£" i i-ao.-lhei- Fellow of the Insti- 
• . . • . i •■ 

Secret mi> s W. A. Dixon Fellow of the Institute of Chemistry 
of Great Britain and Ireland G. D. Hirst Esquire Robert Hunt 
Esquire Associate of the Royal School of Mines London 
Deputy Master Sydney Branch Royal Mint Kiiezor L. 
Montetiore Esquire Christopher Rolleston Esquire C.M.G 



Charles Smith Wilkinson Esquire Government Geologist 
Members of the Council And whereas it is expedient that 
the said Society should be incorporated and should be invested 
with the powers and authorities hereinafter contained Be 
it therefore enacted by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty 
by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council 

1. For the purposes of this Act the following words in 
inverted commas shall unless the context otherwise indicate 
bear the meaning set against them respectively — 

" Corporation" the Society hereby incorporated 
" Council" the Members of the Council at any duly con- 
vened meeting thereof at which a quorum according 
to the by-laws at the time being shall be present 
" Secretary" such person or either one of such persons 
who shall for the time being be the Secretary or 
Secretaries honorary or otherwise of the said Society 
(saving and excepting any Assistant Secretary of 
the said Society). 

2. The Honorary President the President Vice-Presidents 
Officers and Members of the said Society for the time being 
and all persons who shall in manner provided by the rules 
and by-laws for the time being of the said Society become 
members thereof shall be for the purposes hereinafter 
mentioned a I -tyle of "The 
Royal Society of New South Wales" and by that name 
shall and may have perpetual succession and a common seal 

ui 1 shall Lin! n a) < ntt r into contracts and sue and be sued 
plead and be impleaded answer and be answered unto defend 
and be defended in all Courts and places whatsoever and 
may prefer lay and prosecute any indictment information 
and prosecution against any person whomsoever and any 

which it may be requisite to serve upon the Corporation 
may be served upon the Secretary or one of the Secretaries 
as the case may be or if there be no Secretary or if the 
Secretaries or Secretary be absent from the Colony then 
upon the President or either of the Vice-Presidents. 

3. The present rules and by-laws of the said Society shall 
be deemed and considered to be and shall be the rulee and 
by-laws of the said Corporation save and except in so far as 
any of them are or shall or may be altered varied or repealed 
under the powers for that purpose therein contained or are 



or may be inconsistent or incompatible with or repugnant to 
any of the provisions of this Act or any of tin- laws now or 
hereafter to be in force in tin- said Colony. 

4. The Corporation shall have power to purchase acquire I 

dispose of the said lands or any interest therein and all 

On the passing of tins Act he vested in and 1'eeoine the 
property of the said Corporation hubjoet to all charges claims 
and demands in anywise affecting the same. 

5. The ordinary business of the Corporation in reference. 
to its property shall he managed l.y the Council and it shall J 
not be lawful beta to interfere in any < 
way in the management of the affairs of the Corporation 
except as by the rides and bydaws for the time being shall 
be specially provided. 

6. The Council shall have the general management and I 
superintendence of the af] a and except- 
ing the appointment or i ddents and 
other honorary officers v '• uti the bydaws 
of tin ^< ' fi' "ii t hue r ) t | V the Council 
shall have the appointment of all officers and servants re- 
quired for carrying out the purposes of the Society and of 

■ . define the duties and 
fix the salaries of all officers Provided that if a vacancy 
shall occur in the Cons .ear of the 

Society's proceedings it shall be lawful for the Council to 
elect a member of the Society to fill such vacancy for the 
unexpired portion of the then current year The Council 
may also purchase or rent land houses or offices and erect 

other structures for any of Uw \ 
which the - ay borrow 

money for the purposes of the Corporation on mortgages of 
the real and m or any part 

thereof or may borrow money without security | 
the amount so borrowed without security shall never exceed 
intheaggreg * Corporation 

for the last preceding year and the Council may also settle 
and agree to the covenants powers and authorities to be 
contained in the securities aforesaid. 

7. In the event of the funds and property of the Corpo- I 
ration being insufficient to meet its engagements each " 
member there I his subscription for the 



liable for any amount beyond that of one year's subscription. 
8. The Council shall have the custody of the common seal 
of the Corporation and have power to use the same in the 
affairs and '< ] 

of any of the securities aforesaid and may under such seal 
authorize any person \\ ' .-cute any deed 

or deeds And do such other matter as may !>e required to be 
done on behalf of the Corporation but it shall not be neces- 
sary to use the said seal in respect of the ordinary business 
of the Corporation nor for the appointment of their 
Secretaries Solicitor or other officers. 
f 9. The production of a printed or written copy of the 
rules and by-laws of the Corporation certlued in writing by 
the Secretary or one > * ,e case may bo 



to be a 


I rue 


copy and 


having the comn 


ion seal of the 


Corporati 




■ffixed therel 








Tnil 


iuch rides and by-laws and of the • 


been mad 


e un 


der the auth 


ority of this Act. 




10. In 


case 


any of the elections directed 1 


by the rules and 


by-laws for tl 




■ 


shall not 




utde at the t 




lall nevertheless 






to the Coun 




ibera as the case 






•ions respectively 


at any ordinary 
special general 




)f th. 


{■ ■ ■ 


at any annual or 



' ■;■(' 

11. The Secretary or either one of the Secretaries may 
represent the Corporation in all legal and equitable pro- 

" ceediiuis an- . of the Corporation make 

such affidavits ; nil d.. su h act- and s-ign - « h documents as 
are or may bo required to be done by the plaintiff or 

• 
which the Corporation may be parties. 



B<;si = n.-iti..n - 
Expulsion of 



Object of the i 
Office-bearers 



Reports 

Rules, Alteration of 

Sections, Membersbi] 
Sections or Commifctt 

, Hon., Duties o 



of Sectio 
Subscriptions 

in arre: 
Vacancies in the Council .. 



CORRIGENDA. 



Page 205, la3t line but seven. Fo 
„ 214, last line. For "p. 13" 
,, 218, line 6. For "page 15" 



RULES. 

(Revised October 1st, 1879.) 



Object of the Society. 

I. The object of the Society is to receive at its stated meetings 
original papers on Science, Art, Literature, and Philosophy, and 
especially on such subjects as tend to develop the resources of 
Australia, and to illustrate its Natural History and Productions. 

Honorary President. 

II. The Governor of New South Wales shall be ex officio 
Honorary President of the Society. 

Other Officers. 

III. The other Officers of the Society shall consist of a 
President, who shall hold office for one year only, but shall be 
eligible for re-election after the lapse of one year ; two Vice- 
Presidents, a Treasurer, and one or more Secretaries, who, with 
six other Members, shall constitute a Council for the management 
of the affairs of the Society. 

Election of Officers and Council. 

IV. The President, Vice-Presidents, Secretaries, Treasurer, 
and the six other Members of Council, shall be elected annually 
by ballot at the General Meeting in the month of May. 

V. It shall be the duty of the Council each year to prepare a 
list containing the names of members whom they recommend for 
election to the respective offices of President, Vice-Presidents, 
Hon. Secretaries and Hon. Treasurer, together with the names 
of six other members whom they recommend for election as 
ordinary members of Council. 

The names thus recommended shall be proposed at one meeting 
of the Council, and agreed to at a subsequent meeting. 



Such list shall be suspended in the Society's Rooms, and a copy 
shall be sent to each ordinary member not less than fourteen days 
before the day appointed for the Annual General Meeting. 

VI. Each member present at the Annual General Meeting 
shall have the power to alter the list of names recommended by 
the Council, by adding to it the names of any eligible members 
not already included in it and removing from it an < 
number of names, and he shall use this list with or without such 
alterations as a balloting list at the election of Officers and 
Council. 

The name of each member voting shall be entered into a book, 
kept for that purpose, by two Scrutineers elected by the members 
present. 

No ballot for the election of Members of Council, or of New 
Members, shall be valid unless twenty members at least shall 
xe^.ord their votes. 

Vacancies, ; the year. 

VII. Any vacancies occurring in the Council of Management 
during the year may be filled up by the Council. 

Candidates for admission. 

VIII. Candidates must be at least twenty-one years of age. 
Every candidate for admission as an ordinary member of the 

Society shall be recommended according to a prescribed form of 
certificate by not less than three members, to two of whom the 
candidate must be personally known. 

Such certificate must set forth the names, place of residence, 
and qualifications of the candidate. 

The certificate shall be read at the three Ordinary General 
Meetings of the Society next ensuing after its receipt, and 
during the intervals between those three meetings, it shall be 
suspended in a conspicuous place in one of the rooms of the 
Society. 



The vote as to admission shall take place by ballot, at the 
Ordinary General Meeting at which the certificate is appointed 
to be read the third time, and immediately after such reading. 

At the ballot the assent of at least four-fifths of the members 
voting shall be requisite for the admission of the candidate. 

Entrance Fee and Subscriptions. 

IX. The entrance money paid by members on their admission 
shall be Two Guineas ; and the annual subscription shall be 
Two Guineas, payable in advance ; but members elected prior to 
December, 1879, shall be required to pay an annual subscription of 
One Guinea only as heretofore. 

The amount of ten annual payments may be paid at any time 
as a life composition for the ordinary annual payment. 

New Members to be informed of their election. 

X. Every new member shall receive due notification of his 
election, and be supplied with a copy of the obligation (Xo. 3 in 
Appendix), together with a copy of the Rules of the Society, a 
list of members, and a card of the dates of meeting. 



Members shall sign Rules — Formal 

XI. Every member who has complied with the preceding 
Eules shall at the first Ordinary General Meeting at which he 
shall be present sign a duplicate of the aforesaid obligation in a 
book to be kept for that purpose, after which he shall be presented 
by some member to the Chairman, who, addressing him by name, 
shall say : — M In the name of the Royal Society of Xew South 
Wales I admit you a member thereof." 

Annual subscriptions, when due. 

XII. Annual subscriptions shall become due on the 1st of 
May for the year then commencing. The entrance fee and first 
year's subscription of a new member shall become due on the 
day of his election. 



Members whose subscriptions are unpaid not to enjoy privileges. 

XIII. An elected member shall not be entitled to attend the 
meetings or to enjoy any privilege of the Society, nor shall hia 
name be printed in the list of the Society, until he shall have 
paid his admission fee and first annual subscription, and have 
returned to the Secretaries the obligation signed by himself. 

Subscriptions in arrears. 

XIV. Members who have not paid their subscriptions for the 
current year, on or before the 31st of May, shall be informed of 
the fact by the Hon. Treasurer. 

No member shall be entitled to vote or hold office while his 
subscription for the previous year remains unpaid. 

The name of any member who shall be two years in arrears 
with his subscriptions shall be erased from the list of members, 
but such member maybe re-admitted on giving a sa 
explanation to the Council, and on payment of arrears. 

At the meeting held in July, and at all subsequent meetings 
for the year, a list of the names of all those members who are in 
arrears with their annual subscriptions shall be suspended in the 
Rooms of the Society. Members shall in such cases be informed 
that their names have been thus posted. 

designation of Members. 

XY. Members who wish to resign their membership of the 

Society are requested to give notice in writing to the Honorary 

Secretaries, and are required to return all books or other property 

belonging to the Society. 

Expulsion of Members. 
XVI. A majority of members present at any ordinary meet- 
ing shall have power to expel an obnoxious member from the 
Society, provided that a resolution to that effect has been moved 
and seconded at the previous ordinary meeting, and that due 
notice of the same has been sent in writing to the member in 
question, within a week after the meeting at which such resolution 
has been brought forward, 



Honorary Members. 

XVII. The Honorary Members of the Society shall be persons 
who have been eminent benefactors to this or some other of 
the Australian Colonies, and distinguished patrons and promoters 
of the objects of the Society. Every person proposed as an 
Honorary Member must be recommended by the Council and 
elected by the Society. Honorary Members shall be exempted 
from payment of fees and contributions : they may attend the 
meetings of the Society, and they shall be furnished with copies 
of the publications of the Society, but they shall have no right 
to hold office, to vote, or otherwise interfere in the business of 
the Society. 

The number of Honorary Members shall not at any one time 
exceed twenty, and not more than two Honorary Members shall 
be elected in any one year. 

Corresponding Members. 

XVIII. Corresponding Members shall be persons, not resident 
in New South "Wales, of eminent scientific attainments, who may 
have furnished papers or otherwise promoted the objects of the 
Society. 

Corresponding Members shall be recommended by the Council, 
and be balloted for in the same manner as ordinary Members. 

Corresponding Members shall possess the same privileges only 
as Honorary Members. 

The number of Corresponding Members shall not exceed 
twenty-five, and not more than three shall be elected in any one 



Ordinary General Meetings. 
XIX. An Ordinary General Meeting of the Eoyal Society, to 
be convened by public advertisement, shall take place at 8 p.m., 
on the first Wednesday in every month, during the last eight 
months of the year ; subject to alteration by the Council with 
due notice. 



Order of Business. 

XX. At the Ordinary General Meetings the business shall be 
transacted in the following order, unless the Chairman specially 
decide otherwise : — 

1 — Minutes of the preceding Meeting. 

2— New Members to enrol their names and be introduced. 

3 — Ballot for the election of new Members. 

4 — Candidates for membership to be proposed. 

5 — Business arising out of Minutes. 

6 — Communications from the Council. 

7 — Communications from the Sections. 

8— Donations to be laid on the Table and acknowledged. 

9 — Correspondence to be read. 
10 — Motions from last Meeting. 

11— Notices of Motion for the next Meeting to be given in. 
12— Papers to be read. 
13 — Discussion. 
14 — Notice of Papers for the next Meeting. 

Annual General Meeting. — Annual Beports. 

XXI. A General Meeting of the Society shall be held annually 
in May, to receive a Eeport from the Council on the state of 
the Society, and to elect Officers for the ensuing year. The 
Treasurer shall also at this meeting present the annual financial 
statement. 

Admission of Visitors. 

XXII. Every ordinary member shall have the privilege o. 
introducing two friends as visitors to an Ordinary General 
Meeting of the Society or its Sections, on the following con- 
ditions : — 

1. That the name and residence of the visitors, together 

with the name of the member introducing them, be 
entered in a book at the time. 

2. That they shall not have attended two consecutive 

meetings of the Society or of any of its Sections in the 
current year. 
The Council shall have power to introduce visitors irrespective 
of the above l 



Council Meetings. 

XXIII. Meetings of the Council of Management shall take 
place on the last Wednesday in every month, and on such other 
days as the Council may determine. 

Absence from Meetings of Council —Quorum. 

XXIV. Any member of the Council absenting himself from 

factory explanation in writing, shall he considered to have vacated 
his office. Xo business shall be transacted at any meeting of 
the Council unless three members at least are present. 

Duties of Secretaries. 
XX Y. The Honorary Secretaries shall perform, or shall cause 
the Assistant Secretary to perform, the following duties :— 

1. Conduct the correspondence of the Society and Council. 

2. Attend the General Meetings of the Society and the 

meetings of the Council, to take minutes of the pro- 
ceedings of such meetings, and at the commencement 
of such to read aloud the minutes of the preceding 
meeting. 

3. At the Ordinary Meetings of Hie members, to announce 

the presents made to the Society tdnco their last meeting ; 
to read the certificates of candidates for admission to 
the Society, and such original papers communicated to 
the Society as are not read by their respective authors, 
and the letters addressed to it. 

4. To mate abstracts of the papers read at the Ordinary 

General Meetings, to be inserted in the Minutes and 
printed in the Proceedings. 

5. To edit the Transactions of the Society, and to superintend 

the making of an Index for the same. 

6. To be responsible for the arrangement and safe custody 

of the books, maps, plans, specimens, and other property 
of the Society. 



7. To make an entry of all books, maps, plans, pamphlets, 

&c., in the Library Catalogue, and of all presentations 
to the Society in the Donation Book. 

8. To keep an account of the issue and return of books, 

&c., borrowed by members of the Society, and to see 
that the borrower, in every case, signs for the same in 
the Library Book. 

9. To address to every person elected into the Society a 

printed copy of the Forms Nos. 2 and 3 (in the 
Appendix), together with a list of the members, a copy 
of the Eules, and a card of the dates of meeting ; and 
to acknowledge all donations made to the Society, by 
Form JN"o. 6. 

10. To cause due notice to be given of all Meetings of the 

Society and Council. 

11. To be in attendance at 4 p.m. on the afternoon of 

"Wednesday in each week during the session. 

12. To keep a list of the attendances of the members of the 

Council at the Council Meetings and at the ordinary 
General Meetings, in order that the same may be laid 
before the Society at the Annual General Meeting held 
in the month of May. 
The Honorary Secretaries shall, by mutual agreement, dinde 
the performance of the duties above enumerated. 

The Honorary Secretaries shall, by virtue of their office, be 
members of ail Committees appointed by the Council. 

Contributions to the Society. 
XXYI. Contributions to the Society, of whatever character, 
must be sent to one of the Secretaries, to be laid before the 
Council of Management. It will be the duty of the Council to 
arrange for promulgation and discussion at an Ordinary Meeting 
such communications as are suitable for that purpose, as well as 
to dispose of the whole in the manner best adapted to promote 
the objects of the Society. 



Management of Funds: 

XXVII. The funds of the Society shall be lodged it i Bank 
named by the Council of Management. Claims against the 
Society, when approved by the Council, shall be paid by the 
Treasurer. 

All cheques shall be countersigned by a member of the Council. 

Monet/ Grants. 

XXVIII. Grants of money in aid of scientific purposes from the 
funds of the Society— to Sections or to members— shall expire on 
the 1st of November in each year. Such grants, if not expended, 

XXIX. Such grants o£ money to Committees and individual 
members shall not be used to defray any personal expenses which 
a member may incur. 

Audit of Accounts. 

XXX. Two Auditors shall be appointed annually, at an 
Ordinary Meeting, to audit the Treasurer's Accounts. The 
accounts as audited to be laid before the Annual Meeting in 
May. 

Property of the Society to be vested in the President, Sfe. 

XXXI. All property whatever belonging to the Society shall 
be vested in the President, Vice-Presidents, Hon. Treasurer, and 
Hon. Secretaries for the time being, in trust for the use of the 
Society ; but the Council shall have control over the disburse- 
ments of the funds and the management of the property of the 
Society. 

Sections. 

XXXII. To allow those members of the Society who devote 
attention to particular branches of science fuller opportunities 
and facilities of meeting and working together with fewer formal 



restrictions than are necessary at the general Monthly Meetings 
of the Society, — Sections or Committees may be established in 
the following branches of science : — ■ 

Section A. — Astronomy, Meteorology, Physics, Mathematics, 

and Mechanics. 
Section B.~ Chemistry and Mineralogy, and their application 

to the Arts and Agriculture. 
Section C. — Geology and Palaeontology. 
Section D. — Biology, i.e., Botany and Zoology, including 

Entomology 
Section E. — Microscopical Science. 
Section F— Geography and Ethnology. 
Section G. — Literature and the Pine Arts, including 

Architecture. 
Section K.— Medical. 
Section I. — Sanitary and Social Science and Statistics. 

Section Committees — Card of Meetings. 

XXXIII. The first meeting of each Section shall be appointed 
by the Council. At that meeting the members shall elect their 
own Chairman, Secretary, and a Committee of four ; and arrange 
the days and hours of their future meetings. A card showing 
the dates of each meeting for the current year shall be printed 
for distribution amongst the members of the Society. 

Membership of Sections. 

XXXIV. Only members of the Society shall have the privilege 
of joining any of the Sections. 

Reports from Sections. 

XXXV. There shall be for each Section a Chairman to preside 
at the meetings, and a Secretary to keep minutes of the pro- 
ceedings, who shall jointly preparo and forward to the Hon. 
Secretaries of the Society, on or before the 7th of December in 
each year, a report of the proceedings of the Section during 
that year, in order that the same may be i 
Council. 



Reports. 

XXXVI. It shall be the duty of the President, Vice-Presidents, 
and Honorary Secretaries to annually examine into and report to 
the Council upon the state of— 

1. The Society's house and effects. 

2. The keeping of the official books and correspondence. 

3. The library, including maps and drawings. 

4. The Society's cabinets and collections. 

Cabinets and Collections. 

XXXVII. The keepers of the Society's cabinets and collec- 
tions shall give a list of the contents, and report upon the 
condition of the same to the Council annually. 

Documents. 

XXXVIII. The Honorary Secretaries and Honorary Treasurer 
shall see that all documents relating to the Society's property, 
the obligations given by members, the policies of insurance, and 
other securities shall be lodged in the Society's iron chest, the 
contents of which shall be inspected by the Council once in every 
year ; a list of such contents shall be kept, and such list shall be 
signed by the President or one of the Vice-Presidents at the 
annual inspection. 

Branch Societies. 

XXXIX. The Society shall have power to form Branch So- 
cieties in other parts of the Colony. 

Library. 

XL. The members of the Society shall have access to, and 

shall be entitled to borrow books from the Library, under such 

regulations as the Council may think necessary. 

Alteration of Rules. 

XLI. No alteration of, or addition to, the Rules of the Society 

shall be made unless carried at two successive General Meetings, 

at each of which, twenty-five members at least must be present. 



THE LIBRARY. 

1. The Library shall be open for consultation and for the issue 
and return of books daily (except Saturday), between T30 and 
6 p.m., and on Saturdays from 9 a.m. to 130 p.m. ; also, on the 
evenings of Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, from 7 to 10 p.m. 

2. No book shall be issued without being signed for in the 
Library Book. 

3. Members are not allowed to have more than two volumes 
at a time from the Library, without special permission from one 
of the Honorary Secretaries, nor to retain a book for a longer 
period than fourteen days ; but when a book is returned by a 
member it may be borrowed by him again, provided it has not 
been bespoken by any other member. Books which have been 
bespoken shall circulate in rotation, according to priority of 
application. 

4t. Scientific Periodicals and Journals will not be lent until 
the volumes are completed and bound. 

5. Members retaining books longer than the time specified 
shall be subject to a fine of sixpence per week for each volume. 

6. The books which have been issued shall be called in by the 
Secretaries twice a year ; and in the event of any book not being 
returned on those occasions, the member to whom it was issued 
shall be answerable for it, and shall be required to defray the 
cost of replacing the same. 



Form No. 1. 

Royal Society of New South Wales. 
Certificate of a Candidate for Election. 



being desirous of admission into the Royal Society of New South Wales, w 
the undersigned members of the Society, proposo and recommend him as 
proper person to become a member thereof. 

Dated this day of 13 . 

Fbosi Pebsonal Knowledge. I Fbom G-enebal Knowledge. 



Signature of candidate 



Form No. 2. 

Eoyal Society of New South Wales. 

The Society's House, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 . 

I have the honour to inform you that you have this day been elected a 
ember of the Koyal Society of New South Wales, and I beg to forward to 
iu a copy of the Rules of the Society, a printed copy of an obligation, a list 
' members, and a card announcing the dates of meeting during the present 

According to the Regulations of the Society (vide Rule No. 9), you are 
sign and r< 



Form No. 3. 

Royal Society of New South Wales. 

i undersigned, do hereby engage that I will endeayour t 

•ests and welfare of the Royal Society of New South Wal 



Eoyal Society op New Sottth Wales. 

The Society's House, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 

I have the honour to inform you that your annual subscription oi 
for the current year became due to the Eoyal Society of New £ 
"Wales on the 1st of May last. 

It is requested that payment may be made by cheque or Post Office ( 
drawn in favour of the Hon. Treasurer. 



Form No. 5. 

Eoyal Society op New Sottth Wales. 

The Society's House, 
Sir, Sydney, 18 . 

I am desired by the Eoyal Society of New South Wales to forward to 
you a copy of its Journal for the year 18 , as a donation to the library of 
your Society. 

I am further requested to mention that the Society will be thankful to 
receive such of the very valuable publications issued by your Society as it 
may feel disposed to send. 

I have the honour to be, 



Your most obedient servant, 
Hon. Secretary. 



Form No. 6. 

Eoyal Society op New Sottth Wales. 

The Society's House, 

Sydney, 3 

i behalf of the Eoyal Society of New South WaleB, I beg to m 
receipt of and I am directed to convey to 3 

ks of the Society for your most valuable donation. 



Form No. 7. 

Balloting List for the Election of the Officers and C 
Royal Society of New South "Wales. 



Balloting List for the election of the Officers and Council. 


Present Council. 


Names proposed as Members of the new Council. 




President. 






Vice-Presidents. 




Hon. Treasurer. 






Hon. Secretaries. 










Members of Council. 














1 













iu wish to substitute. 



LIST OF THE MEMBERS 



iiop;il §orietn of tlem South ul;Ucx 



Abbott, Joseph 
Abbott, Thomas 
Abbott, W. E., Glengarry, Wingen. 

is, A.J.S. Bank, Sydney. 
Adams, P. F., Surveyor General, Kirribilli P 
Alexander, George M., 4S, Margaret-street. 
Alger, John, Macquarie-street. 
Allen, Sir George Wigram, M.L.A., 125 

AUerding, F., Hunter-street. 

Allerding, H. R., Hunter-street. 

Allwood, Rev. Canon, B. A. Cantab., Vice-Chancellor, University 

of Sydney, Woollahra. 
Amos, Robert, " Barncleuth," Elizabeth Bay Road. 



Balfour, James, The Oriental Bank, Pitt-street. 
Barff, H. E., M.A., Svdney University. 
Barkii.s Wm. Jaim.->, Lie R. Col. Phys. Lond., 

Warialda. 
Barker, Francis Lindsay, 130, Pitt-street. 
Barraclough, William, Stephen-street, Balmain. 
Bartels, W. C. W., Richmond Terrace. 
Bassett, W. F., M.R.C.S., Entt., Bathurst. 



;Bond, Albert, Be 

Bowen, George \ 

Brady, Andrew J 

Coll. Sur. Irei 



: ■ v 



, Aif n- I . 1 

j Cadell, The:: 

Caird, Geor.. - 
I Cameron, Ai 

. 
! Campbell, 11. . 



Campbell, The Hon. Charles, M.L.C., Clunes, South Kingstor 

Cameron, John, Geodetic Sum ev v i r-< u nil's I >tRee 

. - . ... V.. - I i ■ Parsonage," Glen lime 



Carruthers, Oh L.K.C.S., Irel, J 



Chandler, Alfred, "Wm 



, F.R.C.P., F. 

trkhouse, Parramatta. 



. Lyons' Terrace. 



Oliatfield, " 

)lm, Edwin •., Ashfield. 

Clarke, William, care of John Wilson & Co., Tori-street. 

William Fr v l ,;,M.E.C.S.% 1 

llow of St. Paul's ( oilctre, North Shore. 
Codriiiut.m, J.din Fivil..., \l . H.C.S., 1]. ; Lie. R.C. Phys., L.; 
* 'c. R.C. Phys., Edm., Orange. 

, Revd. Robert, The Manse, Wellington-street, Newtown. 

~' r,HeniyCox,B -t reet, Darlinghurst 

_ r, John Ussher Cox, A.S.N. Company, Sydney. 
Comrie, James, Northfield, Kurrajong Heights. 
Conder, Wm, Surrey Office, Sydney, 
ionlan, George Nugent, care of Mr. C. E. Riddell, Union Club. 
Jomwell, Samuel, junr., Kent Brewery, Sydney. 
Cottee, Wm. Alfred, 2, Spring-.tri- 1. ' ' 

:, The Eon. George Henry, M.L.C., Winbourn, Penrith. 

:, James, M.D. - ;:>., Hunter-street. 

Cracknell, E. C, Superintendent of Telegraphs, Telegraph Office, 

Creed, J. Mildred, M.R.C.S. Eng., L.R.C.P., JSdin., Woollahra. 
Croudace, Thomas, Lambton. 
Crummer, Henry, Rialto Terrace, Darlinghurst. 
Cunningham, Andrew, Lanyon, Queanbeyan. 



Daintrey, Edwin, " Molia," Randwick. 

Dalgarno, John V., Telegraph Office, George-street. ^^ 

Dansey, George Fi km, Cleveland-sttW, 

"edfern. 
ar, Frederick H., care of Dangar, Gedye, & Co., M"* 



■ 
JVlarur, L.'upold H, 378, Geor 
De Sahs, Th.. Ii 



M.L.C., Cuppercnmt 
Strathmore, Bowen, Queensland. 



: Gt. Britain and h. 
Arts ; Chemical Laborat. 
Dixon, Fletcher, English, 

Dixson, Craig, M 
, Clarendon G 



-1 1!., M.A. St/ 
■ 
Donkin, J. B., The Exchan, 
S, L.R.C.S. S 
Dowling, NevM 
Drake, Willie-, 

Colonial Bank of S'ev Z. 
u Faur, Eccleston, F.E.G.S., " Mar;.,. 



tinber Inst, of Chemistry 




Eichler, Charles F., M.D. Heidelbei 



I '.. rrace, Liverpool- 
Eng., Bridge- 



Eldred, \ 

'. TV, Elizabeth Bay. 

)mas Augustus, C.E., City Engineer, Newcastle. 
Evans, George, Como, Darling Point. 

~ wen Sper. i .{-street, Balmaii 

Evans, Thomas, M.K..C.S., E., 211, Macquarie-street North. 



Fairfax, Edward E., 177, Mac 

Fairfax, James E., Herald Office, Hunter-stre 

son, J. W. W., 70, Darlinghurst Eoad. 
Fiaschi, Thos., M.D., M. Ch., Univ. Pisa, Wii 

son, David, Manager, Union Bank, Pitt 
Firth; Eev. Frank, Wesleyan Paj 
Fischer, Carl F., M.D., M.R.< 



.D., M.R.C.S., Eng.- L.E.C.P., Zond.; 
F.G.S.; F.L.S.; F.E.M.S.; Member Imp. Botanical and 
Zoological Society, Vienna; Corr. Member Imp. Geographica 
Society, Vienna ;* 231. Macquarie-street. 

-veyor-General's Office. 
Flavelle, Jo 7 " 



Furber, T. F., Surveyor-General's Office. 



Gabriel, C. Louis, care of Dr. J. J. Hill, Lambton. 
Gardiner, Key. Andrew, M.A., Pyrmont Bridge Eoad. 
Garnsey, Per. C. F., Christ Church Parsonage, Sydney. 
Garran, Andrew, LL.D., Sydney Morning Herald Office, Hunter* 

Garran, J. P., East St. Leonards. 

Gedye, Charles Townsend, "Eastbourne," Darling Point. 

George, Hugh, Sydney Morning Herald Office. 

George, W. P. 360, George-street. 

Gerard, Francis, Occupation of Lands Office. 

:i Joint Stock Bank, Sydney. 

Gdchrist, W. O., Greenknowes, Potts's Point. 

Gilliat, Henry Alfred, Australian Club. 

r : ] :P;^l:.r Uoad, Burwood. 

Goddard, William O, The Exchange, New Pitt-street. 

Goergs, Karl W., Biviere College, Woollahra. 

Goodlet, John H., George-street. 

Goode, George, M.A., M.D., M. Ch., Trin. Coll., Dub., Enfield 
House, Camden. 

Graham, Hon. Wm., M.L.C., Stratheam House, Waverley. 

Greaves, W. A. B., Braylesford, Bondi. 

Gnffin, T. H. P., : 

Griffiths, Frederick C, Macquarie-street. 

Griffiths, G. Neville, The Domain 

burner, T. T„ 1 i . { St , John ' 3 College, 

Cambridge, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Phi- 
losophy, University of Sydney. 



Department. 

Halligan Gerald H. 5 C.E., « EugoWra," Hunter's Hill. 
Hammond, Mark J, Ashfield. 

Hankms Geo. Thos., M.R.C.S.E., Liverpool-street, Hyde Fa* 
Kardy, J., Hunter-street. 
Lorimer I 



parens, lorimer E., Alt-street, Ashfleld. 

]l :: v J ■■■ - ■ ^ 

':':■■•■/ ■-■■• . , ■ 

tHarnson, L. M., Macqnarie Place. 



Hawkins, H. S., M.A., Balmain 
Hay The Hon. Sir John, K.C.M.G., M.L.C., AM. Ji^ 
Preeident of the Legislative Council, Eose Bay, Wool*** 
w 1 *,'». '* ~ n and c °™try Office, Pitt-street. 
He ms, Albert, Ph. D., Zerlin, Sydney University. 
Helsham, Douglass, Eurimbulah, Port Curtis, Queensland, 



Jones, Richard TheopBilus, M.p. S v dn., L.E.C.P. Editt., Ashfiel 
Jones, P. Bydwn I : . Collegwtre*. 

Jones, Edward Lloyd, 345, George-rtrwt, Sydney. 



Jones, John Trevor, 356, Liverpool-street. 

Josephson, Joshua Frey, F.G.S., District Court Judge, Enmore 

Koad, Newtown. 
Josephson, J. P., Assoc. Mem. Inst. C.E., 235, Macquarie-street 

Jouhert, Numa, Hunter's Hill. 



I Thos. Win., Harhoim 



Kinloch, John, M.A., 21, Wentworth Court, EUzabeth-s 

Knaggs, Saml. J., M.D., Newcastle. 

Knibbs, G. II., Mem. Inst, of Surveyors, Surveyor-G 

Office. 
Knox, George, M.A., Cantab., King-sf m>t. 

. M L.C.,'0'(/mim-ll-street. 
E!nox, Edward W., " Lansdowne," Darling Point. 
Kopsch, G., Telegraph Department. 
Kretschmann, Joseph ; care of Mr. Moss, Hunter-street 
Eyngdon, F. B., 221, Darlinghurst Road. 
Eyngdon, Fred. I /.. : MJU3 

CM., Aberdeen, North Shore. 



Langley, W. E., " The Pines," Berry-street, 
L'ltta, C. •!.. lb -.■!.. ■)• . Crystal-street, Pet 
Laure, Louis Thos., M.D. Si 



Leonards. 
Pam, 138,'Castlereagh- 
M.B.C.M. Edin., "Terra Bella," Pyrm«* 



Bridge Road. 

fLeibius, Adolpb, Ph.D., 

Chemistry of Gt. Brit 



Lloyd, Lancelot T., " Eurotah," William-s 



T...ft'1-.Ki- E^vlhl 



Lord. George Loo, Xirketoi 
Lovell, K. Iliivnrs. M.K.C 
Low, Hamilton. 

Low. Aiulr. 

•, Wilgar Dow: 



Eight Hon. Lord Augustus, ( 

.L.C'., North Shore 
,, Parlinghurst. 



Mno]) : .nne]l. William J,. F.L.A.S., U.. ,i; of Now South Wales, 
Port Macquarie. 

■ 
MacGiUivray, P. H . .: alhurst, Victoria. 

TM'kav. Ih-., Church Hill. 

M-Kiuncv. Hugh G., Assoc. Mem. Inst. C.E., " Seaton," Point 
. ,'.- idington. 
Elenry Norman, 



Mackenzie, W. F., M.E.C.S., L.E.C.P. 

Mackenzie, Eev. P. F., ' 
Mackenzie, E. M., The 



s, NewSstle. 
ling., Lyons' 



,Chas. Kinnnrd. M.U.. CM. 
laclean, L.H.J. 
Terrace, Darli 
!adsen, Hans. F. 



ndville." Paddmgton. 
ance Corner. 

Macqui 



.:,L.E.C.S.,2M 



Manfred, Edm u f : mlburn. 

Mann, John, 19, Hunter-street. 

Mann, Herbert W., care o£ Liverpool & London & Globe 

Manning, Sir W.'m., LL.D., Prunary Jfldgc, Walloroy, Edge- 
cliffe Eoad, Woollahra. 

■ 

•-■ , 5. 

_EW, Lie. Soc. Apoth. Lond., Gladesville, Vice-President. 
Mansfield, G.A., Pitt-street. 
Markey, James, L.E.C.S., Irel., L.E.C. Phys., JEdin., Eegent- 



Marsd* 

"■ 
Marshall, George, *"» 
Lyons' Terrace. 



Bathurst. 
~Lic. E. CofL S. Edi*. 






^F.L.8., Director of the Botanic Gardens, 
Botanic Gardens. 
Moore, Fred. If., Lxclmnso Buildings. 
Morehead, R. A. A., 30, O'Cormell-st red . 
Morgan, Allan Hradlrv, M.RX'.S. En,,., Lie. Mid. Lie. R. Coll. 

Morg m. T. < »., ] ( "...11. Phys. 7«7««4 

55, Castlon 

L, C B., Pitfc-tfreet. 

Morris, William, Lie. Fae. l'l.y,. and Surg. <??«., Castlewagt- 

"Aurovida," Forest Lodge. 

TciVy Survevor, Town Hall. 
IIC.S., :{,'. Sluntcr-etreet. 
, M.A., 211, Macquarie-street. 

Burwoqd. 



eill, A. L. P., City Bank, P 
ewton, John, eare of C. Nc- 
ewton, Br. J. L., Mudgce. 



! K , I... 

:• ■ i! . :. 

>. M.I >.,].■'.. 



M., M.E.C.S. Eng., 

. of Mine Sindhu 



Mast. Surg. Univ. Olat 



I, F.L.S., Curator o 



Reading, E., Mem. Odont. Soc. 1 
Reid, William, Australian Joint 

. :!., H., M.A., London. 

:: -.. ■■ '. ;.: . ; 



Renwick, Geo. Jas., B.A., M.D., CM., JBdi 

Hyde Park. 
Riddell, C. E., Union Club. 

. George- 
Roberts, Alfred, M.] 
, Bridge-s 



, Hon. Mem. Zool. and BofcSoc. 
worth," Potts's Point. 



Roberts, C. J., 
Robertson, Thomas, i 

Robertson, Rev. James Thomas, M.A., The Manse, Tumut. 
' fRolleston, Christopher, C.M.G., Auditor-General, Castlereagl- 



, 91, Pitt-s 



Roth, Henry Ling, F.S.S., F.M.S., Fouldcn Esta< 



Sandy, James, " Rothj 



Glebe, 
el," Croydon Road, Ashfield. 

.Uc.Soc.Apoth.i 



Schuette, Rudolf, M.I 

, College-st 
♦Scott, Eev. Willi 

3 Robert, Berlin Cottage, Fotheringham-B< 
Stanmore 

. Wwtown. 
3lfe, Norman, C.K, M ! < ! |;,..-LI. i"ii, Halmain. 



Sharp, Rerd. "\ 

College, Unii 

Shepard, A.D., j 

~"iepherd, T. W 

Sheppard, Rev. I 



St. P** 11 
t . Leonards 



. B.; M™Univ. London, M.B.C5* 
clair, Eric'lS'., C\M., XJni'r., Glasgow, GladesvUle W^ 



Slattery, Thomas, Premier Terrace, 1W, Wilh'am-h- 



, 103. Kliznheth-^reo 



Professor of Physics 



1 Court, Elizabeth. 



Steel, John, L.R.C.P.. 1..K.C.V.' /. 'i I./.-.2, College-street, Hydo 

ephon. G,\.v_-,. Milner, B.A., F.G.3., Mem. Geol. Soc. of Ger- 
many ; Cor. Mem. Nat. Hist, Soc., Dresden ; F.K.G-.S. of 
Cornwall ; " Almaville," Pvrmont Bridge Road. 

■■ . 

•on., Professor of Natural His- 
.versity of Sydney, 233, Darlinghurst Road. 

Stopps. Arthur J.. Surrey i--lieneral\- Oilice. 

': . 

Strickland, Sir Edwd., E.C.B., F.R.G.S., "Cardowan," Manly 



Strong, fm. Edmund, M.D., A 



[.R.C.S., Eng. t 



Stuart, Alexander, The Hon. MX. A., Sydney. 
Stuart, Clarendon, Cross-street, Double Bay. 
Suttor, Wm. Henrv, M.L.A., Cangoura, Bathurst. 






3 Place. 
, Adelaide, S.A. 
jh, BelleTue Hill, Double Bay. 
Thompson, Thos. James, 139, Pitt-street, Sydney. 



Thomson, Dugald, ! 
Thompson, V ' 
Thompson, i. 



Thomas, F. J., 
Thornton, Hon. George, M.L.C, 377, George-sti 
'!.■ t « Wa -.- li '-■.. M R CS. Enj., "Carlisle 
Tooiiey, J. V . " II •:'■" Burwood. 



Trebcck, P. C, Hunter-street. 

Trouton, F. H. A AJ — hiey. 

er, G. A., Ph. D., Superintendent, Bay View Asylum, Cook s 



T « 



Voss, Houlton H., J.P., doulburn. 



\v\ ...... 



Wood, W. ] 

Woods, T. A. Tenison-, 110, Fitzroy 

Woolrych, F. B. W. 

Wright, Fred. ■ ~ 
Wright, Horal 
Treas:.,;,: 
Wright, Ker. Edwin II., St. Stephen's, Bourke, 



Young, John, Town Hall, Georgo-s 



I- for Mines, Department of Mines. 
■General's Office. 
Campbelltown. 



HoKOBARY MJ3MBEKS. 
Limited to Twenty. 



; Dr., Hon. Secretary, Eoyal Society of Tasmania, Hobart 



Kew. 

: 

Cockle, His Honor Sir James, late Chief Justice of Queensland, 

M. A, F.E.S., Ealing, London. 
Darwin, Dr. Charles, F.E.S., M.A., F.G.S., F.L.S., &c, &c, 

Beckenham, Kent. 
De Koninck, Prof., M.D., Liege, Belgium. 
Ellery, Eobert F., F.E.S., F.E.A.S., Government Astronomer of 

Victoria, Melbourne. 
Gregory, Augustus I <., Geological Sur- 



nd Director of the Canterbury 

Hector, James, OM.( * of the Colonial 

Hooker, Sir Joseph Dalton, K.C.S.I., M.D., C.B., F.E.S., &c, 

I ho Eoval Gardens, Kew. 
Huxley, Professor, F.E.S., LL.D., F.G.S., F.Z.S., F.L.S., &c, 



B nt- fi , F.E.S., F.G.S., Hon. F.C.P.S.. C.M.Z.S., 
Professor of Natural Science in the Melbu; 
Government Palaeontologist, and Director of the National 



Burdens, Adelaide, 



Mueller, Baron Ferdinand yon, K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.E.S., 

F.L.S., Government Botanist, Melbourne. 
Owen, Professor R., I . .D., F.L.S., F.G.S. 

V.P.Z.S., ct\. m, London, 

Schomburgh, Dr., Director of 1 
mth Australia. 

er, Thomas, Ynralla, Concord. 
Waterhouse, F. O., F.G.S., O.M.Z.S., Curator of tlie Museum, 

Adelaide, South Australia. 
Woods, Rev. Julia. ;.S.,Hon.Mem.Roy. 

ic, Victoria, lion. Mem. Roy. Soc, Tasmania, Hon. Mem. 
Iclaide Phil. Soc, Hon. Mem. New Zeal. 
on. Mem. Ioana a »n Club, Sydney. 



CoBEESPONDrNG MEMBEB8. 
Limited to Twenty-five. 
Clarke, Hyde, V.P. Anthropological Intitule, 
Square, London, S.W. 

bert, junr., F.G.S., &c, The Bri 
.M.II.t. 1'. I!., l".CX. M.l bourne Mint. 
Ward, Sir Edward, K.C.M.G., Major-Gcnen 



Obitwby, 1881. 
Ordinary Members. 
on, Dr. John Wilson. 
, Dr. J. J. 
Hodgson, Dr. Wilfred. 
ogh, B.A. 
^'i, Henri 



Wulla 
Skinner,' J. H., B.A. 



Taylor, Dr. C. L. 



Darwin, Dr. Cliarl 



Honorary Members. 
, M.A., F.R.S., &c. 



AWAEDS of the CLARKE MEDAL. 
Established in memory of 
The late Eevh. W. B. CLAEKE, MA., F.E.S., ] 
Vice-President from 1866 to 
To be awarded from time to time for merito 
Geology, Mineralogy, or Natural History of Australia, to men of Bcien* 

1878. Professor Eicbard Owen, C.B., E.E.S., The British Museum. 

1879. Mr. George Bentham, C.M.G., E.E.S., The Eoyal Gardens, Kew. 

1880. Professor Huxley, P.E.S., The Eoyal School of Mines, London. 

1881. Professor E. M'Coy, F.E.S., F.G.S., The University of Melbour 

1882. Professor James Dwight Dana, LL.D., Yale College, New Hav, 

Conn., United States of America. 

1883. Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D., Ph.D., F.R. 

F.L.S., Government Botanist, Melbourne. 



Members are particularly requested to communicate any change 
of address to the Hon. Secretaries, for which purpose this slip is 
inserted. 



Hon. Secretaries, 

The Koyal Society of N. S. W., 

37, Elizabeth-st., Sydney. 



ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., &c, President. 

[Delivered to the Royal Society ofN.S.W., 3 May, 1SS2.} 



By a sort of tradition the President of a Society like ours is 
expected to make his annual address a compressed history of the 
science of the year; but our distance from the metropolis of science 
places your President at a disadvantage, for our first meeting is 
long enough after all the kindred meetings in Europe to give 
us in the various periodicals reports of what has been said by the 
happy Presidents whose duty has been to select the best out of a 
superabundance. I confess I cannot feel happy in going over 
ground which has been so well "prospected," nor could I do so if 
I felt as competent as those who have preceded me. I hope, 
therefore, you will not be alarmed at the innovation if I do not 
follow the traditional path, but endeavour to occupy your attention 
for a short time with some remarks upon matters, one of which is 



: importance, and the other < 



local 



The report of the Council has been placed before you, and I wil 
only refer to one or two matters which I think the Council has 
not made so prominent as it should have done. And first, with 
reference to our own work during the past year, the report or the 
address should, I think, contain a list of the papers read, as evi- 
dence of our work. 

The list of papers read before the Royal Society of New South 
Wales, session ending December, 1881, is as follows :— May 4 
"Anniversary Address," by the Hon. J. Smith, C.M.G., M.L.C 



2 ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

M.D., LL.D., &c. June 1, " The Climate of Mackay, Queensland," 
by H. Ling Roth, F.S.S., F.M.S. : "Notes of a Journey on the 
Darling," by W. E. Abbott. July 6, " On Smilax <f?!J<w¥ la > 
by C. R. A. Wright, D.Sc, and E. H. Rennie, M.A., B.Sc. : "On 
New Zealand Kauri Gum," by E. H. Rennie, M.A., B. Sc: 
"Astronomy of the Australian Aborigines," by Rev. Petet 
M'Pherson, M.A. : " The Spectrum and Appearance of the 
recent Comet," by H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., F.M.S. August 
3, " On the Inorganic Constituents of some Epiphytic Ferns," by 
W. A. Dixon, F.C.S. : " On New Double Stars and Measures of 
some of Herschel's," by H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., F.M.S. 
September 7, " On Comet II, 1881," by John Tebbutt, F.RA.S. 
October 5, " On the History, Varieties, Qualities, and Uses of 
Wool," by P. N. Trebeck. November 2, " Census of the Genera 
of Plants hitherto known as Indigenous to Australia," by Baron 
Ferd. von Mueller, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., <fcc. December 7, " On the 
Transit of Mercury," by H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., F.M.S.: 
" On the Importance of a Comprehensive Scheme of Water Storage 
and Canalization for the future welfare of this Colony," by F. B. 
Gibbs, C.E. : « The Influence of Australian Forest Trees on the 
Vapourization of Water," by T. W. Shepherd. A list which 
speaks of the satisfactory activity of our members. 

Turning now financial matters, I suppose it is right to accept 
with some degree of satisfaction the financial report for last yetf- 
We have paid off a part of our debt, and we have bought some 
books in addition to the periodicals, but I think, upon reflection, 
you will agree with me when I say that we ought not to he i» 
debt at all. With a roll of nearly 500 members, a debt is the 
last thing that we should allow to hamper us. Even now ** 
have to pay £75 a year as interest upon our liability, while ■ 
moderate effort would at once set this money free, and enable I 
us to apply it to many purposes of great value to the members. 
Last year a number of members agreed to double their subscription 
on condition that the addition went to the building fund. # ** 
all joined in this, our liability would grow rapidly and beautiful 



less, especially when the 10s. given to us by Parliament is added 
to every pound subscribed. This premium upon our liberality 
ought to be effective as an inducement to wipe out the building 
debt. I hope the members will feel with me in this matter, and 
then our indebtedness will speedily cease. 

Closely connected with this — in fact owing to it — is our inability 
to publish as soon as read the papers given to the Society. We all 
know that in the present day, when scientific workers are found 
the world over, it is often difficult to decide as to the priority of 
discovery, and the date of publication is accepted as the final 
appeal. Now, with us, papers are read months before they are 
published, hence valuable papers prepared here are sent to the old 
world for publication. Surely we ought to make an effort to 
prevent this, and secure for the Colony the credit of all its 
intellectual activity and to authors the benefit of immediate 



You will observe in the Council's report that our contributions to 
the biological laboratory at Watson's Bay amount to £25 from the 
Society and £23 18s. from individual members, making a total of 
nearly £50. The contribution from the Society has given us the 
right to nominate a worker, who will be received into the labor- 
atory, with right to use all its appliances free of charge. This is a 
fine opportunity, and should not be lost. Any member wishing to 
take advantage of it should send in his application to the Secre- 
taries. 

Some of the criticisms upon the last volume of our "Transactions" 
have contained strictures upon the Society for the small amount of 
Work done by the Sections. Our critics have evidently misunder- 
stood the purpose for which our Sections were formed. In kindred 
Societies elsewhere the Sections work much as do independent 
Societies devoted to one branch of science, and get through as much 
work as they can. Our Sections do not stand in the same relation 
to the Society. They were formed, as the rule says, " to allow those 
members of the Society who devote attention to j 



4 ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

of science fuller opportunities and facilities of meeting and work- 
ing together, with fewer formal restrictions than are necessary at 
the general monthly meeting of the Society"; and when any mem- 
ber has prepared a paper it is understood, though not contained in 
the rules, that he is not to hide his light by reading it to a smai 
Section, but bring it to a general monthly meeting of the Society, 
for the information of the members there assembled. Hence the 
Society and not the Section is credited with it in the annual volume. 
In the British Association a Section is formed of members who 
band themselves together with the object of doing a certain 
work. In ours the member incurs no such liability as compulsory 
work, and it is probable that there would be fewer members of 
the Sections if they had to accept such a responsibility when they 
joined. 



The experiment which we are now making, by offering small 
prizes for essays or papers upon subjects which we have named, 
gives promise of success; inquiries have been made by many 
intending competitors, and some essays have been already sent in 
It is satisfactory to learn that so many students of science 
have received the Society's announcement in the spirit i» 
which it was made, for we did not intend the money prize to he 
the inducement to work, we know that to the scientific work* 
his work brings its own reward, in the consciousness that he * 
adding to the sum of human knowledge, while he is striving 
for the first place amongst the competitors. But in these matters 
it is, as it ever was, the philosopher is often poor, and, witho 
some patron to lend a helping hand in the expense of experiment 
or printing, his work cannot go on. It is just this place of " V* m 
that the Society is trying to take, and when we get the M 
we are prepared to undertake the expense of publishing those that 
may be deem«d worthy. Some day, when the Royal SocW 
attains the power which we are all working for, we may offer v& 
valuable rewards; but I will not believe that "money" * 1 
greatest inducement we can offer to scientific workers. 



Turning now from these matters affecting the operations of the 
Society, I wish to speak for a short time upon two .scientific 
questions which concern us particularly, owing to local circum- 
stances. Astronomers looked forward to the transit of Venus in 
1874 for a solution of one of the most difficult questions — What 
is the distance of the sun? It was thought by those most 
competent to offer an opinion, that there had been so many 
advances since 1769 in the quality of instruments, in the means 
of determining positions on and dimensions of the earth, and such 
an advantage in the use of photography, that the error in thesolar 
parallax would not exceed 0-01 of a second. The result, as we 
all know, did not come up to the expectation. The experience of 
the observers of 17C!), which was made the text-book for those of 
1874, proved misleading, and the phenomena observed were so 
unexpected that it was in many cases impossible to tell the times 
of contacts within many seconds. And the photographs from 
which so much had been ex; ire, for owing to 

the irregular distortion of the pictures taken with the English 
pi ''"hi 'i >ui iph, it v. - found in ' ---~il>le to measure them with 
anything like the required accuracy. For a time the idea of using 
the transit of 1882 as another means of finding the solar 
parallax was almost given up, so great was the disappointment 
at the comparative failure of the methods used in 1874 ; but 
when the first surprise was over and a calm estimate of the 
work of 1874 made, it was found that the English and Aus- 
tralian contact observations gave a better value of the parallax 
than had been obtained before, and there had been a real 
gain as to the parallax, and very much learned about the 
phenomena of the transit which will be of immense value to those 
who observe the next, although it is acknowledged that atmo- 
spheric conditions so largely affect the phenomena that the old 
estimate of possible accuracy must be given up. 

In 1881 the result of the measurements of the American photo- 
graphs was published, and it is said they give a good result. The 
publication of the result from the American photoa., and the 



ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

. which has been going on in Europe and America, has 
thrown much light upon the question at issue ; and within the last 
few months (February, 1882) statements have been made as to the 
accuracy with which photos, can be measured, which may 
materially alter the intentions of those charged with arranging the 
work of observing the coming transit. Professor Pritchard has pub- 
lished in the Observatory for February, 1882, his experience as to 
the " admissibility of photography among other means of accurate 
measurement of celestial phenomena." The results of his experi- 
ments made at the Oxford Observatory, in measuring the diameter 
of the moon, are as follows : — Seven photos, were taken and the 
extreme difference between the values of the moon's diameter 
derived from these was only 0-71", and the photos, are so small 
that one second of arc is only l-7000th of an inch (006), and the 
probable error of determining the position of any point on the 
photos, is only 0-35, and he remarks : "When such are the result 
of the Oxford lunar photos, and the American solar ones, it seems 
to me a matter of regret that the International Committee, 
assembled in Paris recently, determined not to adopt the photo- 
graphic method in European expeditions. And in a paper hy 
D. P. Todd, assistant in the office of the American Nautical 
Almanac, published in June, 1881, he di cu es the value of the 
American photographs as a means of determining the solar parallax, 
and arrives at the conclusion that the probable error of a single 
photograph is only 0-88", and the probable error of the parallax 
derived from the whole number (213) is 0-034", and the resulting 
parallax is 8-883". 

The same photographic instruments which were used by the 
American observers of the transit of Venus were used again at* 
transit of Mercury in 1878, and 119 photos, were taken j ^ 
Professor Harkness, in an investigation of these as a test of th» 
possible accuracy to be obtained from photographs, found tb* 
the probable error of the position of the planet obtained in this *»J 
was only 0-553", or considerably less than that found for & 
photos, of the transit of Venus. As the photos, may be taken •» 
through the transit, and contact observations can only be takes 



once, ami that omv perhaps interrupted 1 .y a passing cloud, l'ro- 
fessor Harkness urges tin- use of this i iM-t l.< k1. and thinks it would 
prove as good as tin- contact observations, where the acknowledged 
uncertainty amounts to 0-15". He says: — "The photographic 
method cannot be defeated by passing clouds, is not liable to any 
uncertainty of interpretation, seems to be free from systematic 
error, and is so accurate that the results of a single photo, has a 
probable error of only 0-553. If the sun is visible for so much as 

will give as accurate a result as the observations of both internal 
contacts. In view of these facts, can it be doubted that the photo- 
graphic method offers as much accuracy as the contact method and 
many more chances of success 1 " 

The suggestions made by Professors Harkness and Pritchard 
have been strengthened by a paper read before the Eoyal 
Astronomical Society, by Mr. Maunder, who suggests as a method 
of avoiding the uncertainty in the measures of the photos, that 
they should be so taken as to show all the details of the sun's sur- 
face, and then Venus could be referred to a spot or other markings ; 
in fact, that the distance measured on the photos, should be as 
small as possible. The idea was well received in the Society, 
though it does not seem to entirely avoid the difficulty, for the 
position of the spot must be determined, and this is almost 
impossible with the English instrument, as stated above. The 
American photoheliograph is nearly free h- \\ distortion of the 
field ; and if at this eleventh hour it should be decided to make 
use of it, it will be too late for Australia to send to Europe 
for the instruments, and we should have to be content with 
the one I have, which is on the American plan, but has a longer 
focus, and would therefore give a larger and better picture. 

With reference to the probable value of the solar parallax, 
I take the following from an important paper published in 
November, 1881, by Professor Harkness, in which he discurses 
the relative accuracy of all the different methods of determining 
^e solar parallax. He classes them all under three heads :— 



I. Trigonometrical, such as the transit of Venus ; II. Gravi- 
tational, such as that by Le Verrier, who obtained the mass 
of the earth from its effect upon Venus and Mars; III. The 
phototachymetrical, that is, by the measurement of the velocity of 
light; and he has collected together a great number of the determi- 
nations which have been made. After a most elaborate discussion 
of these, he gives the following tabular statement, which shows 
the probable limits of the value of the parallax according to 
each method : — I. Trigonometrical : Meridian observations of 
Mars 8-84"-8-96"; diurnal observations of Mars, i.e., observing as 
it rises and sets, 8-60"-8-79"; asteroids, 8-76"-8-88"; transit 
of Venus, 1769, 8-55"-8-91"; transit of Venus, 1874, 8-76"-8-85"; 

II. Gravitational methods : By the mass of the earth, 8-80"-8-94") 
parallactic inequality, 8-78"-8-91" ; lunar inequality, 8-66"-9-07". 

III. Phototachymetrical : Velocity of light and equation, 8-72"- 
8-89" j velocity and aberration, 8-73"-8-90". In addition to these 
we have the value derived from the American transit of Venus 
photos, in 1874, which is 8-883 ; but no value derived from the 
American contact observations has yet been published. We have 
also the results of the meridian observations of Mars in 1877, 
published by Professor Eastman, combining— Washington and 
Melbourne gives 8-971"; Washington and Sydney, 8-885"; Wash- 
ington and Cape of Good Hope, 8-896". I may mention here, that 
the Sydney observations of Mars, used in the above determination, 
were the first important ones made with the new transit instru- 
ment; and it is satisfactory to see that they give a value of the 
parallax nearer to the probable value than the others. As to the 
value of the parallax, you will see that the range is from 8-55L to 
9-07, i.e., from 90 to 95J millions of miles. Mr. Harkness says:- 
" We only know that the parallax seems to lie between 8-75" and 
8-90" and is probably about 8-85". Now, 8-846" (92,400,000 miles) 
is the final value of the parallax derived from the English and 
Australian observations by Captain Tupman and accepted by Sir 
George Airy. 

Reference has already been made to the International Confer- 
ence of Astronomers which was held in Paris, in October, 1881- 



ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 9 

for tlu? purpose of securing concerted action in observing the coming 
transit of Venus. Eleven European and three American States 
were represented at the Conference ; but the United States were 
not represented, although it is known that extensive preparations 
for observing are being niade there. Mr. Stone, who represented 
England, stated that England would have sixteen stations— the 
principal centres being : 1. The Cape, with three stations. 2. 
Australia, with the Observatories of Sydney and Melbourne. 3. 
New Zealand. 4. Jamaica and Barbadoes. 5. Madagascar, and 
possibly the Falkland Islands. He added that England would 
do little or nothing with photography; for although the American 
photos, had turned out better than was expected, the results 
had been published too late to give time to get the instruments 
made and adopt their method. It was announced that France 
would have eight stations, placed as follows :— Florida, Cuba, 
M a r ti niqu e, Mexico, Santiago, Santa Cruz, Rio Negro, and Port 
Desire. Each station will have two equatorials, an 8 and a 6-inch, but 
photography will only be employed at two, which are not 
yet named. That Germany would have four stations, and would 
not make any use of photography. Two stations would be in North 
America— one in the Argentine Republic, and one in the Falk- 
land Islands. That the Danish Government would send a party 
to St. Thomas ; the Netherlands would send a party to Curacoa 
or St. Martin j Portugal would have parties at Lisbon, Coimbra, 
and perhaps one of the Portuguese Colonies ; Austro-Hungary 
will send a party to South America ; Spain will send parties to 
Porto Rica and Cuba ; Brazil will have three parties— one at Rio 
Janeiro, one on the hills 6,000 feet high, and one at Pernambuco— 
in all thirty-nine stations. The Conference agreed to instructions 
for observers, which were based upon the proposals of the British 
Commission, as to the phenomena to be observed at the contacts. 
It is therefore evident that the astronomical world is determined 
to make good use of the transit of 1882, and will spare neither 
money nor time to ensure a better result than that obtained in 
1874. One of the strongest proofs of this is the concerted action 
that has already been taken. But I will not detain you now by 



quoting the instructions whieh have been issued. I Lope to have 
another oppori a before the members. 

You will have noticed that England counts the Observatories 
of Melbourne and Sydney in her list of stations ; and I should 
like to detain you a few moments by saying what response Sydney 
is likely to make. Provision was liberally made by Parliament 
last year to enable the Colony to respond to this new call of 
science, and the money has been placed at my disposal for this 
purpose. With this I shall be able to provide four high-class 
6-inch equatorials, similar to those which are to be used by 
the European observers, also two of 4| inches. We have 
remaining from the last transit of Venus one equatorial of Hf 
inches, one of 7\, one of 5 inches, one of 4-f inches, and one of 4{ 
inches. With these I hope to be able to take up four stations, in 
addition to the Observatory, and place two observers and two 
telescopes at each point. I cannot yet decide as to the use of 
photography, for it is of little or no use here without correspond- 
ing observations on the other side of the world j but I have ready, 
if they are called for, one English photoheliograph and one of the 
American pattern. In Australia, along the east coast, we shall 
occupy the position which Sir George Airy thinks the best, viz., 
one where the sun is about 15 degrees above the horizon at the 
time that Venus makes egress. This gives the largest value of the 
parallax factor consistent with such an altitude of the sun as will 
probably admit of accurate observation. If it were not for atmo- 
spheric interference, or difficulty in seeing distinctly, the best posi- 
tion would be that from which the sun would be seen to be rising 
at the time Venus makes egress ; and that point is in the centre 
of Australia. The gain in parallax factor in such a position, 
however, does not compensate for the' uncertainty caused by the 
atmospheric defects close to the horizon. In order to make the 
best of our chances, I have selected elevated points on the east 
coast of New South Wales, where the observers, being from 5°° 
to 2,700 feet above the sea, may fairly expect to have a clearer 
view of the sun an hour after sunrise, or when the egress take 8 
place, than they would have if observing near the sea-level. 



ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 11 

In observing the transit of Mercury in November last, the 
observers were stationed at i, and Sydney, 

places which I thought far enough apart to secure different 
weather; but to my surprise the weather was practically the 
same at all places, at the same hour. This led to unpleasant 
reflections, — it might be cloudy all along the coast on the 6th of 
December; and I was thereto < nt Commission 

went to Lord Howe Island, to take advantage of Mr. Conder's 
offer to make inquiry as to the suitability of that island as a 
station for observing the transit of Venus ; and I am glad to say 
he thinks it very suitable. An elevated spot is easy of access, and 
the weather at the hour and season is almost sure to be fine. I 
will not detain you with further details; I think I have said enough 
to show that an effort is being made to make the best possible use of 
the opportunity and of the means at our command ; and from 
the active part the Royal Society took in assisting me with certain 
portions of the work of preparation for the last transit of Venus, 
I am sure that this information will be at least interesting to the 
members here present. 

In this bright land of ours we sometimes get too much of the 
sunshine ; and our recent experience, indeed the present state of 
some parts of the Colony is such that I am sure I need make no 
apology for introducing some considerations which may help us to 
form a correct opinion as to the possibility of producing rain arti- 
ficially. From time to time the rain-doctor appears, not with the 
old " tom-toms" it is true, but with certain modem counterparts of 
them. He works with nitroglycerine, with cannon, with electrical 
machines, with kites, &c. Now, I hope to be able to show you 
that in the opinion of the highest authorities there may still be a 
place left for the rain-doctor, if he works reasonably, but not other- 
wise ; he must not pretend to pull down the clouds with a wire or 
to frighten them with a few crackers ; there must be a correct 
understanding of cause and effect, if he is to retain his place in the 
modern social scale. One or two points in the history of this subject 
are instructive, showing as they do how circumstances alter cases. 



12 ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

M. Arago tells tis that finding the practice of firing guns common 
in some of the Departments of France, he had tried to trace the 
origin of the custom, which probably began in 1769. It appears 
that a retired naval officer, who at sea had seen waterspouts 
destroyed by cannon shots, made his home in a district that suffered 
from violent rain and hail storms, and he determined to try the 
power of shot and shell upon these new foes J and setting up his 
battery, he fought his battles o'er again with such success that the 
district was protected from the violent storms — they could not face 
the cannon; and the practice became popular in France, and up to 
the year 1806, and even later, many Communes kept a battery of 
small guns for this purpose, and the Commune of Fleury even went 
so far as to get a cannon that used a pound of powder for each 
discharge. M. Arago could not trace what the effect had been, but 
he at least was not convinced that it had had any good effect, and 
after a time the practice became obsolete, in spite of the apparent 
success which had given rise to its general adoption. Volte's 
biographer says that « it is well known that Volta thought a 
possible advantage might be found in having large fires during 
thunder-storms." He does not give his reason, but it was probably 
that the smoke of a large fire would serve as a conductor for the 
electricity, and so prevent dangerous discharges. And Arago 
mentions the fact that near Cesena, Romagna, there is a parish 
which had suffered severely from hail-storms, throughout the extent 
of which, by the Cure's advice, the peasants placed, first mounds of 
stone every 50 feet, and on these heaps of straw and brushwood, 
which they set on fire all over the parish as soon as a storm was 
seen approaching, and for three years they had no hail-storms, 
while their neighbours, who had no fires, had their crops destroy^ 
by hail as usual. 

To test the effect of the discharge of artillery on the weather, 
Arago examined the weather record in the Paris Observatory f° r 
many years, especially on and before and after the days on which 
the regular gun practice took place in the fort situated 3,280 yards 
from the Observatory. The firing took place at this fort on certain 



days in the week, and from 7 to 10 a.m., andabmu 150 Bhotal rat 
fired. Now, if these discharges really had the - 
buted to them it mibt be visible in the weather records, and he 
found that out of 662 <lav> preceding I 
out of 6G2 days of practice 1.~>S were cloudy ; ami 
ollowing practice 140 were cloudy, which lm ihii.k 
that tlie discharge of heavy artillery does not seem to have the 
effect attributed to it. i.e., of dissipating the clouds. 

Arago, at one time, struck by the amount of destruction caused 
by hail-storms, proposed to draw off the electricity by means of 
wires carried up to great elevations by captive balloons ; but it 
was seen as soon as he came to the practical consideration of the 
scheme that each balloon would not protect more than perhaps a 
thousand square yards — a mere speck of France, and no Govern- 
ment could endure the expense of keeping up such a number of 
balloons as would protect the whole country, even if they were of 
any use ; for it is evident that in a storm, when they would be most 
wanted, the wind would blow them down, and in later years he 
was led to doubt the value of such a means of protection. Arago 
tells us that in tracing the history of the use of cannons he found 
that bells, especially church bells, had preceded them ; and it was 

one time firmly believed that the vigorous ringing of church 



bell.^ 



■ dissipate - 



" Savage nations in all parts of the earth send forth deafening 
clamours to terminate eclipses and destroy dangerous storms," and 
the habit seems to be still ingrained in human nature. It is evi- 
dent, therefore, that up to 1810, or later, the popular idea was that 
storms might be destroyed or prevented by fire or guns, and I have 
been unable to find any reason for the complete change to the 
opposite opinion which has taken j lace since then, unless it be that 
the wants have changed. Australia, like Africa, wants the rain- 
doctor to make rain, not drive it away. It is not only in Austra- 
lia, however, that the belief in the artificial production of rain 
exists. In America, during the Civil War, it was a matter of 
common observation that rain followed the great battles, and the 



14 ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

belief in this became so general that farmers began the practice of 
making large heaps of brushwood on each farm, and when they 
wanted rain lighting them all together. I cannot find any refer- 
ence to the results of this system in the Smithsonian publications, 
in which almost every subject of this kind is dwelt upon ; but the 
practice seems to have been given up. 

In 1870, Mr. Edward Powers, C.E., in a small volume entitled 
" War and the Weather, or the artificial production of Rain," en- 
deavours to prove that rain can be produced by human agency, 
particularly by heavy discharges of artillery, and cites a number of 
instances in which great battles have been followed by a speedy 
downfall of rain. He mentions six cases of this kind in the Mexi- 
can war, 1846 and 1847; nine cases of battles or skirmishes 
followed by rain in the American Civil War of 1861, forty such 
cases in 1862, thirty in 1863, twenty-eight for 1864, and six for 
1865 ; eighteen similar cases from the great battles fought in 
Europe during the past century, making a total of 137; and he 
says if these facts are insufficient to convince, it would be vain to 
expect to do so with a greater number. The meteorological editor 
of Mliman's Journal, in reviewing this book, justly says " that the 
writer has omitted to consider many necessaiy points in the proof, 
for in those parts of the earth in which the battles cited were 
fought, rain falls upon an average once in three days, so that the 
average interval between rains would be about two days. Nov, 
battles are seldom commenced during rain ; generally some hours 
elapse to dry the ground before the battle begins. Rain ought, 
therefore, to fall within about one day after a battle. Mr. Powers 
takes no precise account of the length of the interval between the 
end of the battles and the commencement of rain ; nor does he 
attempt to show that the battle shortens this period ; and, more- 
over, he says nothing of the cases opposed to his theory. In order 
to complete the proof, a much more careful analysis of the facts is 
required. We are inclined to the opinion that great battles do 
exert some influence in the production of rain, but we cannot 
accept Mr. Powers' discussion of the facts as proof." This opinio* 



sof Mr. Towers' work i: 



facts would be within reach. 

The editor of Silliman's Journal evidently believes that there 
are so many facts in favour of the theory that it deserves careful 

had great weight, was firmly convinced, not only that it was 
possible to produce rain, but that it might be done economically 
whenever it was wanted. He doubtless had what appeared to him 
to he sufficient reason for this opinion ; but Professor Henry, 
Secretary to the Smithsonian Institute, and perhaps at the time 
the most competent man in the world to express an opinion upon 
this subject, said, in reference to Espy's idea : — "I have great 
aspect for Mr. Espy's scientific character, notwithstanding his 
aberration, in a practical point of view, as to the economical produc- 
tion of rain. The fact has been abundantly proved by observa " 



_■■ lire sometimes produces 



>t;iUc 



equilibrium of the atmosphere, and gives rise to the beginning of 
possibility of turning this principle to an economical use." 

In 1874 this subject was taken up by Mr. E. D. Belcher, who 
read a paper before the British Association on "The disturbances 
of the weather by artificial influences, especially battles, great 
explosions, and conflagrations." In it he gives many instances, 
from the siege of Valenciennes in 1793 to the Ashantee and Carhst 
wars of 1874, to prove that storms follow immediately upon 
battles. It is said Solferino was lost through a heavy thunder- 
storm which came on and prevented the officers from seeing the 
movements of the troops, and a similar storm occurred at Sadowa. 
Further, the sham fights at Aldershot on May 19, June 19 and 20, 
July 8, 20, 21, 27, and 29, 1874, were in every case followed by a 
thunder-storm. 



Referring to Mr. Belcher's paper, which the British Association 
did not think worth publication, Professor Everett, President of 
the Meteorological Society, said — " The subject (cannons and rain) 
was not a new one. In several parts of America the farmers, in 
order to produce rain, gather a large quantity of wood and burn 
it on their respective farms on the same day. He believed that 
great battles and great fires tended to produce rain, but rain did 
not necessarily follow battles or fires." Not wishing to detain you 
over the multitude of observed facts, I have endeavoured to give 
a condensed account of them, and of the opinions of some of the 
leading scientific authorities upon the possibility of producing rain 
artificially. It must, however, be borne in mind that the facts 
observed may easily mislead, and it would appear that the 
criticism of the editor of Silliman's Journal is justified ; for there 
is a want of scientific accuracy in Mr. Powers' investigation, and 
the matter is so difficult of proof that the mere collection of 
favourable instances, omitting the important element of the 
interval or time between the battles and rain, as well as all 
battles and explosions not followed by rain, cannot be considered 
satisfactory evidence. As it is impossible for me to fill in these 
details here, I have endeavoured to collect the records bearing 
upon this matter in Australia. Battles are supposed to be prime 
movers in such effects ; fortunately, in one respect we have none 
to refer to ; but it is unfortunate for our present discussion, 
because the climate of Australia is peculiar, and instances of & e 
effects on the spot would have been very valuable. We can M 
refer to the mimic battle in April, 1881. When this is compa^ 
n, we got through a good deal of po*der 
J sham-fight the weather had been very 
wet, and on the morning of the day of the fight it began to clear 
and the day became bright and fine as the firing went on; and j 
although heavy rain had just ceased, which was proof of abundant • 
moisture in the air, there was no return of the rain, es<*p 
indeed a little shower next morning, when 0-01 inch fell ** 
the rain finally cleared off; our one battle therefore produced* 



t of the atmosphere ' >y e 
tires were just of the i 



rain at Sydney. December 14-, 1865, Walsh, grocer, 
shops; change of wind to south next day. and light 
at 6.30 p.m., or fourteen hours after, evidently an ordinary ch 
December 21, 1865, Hills furniture shop; no rain for 
January 16, 1866, Wearne's flour-mill , no rain foi two 
afterwards, and then with change of wind to south ; baroi 
falling days before. Much b 1866, explosion of nitro-gry< 



18 ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

in Bridge-street ; no rain for two days, and then with a regular 
change. April 18, 1867, Sands' fire ; no rain within forty-eight hours. 
March 1, 1868, Holdsworth's ; no rain within forty-eight hours. 
January 5, 1869, St. Mary's Temporary Cathedral ; no rain within 
forty-eight hours. February 9, 1870, Blaekwall wool stores, great 
fire ; no rain within forty-eight hours. September 20, 1870, six 
houses in Hunter-street ; no rain within forty-eight hours. De- 
cember 11, 1870, Pemell's mill ; no rain within forty-eight hours. 
January 6, 1872, Prince of Wales Opera House and four houses 
in King-street ; had been a showery afternoon ; at 9 p.m. cleared 
up, and was fine weather ; shower fell at 3.30 a.m. of the 7tb, 
but this and the other showers together only measured 0-04 inch ; 
no other rain fell for two days. May 17, 1872, Barker's tweed 
factoiy ; shower at noon, clearing at 9 p.m. ; showers after 4.30 
a.m. of 18th j total, 0-08 inch ; rain hanging about on 16th 
and 17th. December 14th, 1874, Booth's saw-mill; no rain for 
many days. August 3, 1875, 11-40 p.m., Lane and Chester, large 
fire; rain 7 '45 p.m. to 9 p.m., then no rain till 645 a.m. of 4th; 
clearing up, no rain for many days after. September 21, 1n-'« 
12-30 p.m. store and three dwellings, Kent-street North ; hot wind 
all day, changed to S. at night, and next morning light rain ; 
only 0-21 in. October 1, 1875, extensive bush fire, Rose Bay 
hill ; no rain for many days. November 2, 1875, Fairfield, 
Liverpool, large bush fire ; railway station caught fire, and 1,0 
tons of wood were burnt, together with shed near railway station, 
no rain for many days. December 26, 1875,. 5-58 p.m., Mort an 
Nicojle, meat-preserving works ; there was a heavy shower on * * 
25th and rain was hanging about ; on 26th it was cloudy, "»■ 
clouds cleared in the evening, thunder-storm next day. September 
16, 1876, 2-35 a.m., M'Lauchlan, carpenter's shop; large fire; 
strong gale sprang up and extended fire ; no rain for days. April 
23, 1877, 4-27 a.m., Hanks' grocery store and other prt 
rain for days. September 8, 1 87 7 , 1 -30p.m., boatbuilder V 
main ; began to rain two days after, with change of wind to 8> 
February 26, 1878, 3-38 a,m., Olsson, general dealer, ten small 
shops and some timber; light rain thirty hours after fira ## 



M a.m., liurwood Congregational Church : DO ram WB 
I. July 1G, 1879, 10.33 p.m., store, 687, Georgwfcreet, 

other premises j no rain for days. Octal- 1 
) p.m., two 3-story produce stores, very large lire, no rain 
days. January 11, 1880, 7.13 p.m., music store ami other 
nises, 610, George-street ; no rain for days. M 
f a.m., Fresh Food and Ice Company, large fire ; no rain for 
s. May 26, 1880, 10.35 p.m., hay shed, cottage, stable, &C, 

night; rain only -11 in. May 28, 1880, 6.7 a,m., Shale, 
I Oil Company, 150 barrels of oil burnt: raining on _7th, 
ired up on 28th. July 22, 1880, 11.40 p.m., Victoria Theatre, 
|B fire; no rain for ten days. July 25, 1880, 12.28 a.m., 
■hou.v' and other premises; no rain for days. 



It was raining, and MSBM d 
to produce no increase in the fall—indeed, in many cases it looks 
as if the fire had stopped the rain ; and if these instances had been 
taken out to prove that large fires drove away the rain, the 
evidence would seem almost conclusive. It may perhaps !>e said 
that none of these fires were large enough to make it rain ; but if 
fires ever have such an effect, some of our fires, occurring as they 
did under most favourable conditions, should have done it : for 
^stance, when the Prince of "Wales Theatre and houses in King- 
mt The afternoon of the day on which the fire 
t 00 ^ place had been showery, very light rain fell showing the air 
w a* at the point of saturation, and when the fire came on, and for 



JU ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

some hours after, the rain ceased, and at 3.30 am., another very 
light shower fell, and that was all for days. Now the shower at 
3.30 a.m. and all those in the afternoon, only made up a total 
0-04 inches; the rain was therefore little more than mist; some- 
times one night's dew will measure more than that.. Again, when 
J. and E. Howe's fire (wholesale chemists) took place, it had been 
raining for two days before, and the next morning after the fire 
the weather cleared up. 

You would notice that amongst the list of fires I have put two 
important explosions— the first that of 2£ tons of gun- 
powder which was on a dray at Penrith, and was accidentally 
exploded, without any rain following ; the other the great explosion 
of nitro-glycerine on March 4, 1866, when two stone stores were 
destroyed, and no rain fell ; and one fire at Liverpool, where in 
the midst of a great bush fire 1,000 tons of wood and a shed were 
burnt without any rain following. This gives us a measurable 
quantity of heat, and must have been very far in excess of any 
ordinary city fire. Now, with regard to bush fires, it is a common 
belief that they produce rain, and I have had some cases reported to 
me where rain has followed the fire, apparently caused by it, but in 
my own long experience of bush fires I cannot recollect one instance 
in which it was obvious that rain foUowed the fire ; and I think I 
need only mention the great fires which have raged in the neigh- 
bouring Colony of Victoria as well as here, during the last three 
months, as proof that such fires frequently take place without a 
drop of rain following. And if these fires had not sufficient 
intensity, we can refer to the memorable Black Thursday, Feb- 
ruary 6, 1851, in Victoria, when, as if to make a culmination of 
all the fires that had been burning in Australia for weeks, there 
came a fearful hot wind, which fanned the flames in Victoria until 
in their mad career they leaped from tree to tree, and became so 
hot and furious that it seemed as if all nature was on fire. Yet, 
violent as was this disturbance, no rain followed it for many day* 
A correspondent in the country, who believes that rain maj * 
produced artificially, sends me the following instances of the effects 



of l.ush tires :— On January 1, 1881, a heav; 
from the Darling to Cobar, and burnt up th 
unstocked country ; it continued burning 



and each time the fires were put out by rain. These instances arc 
given as evidence in favour of the idea that the fire OMMod tint 
rain ; but none of the meteorological circumstances are stated, and 
it is impossible therefore to say that there would have been no 
rain if there had been no fire j but, as the date of one instance is 
given, I am able, by reference to the weather maps, which are pub- 
lished daily, to say with some degree of certainty that if there had 
been no fire there would still have been rain. The date of the 
rain is January 10, 1881 ; on January 7, 8, and 9, southerly and 
S.E. winds had been blowing on the coast, causing a fall of 
temperature, which did not reach the interior generally until the 
10th, and the temperatures of the 10th show a great fall from 20 a 
to 25 3 in the interior, and especially in the district Bourke to 
Dubbo ; the result was that rain fell at nineteen other stations in 
addition to the one referred to near Cobar. At Euston 2-59 inches 
fell, at Wentworth 1-85 in., Moree 0-32 in., and others which need 
not be mentioned. ]S~ow, it would not be safe to assume, without 
further evidence, that the fire about Cobar caused a general south- 
erly -wind and a fall of 20° in the temperature, and rain at such 
distances from the fire as Wentworth and Euston ; but it is highly 
probable that the fire had nothing to do with the rain. 



It would \ 

sort and see if the rain was due to the fire or to ordinary meteoro- 
logical changes. From what has been said already, it is evident 
that some of the most competent authorities in England and Ame- 
rica think that under certain circumstances rain may be produced 
artificially. Unfortunately for us, they all carefully avoided saying 
*hat the circumstances were. But I think we may form some 



*2 ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

idea of what they are from a consideration of the natural conditions 
under which rain is deposited. I am not going to ask you to fol- 
low me through the elaborate investigation of this question by Sir 
W. Thompson, M. Peslin, Dr. Hann, and others. It will be suffi- 
cient to say that they have proved that the principal cause in the 
formation of rain is the ascent of saturated or nearly saturated air, 
and that the rain caused by the mixing of two currents of air 
bears a very small proportion to the whole. Their investigations 
have further taught us that air as it rises, whether from the 
effect of heat or up-draught, loses 1° of temperature for every 180 
feet which it ascends ; but if, as it ascends, the dew-point is 
reached, a cloud is formed, and the latent heat given out by the 
condensed vapour warms the air so much that it has to rise 286 
feet to lose 1° of temperature. Its upward velocity is therefore 
accelerated, and its moisture rapidly precipitated; and this must go 
on until it loses the excess of moisture and reaches the temperature 
of the surrounding air. These are facts which have an important 
bearing upon our inquiry, and these laws may be seen in operation 
any calm fine day in the formation of cumulus clouds. Where the 
sun acts upon moist earth or water, it causes, first heat, then evar 
poration and an upward motion of the moist air, which, when it 
reaches the altitude and the temperature of the dew-point, con- 
denses into a cumulus cloud ; the central parts, heated by the heat 
given out by condensation, rush upwards, rolling masses of cloud 
out of the top as the condensation increases— the extent of the 
cloud forming a measure of the activity of the forces which gave 



A curious and instructive instance of this phenomenon in nature 
i found in the equatorial region of calms. Here the sun almost 
avariably rises in a cloudless sky, which remains clear until about 
f masses of cloud begin to collect and, rapidly 
dense black covering from which rain pours 
towards evening the rain gradually ceases, the 
erse, and the night is serene and fine, and the weather 
until the heat accumulates on the following day *° 



ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 



23 



reproduce the same effects. These phenomena are strictly in accord- 
ance with the known laws of atmospheric condensation. At the 
Equator the calm belt is supplied with air from the trades, which 
are almost saturated with moisture, and this air, resting on the 
ocean under a vertical sun, the saturation necessarily becomes com- 
plete. Now the series of effects we have just considered comes about 
in this way : the sun, as it gains power in the forenoon, heats the 
stratum of air which rests on the water, and gives rise to evap- 
oration from the sea ; the moist heated air begins to rise rapidly ; 
but so soon as its cooling, from elevation and expansion, reduces 
its temperature to the dew-point, then moisture is deposited as 
cloud, and the ascending rate, accelerated by this deposition, leads 
to increasing clouds above, and to rapid cooling clown of the air 
below; for the heavy clouds stop the sun's rays and throw all below 
them into shade and a much lower temperature ; hence the heavy 
rain which speedily brings down the moisture that had been carried 
up ; the cloud particles left after the heavy rain fall slowly down, 
and melt as they fall ; the sun having meantime by his westerly 
course lost the morning's power, the evaporation is not renewed, 
and the sun sets in a clear sky. 

This process carried on in the calm belts is just that which may 
be seen on a calm day, and I may mention here, as an illustration, 
a recent observation in Sydney. April 20, 1882, the morning was 
fine and bright and the air very moist ; at 9 a.m. the difference 
between the wet and dry bulbs was only 1-7°. It was perfectly 
calm all the morning, and there were only a few cirrus and small 
cumulus clouds about at 9 a. in. As the morning wore on the sun 
got very powerful and the little cumuli grew into great ones, roll- 
ing out great masses from the top, and so forming a shade for the 
clouds and earth below. The base of these clouds seemed to spread 
out into dense stratus, and about noon I could see that those 
in the W.S.W. were depositing rain, and now and then a down- 
stroke of lightning, followed by low rumbling thunder. The 
clouds grew rapidly, and, forming over the Observatory, ob- 
scured the sun and caused a sudden fall in the temperature, shown 





2\ As I watched the cumulus 


horaininthcW.S.Vv., tho 


clouds slowly descended and bees 


ost in the haze. If we ma; 


f assume that the air at the Obse 


;ory was in a similar fundi 


tion to that all round, we find tha 


aoon, and before the snn wa 


s covered, the difference between 



6|* in tho temperature produced a few drops of rain ; but in order 
to cool tins air to the dew-point by elevation, its temperature would 
have required reduction by 104°, or to be raised up 1,870 feet 
It is probable, therefore, that the clouds forming over Sydney on 
♦hat day were about 1,800 feet high. 

These instances are illustrations from nature of the conditions 
under which the leading scientific meteorologists of the day tell us 
that rain is formed. If, however, it so happened, as in temperate 
latitudes it might, that there was a cold wind blowing over the 
warm saturated one when this up-current was started, then the 
bested air would rush up into it, and when once the stream was 
started there would be a great downfall of rein— in fact we should 
have a case in which the "unstable equilibrium" of the atmo- 
sphere having been upset, the downfall of rain would be dispropor- 
tionate to the cause which set it in motion ; but this condition, 

, for the cold air being the heavier seeks W 

considerable velocity. It would therefore rarely happen 
up-current, even when once started, would continue for 
5th of time unless the cause of it were maintained — in f act > 
» which uplifts the atmosphere must have a definite relation 
Linountof rain deposited. Of course this relation would 
Lth the humidity of the air, with the relative temperatures 
ayers of the atmosphere, and with many other condition- 
would be quite impossible to say definitely how much 
tg force would be necessary at any particular place until aU 
onditions were well known, and then it would be an easy 



position, and can only take 



Mun illustrations of the fall of rain from MG 

I; hut the following will suffice for our present 
puri>ose. The island of Port Rico in the W«t Indies extends M 
miles east and west, and only 30 miles north and south ; a chain 
of mountains, from 1,500 to 3,700 feet high, extends along the 
island from east to west. Throughout the year the N.E. trade 
wind blows on to the island every day from 9 a.m. to sunset, and 
at night there is a strong land breeze toward the ocean on all 
ride* During the rainy season, that is from the end of May 
Ml end of October, the rain falls every day on the northern 
portions of the island from 2 p.m. to sunset. This is due to the 
mountains, which turn up i ted as they are 

with vapour in the afternoon, into the colder regions, and thus 
cause precipitation of rain. But this is all on the northern slope ; for 
on the south side not a drop falls from this wind, and sometimes 
this part of the island suffers from drought for more than a year 
■without interruption. So well known and so constant is this con- 
dition that it is proposed to tunnel through the mountains, and 
thus bring some of the superabundant waters of the north to the 
south side for the purpose of irrigation. It is instructive to notice 
here what a very moderate rise will cause constant rain from a 
^nd that is nearh saturated with moisture; but I am sorry I 
got observations of the actual state of the air, and the 



effect of the 



• 



Again, the celebrated rainy spot in India where the annual 
rainfall is counted by hundreds of inches is a place of exactly 
similar character. It stands 4,200 feet high, on a range of hills on 
the north of the Bay of Bengal, and at a distance of 200 miles 



20 ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

from the sea. The range rises abruptly to between 4,000 and 
5,000 feet high, and has between it and the sea a belt of low and 
swampy land. The S. W. monsoon, coming over the Indian Ocean, 
arrives at this part of the coast laden with moisture, which is not 
abstracted, but rather added to, by the warm swampy belt at the 
foot of the hills. Directly the wind begins to mount the hills the 
precipitation commences in earnest, and the rain comes down as it 
does nowhere else. At Cherra Pungee, a town on these hills, 4,200 
feet high, the annual rainfall is 600 inches, and of this enormous 
quantity about 500 inches fall from April to September. On one 
occasion the rain fell at the rate of 30 inches per day for five 
days, and in 1861 the total rainfall for the year reached the 
enormous quantity of 805 inches. No better example of the effect 
of hills on rainfall than this could be chosen. On the coast of Ne* 
South Wales we have the same law in operation, and as a result 58 
inches of rain falls at Cordeaux River, 1,200 feet high (about),** 
39 inches at Wollongong, the foot of the same hill ; and Kurrajong, 
at an elevation of 1,800 feet, gets 53 inches of rain for every 33 
inches which fall at Windsor. At Kurrajong and Windsor the same 
proportion is maintained in heavy storm rains with easterly wind ; 
but under such circumstances the rain at Cordeaux is double, and 
sometimes 230 per cent, of the rain at Wollongong. 

If we can get a measure of the force required to produce these 



effects, 



estimating 



required to make rain. At Sydney the average relative hunnditv 
is 73, and at Windsor it is rather less ; and we have just learnt 
that such atmosphere lifted from Windsor toCurrajong, 1,800 feet, 
deposits 60 per cent, more rain. If we could make it rise up over 
Sydney 1,800 feet we might fairly expect to get 60 per cent, more 
rain. Now, awall built 1,800 feet high, and of considerable length, so 
that the wind would not divide and go round it, but go over, 
would have the desired effect— i.e., to lift the air and cause rain; 
but anything that would do this would serve the purpose, and & 
may be done by fire, but of course the fire must have the effect of 
lifting the atmosphere up. It will not do for the products of $# 



the wind is 11 miles per hour, and all the :ur (Mm vnt ■ » » 
lifted, and the weight of it on the surface is, say. 1-U ] .minds 
on the square inch, and l.'U pounds at l.SUll feet high. At least 
for our present purpose these figures arc sutheieiitly exact. Hie 
average weight to be lifted, therefore, is 14 pounds on the square 
inch. The fire must have the same length as the proposed wall, 
for the same reason, and a breadth equal to the forward motion 
of the air in a given time. We have, therefore, to lift a weight of 
14 pounds on the square inch over a surf ace of 1,000 feet by 10 
miles (52,800 feet), and raise it up 1,800 feet every minute. To 
do this we will assume that coal is employed, and that, as it is 
burnt in the air, the whole of its heat will be effective. The 



mechanical equivalent of good coal 
pounds for each pound of coal used. 



millions of i 
I therefore — 



14x12x12x1,000x1,800x5,2800 . camnmt/ln , 

■ —=6,110 tons per minute=8,800,000 tons 

14,000,000 x 112 x 20 ™ » da >'- 

or nearly 9,000,000 of tons of coal per day, to increase the rainfall 
60 per cent., at a cost, at 10s. per ton, of £4,500,000. 

Of course this is only a theoretical experiment, and ignores all 
the heat lost by radiation and imperfect combustion ; but it serves 
to give some idea of what is necessary to disturb the course of 
nature, and I think shows how utterly futile any such attempt 
"would be, even near the sea, where the air is moist. Inland it is 
a common thing in summer to find W between the dry and wet 
bulb thermometers; and when that is the case, the air would have 
to be lifted 6,000 feet to form a cloud, and in such weather no 
cloud could form until either moisture were taken up from the 
earth or the temperature of the air lowered about 34°. 



I may perhaps just mention, as an illustration of the tremen- 
dous forces in operation about us, but all unheeded, the mechani- 
cal power of the sunshine. It appears from the experiments of 
Sir John Ilerschel, confirmed by Pouillet, that ordinary sunshine 
exerts a force on every 14 feet of surface of 1 -horse power, and on 
an acre of 3,200 horses ; or, to put it in another way, if we could 
utilize the sun's heat falling on a single acre of ground, we should 
have a steam-engine of 3,200 horse-power, working steadily m 
sunshine, or a power equal to lifting 47 tons of water 1,000 feet high 
every minute. If we try to conceive of this power accumulating 
on a square mile or 100 square miles, or the whole country, we 
shall get some notion of the forces at work in the production of 
rain, and what it means if we try to interfere with them. But at 
the same time one cannot contemplate such an enormous force 
without seeing that it is a possible solution of the real difficulty 
of our sunny interior. There abundance of water lies below the 
surface, and sunshine often too plentiful above it. We have on I 
to supply the sun-engine, and forthwith sunshine draws up water 



It is often said that if we could tap the clouds and let ott w 
electricity we should at once get plenty of rain ; but this is a purt 
assumption. Science has not yet been able to ascertain what part, 
if any, electricity plays in the suspension of clouds. Franklm » 
memorable experiment is often quoted as a proof that rain vou 
follow if a conductor were sent up to the clouds ; but the fac 
must be overlooked, for the rain fell before there was any app« ir ' 
ance of electricity, and hundreds of similar experiments vre 
made subsequently without bringing down the rain ; and if tnere 
were any truth in the supposition the facts would be pat* n 
enough in large manufacturing districts with tall chimneys, Hg bt * 
ning-conductors, and smoke extending upwards as a continuation 
of the conductors, for there would be such frequent downpours a 5 
would convince the most superficial observer. And Crosse* 
experiments proved that lightning could be withdrawn from a 
cloud by miles of wire without producing rain. But has electricity 



I have not yet referred to the vibrations of sound as a cause of 
rain. The laws under which water is held in the ' 
"well understood, and, to any one who knows these conditions, the 

waves do not alter the temperature or tension of the air except in 
a very slight and temporary way, and without change in one or 
both water cannot be deposited. If it is said that the firing of 
cannon has caused rain, the reply is that the statement rests upon 
the incomplete testimony of a few persons who did not inquire 
into the facts as carefully as they ought to have done ; and, on 
the other hand, there is the testimony of two generations in France, 
who by constant experiment were convinced that the sound of 
guns had the opposite effect ; and severe as M. Arago was upon them 
for their belief in tine weather made by cannon, they had quite as 
much evidence in favour of their view as those have who hold the 
Bodern one. It is estimated that in the battle of Sedan about 
300 tons of gunpowder were used during the three days that the 
fight lasted ; and the enormous amount of heated gases thus set free, 
and the heat of, say 300,000 men, together with the actual 
moisture set free might, if circumstances were favourable, disturb 
the equilibrium and cause rain; but none fell during the three days. 
On the fourth day, that is, the first after the battle, it did rain ; but, 
even if it was a result of the battle, which is doubtful, the price is 
a heavy one to pay. It seems therefore unreasonable to hope for 
the economical production of rain under ordinary circumstances ; 
and our only chance would be to take advantage of a time when 
*he atmosphere is in. the condition called unstable equilibrium, or 
^en a cold current overlies a warm one. If under these con- 
tons we could set the warm current moving upwards, and once 



30 ANNIVERSARY ADDRESS. 

flowing into the cold one, a considerable quantity of rain might 
fall ; but this favourable condition so seldom exists in nature that 
I think we must abandon the idea of making rain artificially. 

I hope I have not been tedious j but when so many proposals 
are put forward, some even going so far as to propose that our 
Government should take to cannonading the sky, it was time 
some one took the matter up ; and I have tried as briefly as 
possible to place the important facts before you. 



chemical composition ot this very 

before the Royal Society of New 8 

published in its volume : ' ll ' 1;l1 "' 

able to do a little more towards its examination. 

Without repeating the details of the description already gh 
I may remind you that the meteorite belongs to the class km 



nickeliferous iron. In one experiment, >*'•'< i 1 ' grammes were 

-tar, and 3-3983 grammes 

of metal were obtained, equivalent to 3-93 per cent, ; but in other 

I*-r cent. ; the metal is very irregularly scattered through the 
-: devoid of it altogether. 
The specific gravity of the laminated crust is 3-382 ; of the 
interior or body of the meteorite 3 503, i.e., there is a difference 
I .overnment Astronomer, who took the 
t the whole mass, weighing 145 lbs., found it to 
e there must be considerable differences in the 
structure and composition of different portions of the mass. 
^The publication of thia paper has been delayed on account of the U 



32 TIIE DEXILIQUIN Oil BARRATTA METEORITE. 

After prolonged digestion in strong hydrochloric acid, only Ml 
per cent, of the meteorite was found to be soluble. I 

On an analysis of the whole, it was found to have the fol- 
lowing 

Chemical composition. 

Silica 40-280 

Copper , 'l 8 '- 

Tm absent 

Iron If966 

,, sesquioxide 3 ao 

Alumina 1*843 

Chromium traces 

Nickel 4-219 



Soda 



Oxygen, l.y u 



100-000 



The alkalies were determined by Prof. Lawrence Smiths p J 
cess. All their ■ iron, cxcq-t that ^;;;- 
as sesquioxide, on account of the difficulty of accur 
the amount in the free state, in the presence of pw>1 
and phosphide of iron; the sulphur was determined by the potass ^ 
chlorate and nitric acid process, the phosphorus was also oxiu 
by means of pot i id the phosp h* 
acid precipitated by ammonium molybdate in the usual waj. , 
i determined after fusion with the m 



of potassium and sodium. . gJm 

Another portion was crushed, and the flattened metallic P ar \ 
separated by means of a fine sieve of nearly 3,000 holes per s<l u 
inch, and analysed separately. r to 

This metallic portion was first fused with pure caustic P ot f 5 '^ 
remove as far as possible any adherent earthy matter, and 
fully washed with distilled water until the washings no io e 
gave an alkaline reaction. 

Analyst 
Silica &c. , insoluble in HC1 6 "617 



Phosphorus -240 

Sulphur traces 

loo-ooo 



b It ai 1 i k 1 ve 
to estimate the, amou 



mx at Paris, in W>. I >uU,n:-l s,-etions of the met. 
of. Dcs Cloizeaux, Director of the Mineral-^ical Mu> 
id s Plantes ; and in a letter dated December 9th, D>7 

usement elles n'ortrent pas de forme nettement delude, ei 
t. DaubnC. |>h \ nes' Paris, ha 



w 



On the Bingera Meteorite, New South Wales. 

... : .. 



n »r h.M htm kmmu i 



36 ON THE BINGERA METEORITE, NEW SOUTH WALES. 

It does not appear to "deliquesce" at all like the Greenland 
and some other masses of meteoric iron; this is probably due to 
the entire absence of chlorine. 

The flat side of the meteorite was carefully chipped away with t 
cold chisel, to obtain mar. rial for analysis and to prepare a smooth 
surface for the development of the Widmanstatt figures. It proved 
to 1* very tough and difficult to cut. On analysis the following 
results were obtained : — 



Ihemiccd Composition. 
ZZZZZZZZZZZZZ. 93 V 762 



Carbon '137 



- 



The matter insoluble in hydrochloric acid consisted mainly 1 
iron oxide with a trace of silica. The second determinations we 
made on a separate set of chippings. 

The amount of tin present is apparently slightly larger tbftj 
that of the copper ; but both exist in such small quantities than 
would have been necessary to have cut up much more ot 
meteorite in order to estimate the amounts, and this was con- 
fid, rod undesirable. 

All the elements which were at all likely to be present we 
carefully sought for by the ordinary means as well as by 
spectroscope, but only the above were detected, although largr 
quantities might have revealed the presence of others. _ 

The carbon given in the analysis represents the portion lew 
prolonged treatment with h 3 le may also e 

into solution, but this I have not vet had time or opportunity 
ascertain. Under the microscope this insoluble carbon present* , 
appearance of opaque black particles bearing a rough resem > ^ 
to crystal form-. 

amount was estimated bv direct weighing. On iHc 
found to still contain a trace of iron, in spite of the continued tre* 
ment with acid. .^ 

The cobalt and nickel were precii itated toother as sulp ^ 
and the cobalt estimated rite P roce + . H ' nts 

phosphorus, by ammonium molybdate, and the oth 
in the usual ways, every determination being made in dupi <- 



it present the structure at all. 
ed that if carbon and combustible -a- -s he pry 
, cannot have been in a state ot us , 
s not carry much weight, sine whether the < 
ere burnt or not during the fusion would dej 
e conditions ; it might just as well be said 
been Eased because it contains carbon. 
tni . ,, M ha< i-at.-n tn-lv into the metal, and mo 
cloned cavities have been formed; in some cases t 
neside of the " beam iron cry 



- soon as an opportunity presents 
i the question of occluded gases. 



MPOSITION OF CERTAIN HOCKS, 

h-grey colour, somewhat weatl 



aated by difference, on su 

be whole of the 

■r in the hydratrd .silicates of alumina. 

'"'_, ^ all.-rawang, of a slate-urev colour, full of white impn'v 
ds, &c, ; fairly hard, and somewhat 
\ uiitams a little carbonaceous matter. 
■ 2*304 at 20°6 C. 



Hygroscopic moist 

Alumina and trace 


id or^aXc matter 







Nollondilly River, from above Gouiburn, of a dark 
' colour, imperfectly fissile, 
gravity, 2-58 at 18° C. 

Analysis. 

Hygroscopic moisture at 100° C '30 1 

Combined „ w ; t h carbon- 



nd only 10-76 J 



Cnars< '-grained, composed of ' 
a, in rather large crystal grou 
minerals. 



Anahjn* 



Iron sesqnioxide 

„ protoxide 

Manganese protoxide.., 



The polished granite pillars at the General Post Office, Sydney, 
ire of this rock. 

Granite, Pomeroy, County Argyle. Bed in colour, Collectt 
>y the late Prof. A. M. Thomson,' D.Sc. 

Specific gravity = 2-60. 

Silica 72-200 

Alumina 11*389 



Lime 

Magnesia .. 



Graphic Granite, County of Bligh, on the road from JaW 
to Two-mile FI, - |Y„f. A. M- ^ \. . . 

The felspar is a mixture of orthoclase and plagioclase a 
-Not yet analysed. 

For micro-photograph see Plate V, fig. 6. ^ 

Syenite, Boro Creek, County Argyle.— Composed of g*^j3 
clase felspar, with some plagioclase felspar, hornblende, *&> 



n . I 



100-57 

nicro-photographic section see plate V, fig. 2. 



i Professor A. M. Thomson, D.Sc 



-ity = 2 '64. 



Iron protoxide 

Manganese protoxide .. 



Magnesia . 



• Vv Civek, f'ountv Ar_'vl.>. — Dark 
f hornblende. OolleJte.1 by the 
f r " T ;., A - M. Th.imson, D.Sc., who states that it underl 
fossihferous limestone. 
Specific gravity = 2-67. 

Analysis. 

Silica 67 714 

Alumina IS'530 

Iron sesquioxide 44SS 

„ protoxide traces 

Manganese protoxide ,, 

Magnesia traces 



f nucro-photographic section see plate V, fig. 4. 



>i-;avnoiv.- > 
quartz grains. 



ttaining small opaque white felspar crystals, vi a o •' 
a length. Contain- id combined"?* 

a dyke cutting through Devonian rocks. This rot* 

at parts. 
ic gravity, 2-727 at 15° C. 

Hygroscopic moistur. at 100 C "355 

61504 



Soda 4-780 

loo-iS 

Two-mile Flat, Cudgegong River.— A f 
rey rock, collected by the late Dr. A. M, Tho 
neology in the University, 
gravity = 2-706 at 20-4° C. 

Hydroscopic moisture at 100° C ^ *1W 

Alumina 9'750 

Iron sesquioxide 4*105 

Manganese protoxide l' 8 ^ 



Pennant Hills, Paramatta.— Of a specimen of tins rock, 



46 ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CERTAIN ROCKS, &C 
Analysis. 



Iron sesquioxide 

„ protoxide ,.. 

3 protoxide.. 



Water, carbonic acid, &c, 



100-000 



TSnufyyte, Gladstone, Port Curtis, Queensland.— From i 

Ji Devonian rocks. It consists of a qrey en 
-iini.Iiu crystals ■■■ *>■ 

•f ml luem tit. and other minerals in Mnaller <>uanriti< 

Specific gravity = 2 -23. 



e rocks, especially with reference to their mi 
lis present note being merely a preliniinai 
neb. it is my wish to carry out. 





MICRO-PHOTOGRAPHS 



• 






Rocks from New Britain and New Ireland. 



The specimens forming the subject of this notice were collected 
hi the year 1875, by the Revd. George Brown, Wesleyan Mis- 
sionary, to whom my thanks are due for the opportunity to 
examine these and other specimens which he has brought from 
9 from time to time. 

Specimens prom New Ireland. 

Porphyry. — In the collection are several well rounded pebbles 
of porphyry. In all of them the felspar crystals are small but 
fairly well defined, embedded in afelspathic base or paste. In most 
cases the base is some shade of green, the colour varying from a 
light to a dark green ; in one case the base is reddish brown or 
chocolate colour, and in this instance some of the felspar crystals 
are somewhat larger — one being about \" across. 

Diarite. — Composed of a white felspar and quartz, with dark 
green hornblende, without mica. 

Calcite. — In the form of veins, some nearly an inch thick, 

Lcb La evidently of igneous 

origin, and poss. i tic structure in part, with 

obscure white felspar crystals. Almost colourless, and readily 

yielding cleavage rhombs. 

Limestone. — In various forms — one somewhat crystalline, with 
reddish brown streaks, might be described as a marble; does not 
a Ppear to have been derived from recent coral rock. 

A pebble of dark grey compact limestone, from the Mata-Kau 
River, but weathered almost to a white colour for about vV from 
surface. 

*This paper has been kept back so that photo-heliographs of sections of 
* h e rocks might be added ; but to my regret, I have not had the oppor- 
tunity to prepare them— it is therefore now printed as submitted to the 



A somewhat crystalline light grey limestone, from mountain 
2,500 feet high. In appearance "it somewhat resembles a coral 
limestone ; none or but very obscure indications of organic struc- 
ture—not even on the external surface, which is much weathered. 

Amongst the specimens are two rounded nodules of calcareous 
mudstone, containing some remains of branching corals, probably 
recent or living forms, but they are so much rolled that their 
structure is very obscure. 

Pale brown calcareous mudstone, looks at first sight much like 
a sandstone — contains much volcanic ash. 

A difficulty in properly describing some of the specimens is 
caused by the fact that they are merely small detached and rolled 
fragments. 

Ancient Volcanic ash. — Having the appearance of a dark 
coloured conglomerate, hard :ui<1 compact, made up of red, brown, 
black and other pebbles embedded in a dark green f elspathic base, 
which is porphyrin.: in parts. tYmu tin- piv^nce of disseminated 
white and grey crystals of felspar. 

Jasper pebbles.— One of a beautiful deep red in part, w* 
patches of white quartz. A cavity on one. side is tilled with a 
porphyry made up of a dark ereen base with sn 
white felspar crystals. The pon.hvrv r. semblos that of the old 
volcanic ash conglomerate, and is prob.-.blv part of it; the jasper 
pebble, however, does not look fus.-d at all," but merely rolled. 

Sandstone.— Pale brownish -rev, marked with thin dark 
parallel layers, evid, ntk plan.-. , f \ ratili.-ai ion. The dark ban^ 
are rendered so by the presence of small hornblende or aug« 
crystals, readily discernible under the microscope, being more 
less transparent and of a green colour, but not with the unassi^ 
eye. 

Epidote rock— A pebble apparently made up of a felspar * 
thin veins of epidote. 

Decomposed Porphyry.— A red ferruginous pebble, breaking 
^? I il ai ^.. frait "-- ''««-k,r mottling in parts and .** 



with a few white specks ami very thin tVlspathie 



Probably 



i decomposed ferrugir 

Alluvial deposit, from the river. Brown in colour, very ^ 

gram, perforated with worm-burrows. t . Qt 

Another specimen fa labelled Btones and earth from ^'^^L 

of >e« Irehuu! L'..V)i) f,, t pp. , . light poi< , 

clay-coloured soil, l, U t \h,\ { >, |,„'p \\\ ,. , much droomP^-" 
trachyte; umi. i B tain &*** *j 

-ry-allinc * „ cent crystal* ° 

what appear to be horubh i/{, arc abundant. 



ROCKS FROM NEW BRITAIN AND NEW IRELAND. 49 

Lava, from river bank. A dusky purple slate-coloured igneous 
rock, full of small amygdaloidal cavities. The cavities are for the 
most part about \" across,but some are nearly 1 inch long, but the 
width and depth not more than about £th to 4/. 

These cavities are arranged in fairly regular layers, and are 
drawn out in the direction of the flow of the once fluid lava. 

Many of the cavities are filled with quartz ; the central parts 
consist of small more or less perfectly developed transparent crys- 
tals, seated upon a lining of chalcedony. Some contain a thin 
velvety coating of crystallized chlorite, and others are completely 
filled with chalcedony. 

Chemical composition. 

LossatlOO°C. 402 

Silica 67-664 

Alumina 15 '402 

Iron sesquioxide 1'963 



Carbon dioxide ,, 

Potash 1-220 

Soda 6-010 



Tough, breaks with a fairly even fracture ; the cleavage planes 
of elongated twin crystals of felspar, embedded in a granular paste, 
are well shown in places. 

Specific gravity, in powder, at 17° C.= 2-694. 

Amongst the New Ireland specimens is a rock with bright 
green mottlings, looking almost like a serpentine, but it is not 
serpentine, probably a decomposing igneous rock. 

Specimens from Few Britain. 

Volcanic conglomerate.— Composed for the most part of rounded 
fragments of a dark-coloured igneous rock, probably basalt, with 
hghter coloured and greenish pebbles cemented together by black 
and dark green pastes. This specimen is very much less compact 
than those from New Ireland ; the pebbles are so loosely bound 
together that they can be separated by the fingers, the paste being 
comparatively soft, and mixed with delessite (1) in parts. 

Pumice.— Most of the specimens are black. One specimen is 
°* a pale brown colour; and is i th ns *e vesicular than th<? 
"*& pumice j this on analysis yielded the following results. 

Mo. Bot 0"*«n, 
1897. 



99-592 
Specific gravity, 2 "359 at 21 - 2° C. 
Lava, from the volcano, New Britain. With a dark grey base, 
almost black, c glassy felspar. 

Some of the specimens are of low specific gravity and very 
scoruceous. Certain of the cavities contain a white powdery 
mineral partly soluble with effervescence in hydrochloric acid. 
Chemical composition. 



Silica 57-465 

Alumina 19-200 

Iron sesquioxide 3-833 

Iron monoxide 3223 

Manganese monoxide '974 

Magnesia ' . "487 

2 470 

Potash 1-358 

Carbon dioxide trace 

Sulphur trioxide " 225 

99-097 
Specific gravity, 2'738 at 21 -2" C. 
Some of the small specimens of lava are vermiform or wo 
]lh <ZliT\ fV^'VV,^ { 'Z 1i!;- P y! I, -mo, New Britain. 
Some of it is black hi colour, I t "■■ \ sli in \ irts ; more or _ 
parallel greyish bands also occur in it. One specimen o : a P ™g 
black colour contains a few s«-atten>.| ; 
is in addition characterize! hv the i - 

Xulpfon; from the crat. r of tin- vol, mo in Blanche Baft* ut 
form of small pie, e>, f .\ >'. n tlv l,nd , ., .'i' an ii erustation, oi a 
\" to f" thickness, very clean and of a bright 
colour, probably very pure. The cavities in it a ™ ^ ^d 
small crystals, ;■ is somewhat fna we 



ROCKS FROM NEW BRITAIN AND NEW IRELAND. 51 

Gypsum, also found in the crater with the sulphur, in the form 

crystals. 
Araooniti .—In the form of nodular masses, seen on fracture to 

he built up of beautiful transparent columnar crystals arranged in 
a radiate manner. They look as if they had been set free irom 
amygdaloida! cavities in igneous rocks. 

Lwmtouo. — White, granular. 

Quartz.— Of a . ., 

rnfortimately none of the specimens contain fossils, so that 
they throw but little light upon the geological age of these islands. 

The rolled pebl bte rock, and others ol the 

m-stalline rocks from Now Ireland indicate the presence ot mucfc 
more ancient rocks in tl at is! m 1 th m d > . >- of those examined 
from New Britain ; they cannot, however, without further evidence, 
be assigned to any particular geological period, ^uch metamor- 



parently of comparatively 



•coral growth. 



~~ vuunui9 of limestone may e>cn ^ ^ ~~~ 

there is no trace of organic structure remaining to indicate tue 
age of the rock, the structure 1 eing sll i )C r : -tallino. _ 
The igneous rocks are all doubtless modern volcanic products. 



The Hawkesbury Sandstone. 
By the Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S., &c, &c. 

[Read before the Royal Society o/N.S. W., 10 May, 1882.] 

The Hawkesbury sandstone is that peculiar formation which 
constitutes much of the Blue Mountains west of Sydney, and which 
is also so conspicuous in Sydney Harbour, at the heads and on the 
banks of the Hawkesbury River. Its name was given by the late 
Rev. W. B. Clarke, who thus describes it :— 

"Hawkesbury Rocks.— Over the uppermost workable coal 
measures, which are of considerable thickness, is deposited a series 
oi Ms of sandstone, shale, and conglomerate, oftentimes con- 
cretionary in structure and very thick bedded, varying in com- 
position, with occasional false bedding deeply excavated, and so 
forming deep ravines with lofty escarpments, to the upper part_ ot 
*hich series I have given the name of Hawkesbury rocks, owing 
to their great development aloim the course of the river basin ot 
that name. These beds are not less than from 800 to 1,000 feet 
* thickness, containing patches of shale, occasionally with hshes, 
^ith fragments of fronds and stems of ferns, a few pebbles of por- 
Phyry, granite, mi ferons slates, and assume in 

surface outline the appearance of granite, from the materials ot 
Jhich, and associated old deposits, they must in part have been 
derived. On the summit of the Blue Mountains and along the 
Grose River the thickness of the series is very much greater than 
aearthesea. Patches of very small area contain bits of coal, 
carbonate of iron, and sometimes represent miniature coal measures. 
Jowards the base bands of purple shales are frequent, and ferri- 
ferous veins with specular iron, hematite, iinu-nire. gmpl.n.-. -;i"l 
Jher minerals sometimes occur In places, as about the 'Yellow 
**& n e ar the upper Wollombi River, in Ben Bullen, and above 
th edeep excavation of the Capertee amphitheatre, salt and alum 
are found in cavities formed by decomposition ; and in other places, 
^ at Bundanoon Creek in the Shoalhaven District, at Appm, and 
<* the Bulli escarpment of the Illawarra, and at Pittwater north 
°J Sydney, stalactites have been formed under similar circum- 
**«*. There is an enormous mass of brown iron ore, highly 
^onized, partly worked, at Fitzroy, near Nattai; another on 
arcane Water, and a smaller patch on the coast, a few miles 
2/* ^Sydney, and other similar patches in intermediate locali- 
**. These are in part a ^ iron which 

tonally lines the joints of the sandstones close at hand with 



54 THE IIAWKESBURY SANDSTOXE. 

well formed ovystak The uppermost beds of (1 is fern ui 
m> conglomerates, cxi:i!.it isolated >nt 
■ ies. and have i Im.s been traced Lv '. 
.it inti r\ d-, ill Li Mi, Liu . u-pui. s to tin- w, rd of S 

from the latitude of the Clyde River to that of the Tall-ra^r. 
in certain localities within the longitude of that line and the coast 
In the deep ravines of the Grose and Dargau's Creek, the <>i- 
eK.-a'l md the other .vest ward of the Darling Caused \ 
versed by the Western Railu i\ hue, t a 1< j ire studded 
fantas pilliu i t - • l v . i t " ' 

architectural forms. Similar forms cap the extension of the c<i;e 
range to the head of the Goulburn River. Th< • t i 
darkening from exposure and « dtibitii _ in ii n ues of la nisi i • 
sometimes of striking eharater. Tin; semi-crystalliie- frauiw^ 
quartz and the disposal of colours (suggest, ing the idea of the actio) 
of gases remoun, Ui ferrugiiiou tint n pi < ) have caused m 
believe that son. h n-nn in, i , in m o.llr. .a 

the Hawkesbury rocks. The glistening of the 
particles reminds one of the same character oteenaVn i. ■ 
millstone grit in England. It is imp ..ssihl ■ to tin. rstaud li 
considerable massi , of tie mdstom i < mid In < received sin ' 

crystalline faces i M « u ,1 . , 1 ' , ' ' 1 r 

have been collected originally by water lmlditu 

By washing in <Kih. . • „ n i <»i tin ] mil*- 11 

entirely removed, and then it is seen that tie y 

tals. But the cementing matter is i. 

pathic cement holds tin m ti <_" tie i with used inn i. mU 

acter of the Hawkesbury rocks i tlieii col, don. ^ ^ri^t 
Chairman of the Artesian Well Board, 

we had in procuring to ,1s hard . mmgh to , i, . 
stone at the gaol in Sydney. Tlie boring afi< :' 
abandoned, one of the workmen precipitating 

blocking the bore-hole. Dm in . 

have been h, K:,,in in-Uu^ 

the largest block, l,r., 1„, IL hivivd to ata ins b\ i" 1 ^ 1 , 1 
fall over an , ... /.■,„■„,, ,Y,i. "', 4th ** 

W-J0etseq. idel 

Extent.— The extent of tin formation ibout Sydney ^' 
able. According , , f | , ,' ,,,| , ,, , • \ 

I-- : '- -V ■ • .. ... ,■ ^' ' ' :■' - ' ^ :• 

ihozi i W milea long, with a widtl 

mdes. With the exception of a north-west* n. 

narrow range extending ."><) miles from the mass, the w .^ 

seems to be between two degn cs of latitude. 

ward from Newcastle on the north, and another w* 



Shoalhaven on th< ly the whole of its north and 

south extension. Asimi! irlino north and - nth ! etween Sofala ami 
Goulbura would be outside all its western boundaries, with one 
small exception near Sofala. These boundaries and the actual 
extent and thickness of the formation, can only be considered as 
approximate until an actual survey can be made. The geological 
map of the Rev. W. B. Clarke is only a sketch, in which in the 
course of time gr. ! have to be made. Thus, 

forinstance, the same formation is found at Dubho and along many 
places on the western plains, often of large extent, which are not 
indicated on the map. The Dubl » tone < i have many 

plant remains, in which larg< and h. itirul sp< imens of Thinn- 
feldia odontopteroides appear not to be scarce. Tliere are also faint 
impressions of a leaf like <! ■'..■,■>-.,..'. ,-.\ \.W.\ midrib and oblique 
\ 'nation too faint for d termination. 

Gfohyiml position,— In the whole of the area tl le ci be I 
the formation lies horizontally upon rocks of differ ent ago Some 

Silurian rocks. It is overlaid in'mam places by the Wiana- 
matta beds, and by basaltic, or at any rate volcanic products, hut 
in no place is there u,v ign . ,f u] di< i\ al. There are, however, at 
the first Zigzag very many signs of a downcast or fault. There the 

- : . 

having the appearance of an immense landslip from the failure or 
subsidence of the ground. 1 hied appears to 

be bent down from the main mas , which is cpiite horizontal. _ 

Looking at the appearance which the area of this formation 
presents upon the map, one is struck by the great difference there 
is between its out] v other. The granite lies 

m generally me ridio il lines i Silurian I Devonian forms 
nearly the whole substratum of the eastern portion of the con- 
tinent. The volcanic is abrupt and irregular, just as we should 
* from its paroxysmal ori '" Kaykesbury 

sandstone form-- • ar origin, ana 

I shall refer to it again. . tt , 

QtruHfication.-- There is onlv one point in the description of the 
«*. W. B. Clark aendment, and that is where 

h <> speaks of the J .ng only occasional. On toe 

wateary, f a l se bedding is almost universal-it is the characteristic 
"* the formation in m arly * \ ery ] . -rtion. There are two distinct 
inc lines which seem to divide the stoi 
D v „- v arying thickness. These divisions a 
either mere partings or full of a very irregularly or finely stratified 
*** which looks -I of I'm .namslike 

*»*■ The layers are also separated occasionally by red bands oi 
"oostone, of which more subsequently. 



56 THE HAWKESBURY 

Between these then are finer lines of stratification which are 
mostly inclined to the horizon. They are irregular in thickness 
and in dip : sometimes composed of coarse sand and sometimes oi 
the very finest dust. They are occasionally interrupted by beta 
of small pebbles, always abraded and often round 
the whole mass of the sandstone of the Blue Mountains the stone 
is exceedingly fine-grained, and there are rarely any pebbles larger 
than a pea except in the very lowest conglomerates. None of these 
finer strata extend from one great subdivision into another. Tie 
irregularity of the dip of the false bedding is surprising. In a few 
feet the dip will vary in almost every direction and angle, though 
rarely at a greater one than 25 degrees. I have noticed also 
that often when the angle is small the sand is rather coarse. 
Sometimes a series of ,trat.-t with a high angle will becuto 
above by another series dipping on an exactly opposite direction. 
This gives rise to a herring-bone appearance which is often re- 
peated three or four times in the same greater layer. In order 
prevent confusion by the frequent use of the word strata, I ^ 
call the greater division Istone "layers, an 

the smaller stratification " lamina'.'' Between the layers the* >» 
often a shale or slate deposit, the lamime of which are thin, 
zontal, and rather difficult to trace. , a ? 

The ferruginous bands do not always follow 
layers or the lamina;— they frequently d< ssc. *id in 
the stone in undulating line,, ,„ eirele,, in fa . 
shape. Thev . • than stains, seldom tor* ? 

stripes or bands of ironstone. By ironstone, I mean a comp* 
hard rock of brown colour, probably the Kmonite of i nun ^ 
gists, and containing silicate and hj I t 1 fer ox I ^ 
chemical peculiarities of these stains and bands I snau 
subsequently. When examined by the aid of the n^^er 
ironstone is seen to be a mass of grains of sand cemented t^ ^ 
by a hmonite paste, so that the actual amount of feme i 
small But there are also broad bands of red stone m 
grains of sand can be detected. There is one exp< 
cuttings of the second Zigzag. It is about 3 feet tlucK . y^ g 
but very irregular and undulating, v> i 
bed of shale, v. ! 

the vegetable remains has been effected in oxydi/mg w* 
wits, as I shall explain hereafter. «,fprence n* 5 

Fos 8 ik.~ In the extract from Mr. Clarke's paper wier ^ 
been made to the phut in.pm .ions in this i- 
they are mostly couim.-d to the stems and root - 
nopteris alata, Brogn., has been idenl 
formation whence derived is not stated. T 
roides has been found near Mount Victoria. There ar« ^ ^0 
lenticular masses of coal, or rather jet, in some port™ 



a coniferous structure could be made out — at least in some speci- 
mens from Double Bay which I examined. In the same sandstone 
fossil fishes have been found, ranging from 16 feet below the 
sea (at Biloela) to over 3,400 feet on the Blue Mountains. Two 
>]»vi ( .s have been determined, 1 '!> ItL ,■<>!< ,,'is ,;,-,<,■ ><'<tfi's, Egert., and 
%riofcpM Clarkei, Egert. The former is not heterocercal ; the 
-mined. 

At the base of the Hawkesbury sandstone there are thick beds 
of ironstone, often intermingled with what seems like a green sili- 
cate of iron. The whole formation lies conformably upon the coal 
measures.* The passage from one to another is almost imper- 
ceptible—it is difficult to draw any well-defined line. The false 
bedding disappears as well as the layers, and soon a very hard and 
coarse conglomerate succeeds, with beds of shale and impure coal. 

Escarpments. — A peculiarity of the Hawkesbury sandstone is its 
precipitous character. \Yheiv\Vr it i- met it is always cut into abrupt 
escarpments and presents precipitous faces ; even where outliers are 
seen on the summits of hills they have the same character, and, 
*hen the formation abuts on the coast, cliffs and gorges such as are 
seen in Port Jackson are present. Mount Pigeon House, so 
named by Cook from the resemblance of the summit of this moun- 
tain to a dove-cote, is a ease in point The cliffs at Jervis Bay, 
^"nuinjj to the same formation, ai ■ much like those at Sydney 
Ihvuk Hocks Yen if • t'i ■ H > lo-buiysi Ktone are found in 
^>io«s places on the eastern side of Australia, and in the interior. 
Ji, 'y are largely developed in the neighbourhood of the Endeavour 
Kl ver, and northwards in Northern Queensland. The}' also lie on 
a c°al formation, but not conformably ; but thev are quite similar in 
character. They 1 . a£ fake bedding 

1J iey have also beds of ironstone, and are cut into precipitous 
^es, as in Sydney. A moi r*s Nob is very 

s «mlar to Mount Pigeon Horn*.- : Mount Mulligan is a detached 
"fountain of incline I paleozoic roeks, perfectly crowned with pre- 
cipices of horizontal layers exactly like the Hawkesbury sandstone. 

Main Range, Queensland.— Along the main range, between Bris- 
^ne and Toowoomba, nume • precisely likethe 

J^kesbury rocks are to be found. Ins, me f luces they seem newer 
«*n the rocks of New South Wales, but in others there is no differ- 
,' '!!"-'!M!n,. M an y G f the cuttings and tunnels are just 
^e those of the Blue Mountains. At the Little Liverpool Range, 
tKA a £ am at ^"rphv's * is the s 

" 0u gk less picturesque t 



i Blue Mountains the sandstone i 




are built t 

fragments of ■ 

To the west of the main range in Queensland 
mation is frequently seen -this is Mr. I )aintree's desert sand- 
stone. After an att. nthe < \ imin -ti.m « f it. ^ructuiv. 1 cam ' 
say that I could per< ive any in; ked differ ice in external aspect 
It looks perhaps a little less' altered, but 1 Lad no opportunity of 
comparing both microscopically. The d< i ulstmie v - 

into thin films for t!m ' -Tr<4y the ca« 

withtheHawk. dairy sandstone. '] )ainrrec's dr> 

directly upon the cretaceous rork N and they are tin >r. -fur- pi'" 1 

bury rock, with bands of ironst<>n<\ f il wood, plant impi ^' ,l! ;'' 
and conglomerates of small pel >bles. Tli two form tionsproka 
differ wideh in ■ e, kit i , o, e rail d .ubt tint the have h • 
accumulated under p 1 eciMl } similar eruditions. The outh.i^ 

and wherever | I, and the i t 

alv ty.-.p; .ent.preeij : „ . 1, 

Com^tlm of th, Suwtsfn^.—BeioTe entering into any 



■ 
that 



stting a film < 



my of t 
rocks thin enough for the microscope. ° The rock is too 1 
and friable. Pmt in trvin^ experiments L 
think is : . 

*touo from Muni P, , h (th, .-,iit*id. brae? rocks), and s 
ria, T found that th. stone conswte 



~jS3f53S 



h " 't 11;ll ' : ' : 
- 



In trying 
different in ae 



59 



3 under the same conditions and have the same causes, 
has already pointed out that they are not marine ; 
too many plant remains for that to he the case. The 
jus geologist has, like Mr. Daintree, BUggwrted that 
be fresh-water, the remains of some immense fresh- 
rhis I think is also quite untenable. Lacustrine forma- 
»t at all of this character. The beds are horizontal, 
iaivous, and false heddin- is raiv ; besides, we should 
■et fresh-water sheik which we do net. This is the 
*. Wiananiatta beds, which may well have been fresli- 
Daintree has suggested that ihe whole interior of 
i\ have been, in terti rytim s. a vast fresh-water lake. 






We been. %h- 

gested ice action in shallow seas to account for the boulders and 
conglomerates. But several other characters of ice action are 
*-antin ff , and in face of the -"'^ ^l'* 1 . " 

tion of the boulders can be found, the ice theory will find little 
support, especii dJ > to the e( l uator 

and India. . „ 

Absence of upheaval— One fact seems to be lost sight of m all 
these theories, and that is that there has been no upheaval. 1 Be 
beds are horizon^ e has been very 

little alteration of level since they were deposited. This is true 
wherever the formation is found: it is a most sigmiieant eaet 
connected with our eastern mountain range. The highest portions 
are recent voleai i.^s, which lam- 

not been upheaved from the sea. There has been evident depres- 
sion about such places as Sydney Harbour, but no election 

. *«fo Bay mnd dimes.— In looking for examples of this forma 
torn in the Colony of Queensland I have seen one or two phe- 
nomena which mav furnish a clue to the history of these rocks. 
At a place call ,. ~. about 100 miles north ot 

Cape Moreton, there is a formation of sand which forms chffs 
for some 3 or 4 miles on the south side of Wide Bay. U*» 
■■— boundary of the bay is formed by two some - 

' -al of low land from a low range of 



■ 



s^n vegetation and light timber. From the Avest end of the 
Point the sand cliffs ascend. Th« i are densely covered with a 



high. On a close examination the cliffs present exactly the 
appearance of the Hawkesbury sandstone except in colour, and 
they are not consolidated. There are the same undulating "layers" 
of varying thickness, forming thick sinuous marks upon the clifi, 
which can be seen at a great distance. The layers are entirely 
constructed of laminae of win. I . '. t." • " !« ling, which dips at 
' " t colour, 



very angle not outside 30°. The layers are of different c< 

l-il.U.u-! 



and they seem to preserve this colour throughout, giving tne euro 
" " on-like structure. Some are white, others yellow, 



and some ochreous red. The formation is entirely one ot blown 
sand. On the surface, where tra-trei' brush does not grow, the 
sand forms the usual shifting dunes of rounded outline and great 
height. In places there are sand-slips on some of the dunes where 
the false bedding becomes revealed. The undulating lines which 
separate the various layers are found to consist of decaying vege- 
table matter, or rich loamy earth with roots, leaves, and hnd- 
shdls intermingled. They represent the former surface of the 
drifting sand, where its shifting has been stayed by the growth ot 
a dense brush. Thus it has remained stationary for years, until a 
change of wind or perhaps a bush tirr has brought the sand on to 
the surface again and overw helmed it. In part of the brush there 
are swamps of water, at least so I was informed, but I had not 
time to examine them. , 

Burdekin River.— Before I point out the application ot men 
formations to explain the If- \ k> -'■':>•. * nu-roi.e. it * " , ' t ,'' 
perhaps to give one or two more illustrations. In crossing tw 
Burdekin "River in 1879, at a place close beside the P^**?, 
way, I noticed a hill of loose drift-sand, not far from the bed o 
the river. It would not have attracted my attention had it no 
been for the large quantities of loose sandy soil that I touna 
many parts of the banks of the Burdekin. There was no dou^ 

composed of blown 
nvci, wmoii is 01 a very sandy bottom 
all the other sand was derived in tne a 

nined unrvamim .1 then, bu. c-> 
came by the m - been te&W* 

away for the ^uttfol ■*£ 

The appearances u'n pm-i-U tie - ,trl„ Havvkesburyja^ 

lammW, with n faL H b.'' ( l'l'i, T^Yv^n t'l,!' Vavi . wl ^ rl >" !l . i[ ^ 

been cut down I v. as abl.-'tr, s,-, -,,1 1 1, .structure than**, b» 

hillsat Double Maud hum. The lamina not only dipp* ^ 
every angle from horizontal to about 23°, but also w ^ 
direction according to the wind. Another very interesting^ 
here. There were large flat or row* 



y p-.it, 
this h 



and 'so I supposed that 
me manner. My W* 



THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. bl 

pebbles in horizontal lines in this hill, generally near the layers. 
When I say large, I mean large considering the wind origin of the 
hill. None were over 2 inches square or thicker than £ an 
inch, at least none that I saw, but they were numerous. The 
edges were rounded but this may have been because they came 
from the river-bed. Again, the laminae were of various degrees 
of coarseness, some being very fine and others quite a coarse sand, 
just as if it had been sifted. I was able to account for this by 
what I witnessed. The wind was blowing in gusts from the east, 
as it usually does in the October mornings about 11 or 12 in 
the day. I noticed that where a stroncr gust came it carried all 
before it, even removing some of the small stones ; but when the 
breeze was gentle only the fine sand would be removed, leaving a 
layer of coarser particles. So that in reality the coarse sand 
represented the sifting effect of light breezes rather than the 
heavier winds. I noticed here how the wind formed the laminre. 
Strong breezes caused a stoop <ii:' in th ■ drj <>sition, and the length 
of the laminae depended upon them, so that these lamina; rise 
and fall according to the velocity of the breeze somewhat in the 
manner of a wind- ,.il ;-■! f. r'puinps. Other facts brought to 
light by this small eolian sand-hill I shall refer to by-and-by. I 
fully ascertained before leaving the spot that the hill had been 
formed by the wind, and not by the overflow of the river. In 
fact it was a mo -, : ta position con- 

siderably in the inT. ■]■-« :.l <.f >b<>rt \bdt-, during which there had 
Wn no flood in the river. Beds of river-borne sand have quite a 
different structure. It must be remarked that the bed of the 
Burdekin hereabouts is a flat channel about half a mile wide. In 
this there are two or three narrow and deep streams of water 
40 or 50 yards wide. The rest of the bed is dry for the greater 
Part of the year, and covered with rocks and loose drifting sand 
A great many 1 accumulate on 

its banks. 

Pliocene aerial sands on the S. Coast. — Another instance can 
J« seen on the south coast of Australia. It has been described in 
"'""Ueologi,.,-,! uW n ttinus in South Australia," from localities 
*here it is well e ,. Grant, near Portland, in 

>«*ona, and at Guichen Bay, in South Australia. But it also 
jPpears in patches all along the south coast, from Port Phillip to 
^e mouth of the river Murray, and always in connection with 
^d dunes. ] t was thus d.-Wribed in the work referred to. 
jajmd the coast a rock of dark brown colour is found to occur m 
PMches of a rough and compact character ; at times it forms 
^ chffs of considerable height, and there it is seen to the best 
t^antage. At a distance one would imagine the rock to be 
J"Wed into large strata H or 16 feet thick j on a closer mspec- 
** toother kind of Gratification ii discernible, In addition to 



the great divi : one would almost 

suppose that they were huge slabs of rock laid upon one another, 
the strata them m 1 < -> < < tii I; mad up of false bedding Ti- 

ne^r continuous an-o^ the -n it hoax The material of tie 
rock appears like a sandstou icroscope is seen to 

consist of fragments of shells and shore debris, with grains i ii I 
siliceous sand and sponge spiculae intermingled. There are no 
fossils, or at least thev are rare. Professor R. Tate, who first 
asserted the formation to he eolian, found small shells in portions, 
and these were land shells— not marine, and of the kind now 
existing on the coast. When 1 tfvsi iw this deposit I imagined 
it to have been derived from marine currents ; hut a better 
knowledge of the floor of I b iat marine currents 

do not leave such stratification. Besides the land shells, and the 
fact that the strata show ] 
sequent years, by various s 
only an indurated portion of the 

iated. It is 

wind alone. The only difference between this rock and m 
Hawkesbury sandstone is, thai it contains a large quantity ot 
lime, with brown coal occasionally. . .. 

Bermuda sawUhu, ,.- In i!„' Mauds of Bermuda a sunilM 
formation is met with. Although generally very low, some part 
of these islands rise to 250 feet above the sea-level, 
;.. 

illine. It consists of beds wtuen 



sand dunes with which in* 
reck and is stratified by the 






besides, with much false beddin- ] - ' - ' 1 -' ! ' '' ' , 

doubt, by a long < that J"*"? 

are all due toti. d from the bewfc 

and which itseli >ral and shells. The , rain** 

solves portions ,. l this hm*** 

at Bermuda, as well as in '" bob»? [ 

of Au.t! dia. v. b iv. thn ,. mul'u] i -i il '-J litic concretions wn 
look like roots, in Bermuda 1 he aerial rock contains a red e ^ 
some 2 feet thick under ( oral i.xk, and n tin- on * > M e 
'•ah-areous sandstone, prtbabjy due to the decomposition ol 

Aerial orljin of Havh */,„;-,/ wrls.—Wo see from^ 
trations what ,, ,.;..,] (ll - wind-blown r*£ 

They are desti- d-shells or plant rem* 



THE HAWKESBURY SAXPSTOXF. 

lar^o irregular undulati: 

Now I am prepared to maintain rha 
to eolian rocks, and is never foui 

know of no marine fori i ilion which 

tli natu.ro of th.- rook, marine m 
deposits. In all the records of deep- 
an azoic formation has never been ft 
sea had foraminifera, and it nee* 
■■ " ■ there can be no question of i 
■ 



and san.lv. with frequent changes of mirna.d oh; - ■■- -. and 
last of all show alternations of marine, la h. and in-mwao r 

remains, with deposits of fine alluvial mud. And I might here 
point out the diffic ; ro account for 

a deposit which is found all over Australia. Where did the 
estuaries or rivers lead to or come from under such a 
Look again at the ana of the formation upon the Blue Moun- 
tains. What kind of an e would that be * 
Way, the Amazon or La Plal mce be f lde "* 
Fi llv, t-L- tLt ki o n ^ as those of 
V ' Liu or what is Lett till., i tl 
*yd fchefresl i iterior. lms L 



idings," 


such a tiling as 


5ven the very deepest 


sly be 


repeated that 


cajnf 


2,000 or 3,000 




al. The same 


deposi 


t; the bedding 



on- with fre 
;rata. If by v. 



T.', 7 '?"-' ■' ■■ 1 - er donatio 

*; ^ oriyin. 'I Mubree and Phillips have 

sh ^n, I think, rue sand breaks 

''■I* after a certain distance into a certain fineness, and after this 

f *** not br. Pigments always 

■ "-i Ou ir ai . !>aubree enclosed angular 

*£*? S ° f granite hl '" « ' ; c - vIlml1 r witl1 WatCr ' aUd C 
progress i 



s _ of about 60 yards a 
After the fragments had traversed a distance equal to 
ab °ut 20 miles ti; i ion in the tube of gravel, 



loam, and sand. The latter was never in larger grains than a 
quarter of a millimetre in diameter, but always in angular frag- 
ments. The felspar had disappeared, the sand was consequently 
entirely quartzose with a few scales of mica. 

Messrs. Sorby and Phillips have both made sand particles the 
subject of special study. The latter has found that wind-blovn 
sands have the grains nearly all rounded, especially if they have 
been exposed to the action of the wind for any time. The sands 



sposed to the action ot the wind tor any tune, xne su 
Egyptian deserts are all rounded. On the other hand, 5 
jrnuiips has found that fine sands taken from the beds of strea^ 
are always angular, and this even where there is good proof 
that they have been borne great distances by the water. The 
explanation of this fact seems easy to find. In the air there is 
nothing to prevent the friction of the particles on one another, and 
in water there is scarcely any impact or friction at all. At 
the end of this paper will be found all the observations which 1 
have been able to make on this subject. As a rule I can confirm 
the conclusions of Mr. Phillips. I'have microscopically examined 
all sands from all the rivers mid creeks I have come across, U» 
smaller particles are never entirely rounded unless the fragments 
are derived from a sandstone which was itself composed ot 
rounded particles. On the other hand, some wind-blown sand, 
especially that composing sand dunes, is altogether abraded. 1J» 
is well seen in the sand which forms the dunes at Moore JW 
Waverley, and Bondi. Some yellow sand from the inner beacfi 
Manly, which is no doubt derived from the sandstone cnns^ 
is nearly all composed of abrad-d panicle, but there are angwai 
siliceous particles occasionally which I shall subsequently exp 

It will be remarked that I have said some ™ nd " Dl f ^y 
are abraded, because the grains composing the hillock ai 
referred to on the Burdekin River were not at all abraded. ^ 
particles with very few exceptions were quite angular. They 
been brought from the river-bed at no great distance, and flau 
been much blown about. I think it is only in the case ot ^ 
blown sand, long exposed in loose drifting masses, that 
expect to find all the particles abraded. Then again, roc^ 
posed of fine aerial dust, as some of the Hawkesbury f**"*^. 
have been, will show little of their origin except in their si 
cation. _ t]je 

Natwre of the sand.— Now, in applying these pn 1 " 5 ? 1 * hiA 
Hawkesbury sandstone we find we are stopped by a dhhcul tv ^ 
the age of the sandstones would lead us to expect. The ^ fereEC e 
been completely altered by internal metamorphism- * on 
is made by Mr. Clarke to this, and to the crystalline J** 
portions of the rock. Any one passing across the Blue Mo*^ ^ 
cannot fail to have noticed the sparkling of the sandstone ^ tf 



minute quartz crystals whose facets stud the surface of the stone. 
H.-' ferruginous stains on the rock and the bands of ironstone 
will also show that another kind of nn tamorphism has been going 
"ii. Water percolating through the stone has affected the felspar 
grains which largely entered into the composition of these sands, 
the iron they contained has been converted into the reddish -lm.nni 
peroxide which forms the ferruginous bands and stains. Much of 
the excess of silica has crystal itals, or formed a 

siliceous cement around other grains and made the rock harder 
and more compact. Thus, in some portions of the stone which I 
examined, partly rounded grains could be seen with minute crys- 
tals upon them, while other fragments c 
two or three grains c 

*as never able'to obtain a portion of this : 
hard to bear grinding down into a section for the microscope. On 
r 'i<' other hand, the rock, even in the softest or most friable por- 
tions, can never be broken up so as to separate the constituent 
grains. But after having examined a very large number of speci- 
mens of stone fin ken from widely separated 
localities, I am of opinion that it lias originally been formed of 
abraded grains of sand, or of fine dust, such as we might expect 
from an aerial deposit. In some « is.-s the sands derived from the 
fathering of the rock bear this out, as. for instance, the marine 
gnds about the Heads, whi. ; derived from the 
Uawkesbury rocks. Let it be remarked that abrasion in this 
^cannot be from marine action, as the sands collected by me 
in other places, and derived from such rocks as granite, wen: not 
wall abraded, though thev had e\ identlv been Ion- exposed to the 
jcium of the surf. Sands deri ring of the same 
lovmation in other places, sm h \i in: \ t ia, Lapstone Hill, 
«W the second Zigzag, were not all abraded ; but the grains were 

,l, *' s with large crystals of quartz in the midst; in fact some 
jams were more or less alter line, but there 

ere evidences of - _ ;< ;,, m anv rounded grains. 

w 7f s < v » underpinned li-ht mmuc- of the larger fragments 

. '■' I )'-mf,-t their compound eh, tractor, and bv watching the 
t as the Niehol prisms were revolved, the forms of 

e rounded grains embedded in transparent silica could be made 
, '• .1 also ,ma-ined tliat iu the ridl ]; , v f colours under 

SS?J£ t -l ' ■"> ,h v 1 . ,r 

tmn 'I iCa : • but ] wl " it0 wlt Wd ~ 

■• as J h:i.i no rei-uiintv that the specimens thus 
tbanS 1 d W6re ahvavs hvalite ; at 'l -ast 1 had no other test 
Was 1 V 1 ^ snow ed the same rich and varied colouring which 
are ^T 1 *™*** ty hyalite. The grains imbedded in ironstone 
micrl P reserv ed, and admit of being seen in thin films by the 
0Sc °P e - Whene they have not been decomposed they are all 



Iven grains of 
: thus affected. With a high magnifying power the 
minute pits and scratches can be seen. This can only be due to 
aerial action. Water, as we have seen, does not produce this. In 
all the fine water-borne sands that I have examined the particles 
were angular and not abraded. 

The reason why the sands derived from the Hawkesbury rocks 
are occasionally so little like the original constituents, is ^^^ 
they are the result of decomposition from a rock often composed 
of tine dust, which has now become compact.* When granite 
decomposes, the sand resulting does not consist of separate crystals 
of quartz, felspar, and mica, but rather the angular grains contain 
portions of each of these minerals. This I have seen from the 
microscopic examination of manv sp.- ( 

gathered in, H.v.i,-;'; 

sandstones do not decompose into theii 
rather into the fragments, according as tho\ are a 
ing • that is of course when they have become metamorphosed in 
a i ard -oinpact siliceous r. ck. ' lint there are very many portions 
of the Hawkesbury sandstone where the metamorphism is no 
complete and the eolian character of the -rains is quite um ' 
This is everywhere tin ,,n- in a very similar formation on the 2M 
Range between Brisbane and the Darling Downs, and again a 
intermediate range called the Little Liverpool Rai - 
sandstom torn i i , i hundred feet thick f can ^- ^ 
n«'t 1 iin< 4 - positively about the age of this range, except tna . s 
older than tlm tertiary lavas, and von 

upon which it rests. ' It has not' been upheaved, but is suuy. 
horizontal layers of sandstone exactly like the Hawkesbury ^ 
It was considered by Daintree as desert sandstone. iue ^ 
coarse in places, and consists of light brown opaque parfcci , ^ 



cemented together with opaque - 






I I'ticl s are nearly all abraded, and some quite rounaeu^ 
composed of ■■ similar rock, five 



ss. It is quite horizontal and abrupt, bu » . 
by the outpouring of lava which has cove 



feet in thickness. 
much mo 

Recent conUifn.,.rnnf <.L*. ran' ions.— Mr. J. A " ^Tho* 
shown in his p: 

a large number of the carboniferous I 
stones are composed almost entirely of quartz crystals^^__^ 

* In the examination of sands L- 

- -" 



THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 67 

been produced in situ. Numerous fine-grained sandstones, parti- 
cularly among those of Triassic age, arc composed of quartz graina 
so completely rounded as under the microscope to resemble water- 
worn pebbles. These grains are variously coloured red or brown 
by variously hydrated oxides of iron ; in some cases, minute per- 
fectly formed and ut crystals of quartz have 
been developed on their surfaces. He further adds that, on 
examining a considerable number of modern sands, none of them 
except such as had been long subjected to the wearing effects of 
wind action, were found to resemble those of the " millet-seed" 
sandstones. Those which resembled them most were blown desert 
sands. In the discussion which ensued on this paper, Mr. Blandford 
said that some years ago he had examined the Indian desert, and 
found the grains of sand well rounded. They were mostly of 
quartz, with a few felspar gra I of hornblende. 
The strongest wind there blows from the west" The sands had 
come from the coast and the river Indus. He further stated that 
*'"' sands appeared to be unst ratified, and this 1 can confirm in the 
appearance of all desert sands, but when a section is made the 
Peculiar false bedding is lmm.-diateh seen. Mr. Kutley on the 
same occasion called attention to the presence of felspar on many of 
we sandstones dea that it was quite possible 
: *A sandstones to be changed into felstone. There was often 
' dirii. du in distinguishing between the finer grained igneous 



-To sum up these facts : I may state that o 
^proved that wind-blown action seems alone competent to round 
Sjwnsof sand; angular fragments of quartz Laving a diameter 
'>_ less than A, of an inch remain unrounded by the long con- 
«*ued action ot currents, or I . n of breakers 

«ter many years . yet the rounded c i mracte r of the fragments of a 
i,ow n sandstom i, often difficult of detection in a compact 
' " -which has undergone internal metamorphism. 

" n..w come to the inquiry as to the causes of those peculiar 
. h as the false bedding, 
e layers, and the ironstone bands and concretions. 

noticed that the angle 
«aeu by the laminations never exceeds a certain value. This 
sand 6 *° ^ faCt that rom '' 1 "'- " r 'ndeed small particles of 
of I-™ any kind ' when P ei- fectlv dry, have a definite angle 
dife ?' Thl * angIe is about 3 ° Q - With wet sand {t is entirel y 
satu^ed wi^ l l e at any anglG aS l0ng aS {t i8 1 n0t c T?t ly 
domi m01sture ' so as to gi ve the particles perfect free 

fcereL^ 111 ^ ° ne U P° n another i while mere dampness would 
^creasf* 1 J,° hesive force antl theu the an g le of repose would be 
&Qot? , P ressure also of the grains of sand in dry masses 
airect b «t lateral. The angle at which the laminae dip is 



68 THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

therefore not so much an index of the force of the wind as of the 
quantity of sand conveyed by it. A slight steady breeze blowing 
for a day in one direction would tend to carry a good deal of sand, 
which as it heaped up in the places where it was deposited would 
slip down to the angle of repose just as we see happening in an 
hour-glass. But if the sand were very equally distributed by a 
strong wind which tended to smooth down rather than to accumu- 
late heaps, then the angles of repose might be very low. I regard 
the laminae as the result of periods of rest in the sand-drifts, and 
the thickness and direction as indications either of the duration 
or quarter of the wind. .. 

Since my attention has been directed to this I have carefully 
examined every sand-heap that came under my observation, ana 
also noted the effect of the wind upon them. I had a gooa 
opportunity for this at several of the coral islands inside tne 
Barrier Reef. Most of them are formed of a fine-grained cal- 
careous sandstone, partly cemented by the water and partly ctruw 
by the wind. At Low Island I remained a week, and on mj 
arrival noted the height and dimensions of a small heap ot sam 
which was forming under the shelter of some drift-wood, bj 
planting sticks at various places in the heap I was able, not only 
to measure each day's accumulation, but also the results 
change of wind or a calm. It was at the end of the montn o 

us and changes of direction, aim w~ 
sandhill was only a few feet lugba^d 

a few hundred yards in superficial area, with a steep tace o ^ 
leeward side. There were two long tongues of sand on 
tremities which each day's accumulation brought further ana i -j 
out I found that the greatest accumulation on any one j ^ 
about 7 inches. This was during a light constant bree • ^ 
cutting into that day's deposit it was found to be formea ^ l 
or five thin laminse irregularly dipping at an angle o -j 
could not account for the division into lamina, but i ■ ^ 
that they represented lulls in the wind. Again, on anoi 



very unsteady both in torce an g , 

how much had accumulated. <£ ^ ^ 
section through the day's work the lamina? were ^ 

extremely thin, almost in fact like the leaves of a do -^ ^ 
dipped in every direction and were inclined at various o ^ tf 
they differed in the degrees of coarseness. The coarser ^^ 
I have already observed, are not so much due to in .^ 
breeze as to the faint ones, which carry away the ligw* *j ffa s 
from a layer of sand, leaving the coarser grams be . ^d 
surprised to find in ri.i- small -.n.dhill rather heavy & ^ 
fragments of coral, but I soon saw that what ft PP^° rf the B*'* 
wind easily carries such fragments along the sand. &om 



THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 69 

on these islands has become converted into a calcareous sandstone, 
in which both marine and land shells are embedded. These islands 
abound with Helix Fosteriana, FiY, , whieh is a u'ood-sized but very 
light shell. It is to be remarked that though the sand on these 
vaiMs is white yet the rocks derived from them are of a deep brown 
colour, -which is the ease with all rocks derived from coral that I 
have seen. It is also the case with calcareous aerial rocks generally. 
hemivation. — It -occurredtomethat the causeof lamination might 
he explained by experiment. I had noticed, in watching the accu- 
sation of heaps of sand in an hour-glass or in a common egg-boiler, 
that the sand formed a narrow pyramid on which the lighter 
particles gathered for a time into a little pinnacle of sand and then 
suddenly slipped down ; thus the grains became distributed by a 
series of sandslips. Perhaps then a record of these slips could be 
preserved by using different-coloured sand. For this purpose I 
stained a quantity of fine sand with two or three different dyes. 
Tsing a very fine pipette glass fixed to a stand, I let the sand fall 
through on to a board. As soon as a sand-slip occurred I changed 
the colour. When a considerable heap had accumulated, I damped 
the centre and made a careful section with a piece of card. A beauti- 
ful series of laminations were exposed to view, the most of them 
having an angle of about 30° By covering the whole with red sand, 
and then varying the experiment so as to draw the glass gradually 
along and give rise to sand-slips, first in one direction and then in 
another, a section was produced which gave a tolerably fair illus- 
tration of a layer wdth false bedding at opposite angles, or as we 
frequently see, "herring-bone" lamination. 

Wet sand, of course, may lie at a much higher angle. In 
those cases where estuarine deposits are found to be inclined, they 
^ve a constant angle which is often as high as 40°. Generally 
*peakmg, the layers of clay and shingle are perfectly horizontal, 
the mode of deposition of deltas from fluvial or estuarine remains 
s Perfectly understood. They are composed of regular beds of 
™h alluvium and water-worn gravel. A section through the de- 
pit at Lake Geneva at the mouth of the Arve shows occasionally 
wcuned beds, but the angle is regular, and at the length of half a 
le they become perfectly horizontal. There is no resemblance 
^ een the Hawkesbury sandstone lamination and that of an 
_• narine deposit, even if the area did not totally prevent such a 

?rt ^ In the Arve delta > of course > there are man y fresn - 

«r shells and alluvial remains of fresh-water plants and debris 
■lZ } m ^ * do not th^k it possible to account for some of the 
then T ! ammation ^ the Hawkesbury rocks except by supposing 
m i? j lals to have accumulated as fine aerial dust. Water of 

J*md must have deposited it in a different manner. 
W^« he ° ther ha nd, at Bermuda, as already stated, the late Sir 

Jmie Vinson gives an account of a formation at those islands 



70 THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

to which I have already referred. It is formed of very fine sand 
accumulated by the wind, and cemented by the slow infiltration 
of water. In a short time the whole of this will be a hardened 
rock, and if tin- 

be lost, it might easily be regarded as a marine rock, wen it 
that the deposit is full of the trunks of cedar trees which the wind 
has blown down and mingled with the mass. I have very little 
doubt that much of the interior of Australia is composed of wind- 
blown sand to a considerable depth. In 1863 I was able to 
examine a section of a well, sunk in a sandy heath-like country 
about 300 feet above the level of the sea. There was 90 feet of 
laminated yellow, white, and red sands, resting upon n—iiif '• 
miocene rock. The beds were in layers and laminations just like 
the Hawkesbury rock, except that they were quite loose, and not 
aggregated together. This was on the edge of the Murray Desert, 
where there arc tracts of sand-hills 100 feet and more in h - 
covered with a light growth of heath-like vegetation, of which 
Lepidospermum lanuginosum ~ 
" in the 
off, and th 

found in large tracts much below the level of the 
then there is a stiff clay with swampy land. A sufficient accumu- 
lation of such deposits, hardening by lapse of time into ston, 
would give rise to a depo.dt evaetly like the Hawkesbury rocK 
The fine mud of the clay-pans in such country which retains 
rains which fa! U in ter is often covered over in 

wind-drifted sands. This perfectly represents the curious strati^ 
masses found between the layers in the Blue Mountains. 

Ironstone— The ironstone bands and marking 
cupy our attention. As already observed, these form a cbaraj ^ 
istic feature in the Hawkesbury sandstone. The rings ot nw fc 
brown hydrated peroxide of iron and the thick I 
most of the formation cannot fail to arrest the attention j " 
moreover, not only a feature in the Hawkesbury rocks, M^ 
in these laminated sandstones wherever they are found, neS) 
Darling Range, Little Liverpool Range, Dalrymple san ^ 
desert sandstones, &c. Our inquiry here is limited to tne ^ 
from which these ores of iron are derived, and how tney 
come to be hydrated peroxides as we find them. ^^rocfe 

As to the sources, there can be no doubt thatthesandot tne* ^ 
has not been entirely siliceous. It is often s 
now, of fragm t t . . f 1 ; i ml fragments c 
and other derive. I minerals. Hornblende dykes are to ^ d 7blowa 
penetrated many of the older rocks from which theses ^ j, 
materials have been derived. In some hornblende roc 



ld0 Steven 
e found jo *» 



sometimes as much as 14 per c 



According 1 



Bischof, there is no silh ate in whi< i. sili it ■ of iron does not enter. 
Proto-silicate of iron or green earth is fmuid in drusy cavities of 

phyry, and forming a coating upon chalcedony. Another source 
of iron is that much of the carboniferous rocks from which SUM 
of this sand has been derived is coloured green by proto-silicate 
of iron. It is important to observe that the iron in these cases 
is in the form of a protoxide, and either colourless, bluish, or 
trreenish in tint. There is a powerful affinity between silica and 
pmtoxide of iron. The alkaline silicates, says I iischof,* convert 
carbonate of iron in water into protosili at< of iron. The green 
earth contains these silicates of iron and water, and gradually 
converts them into a persilicate. The reduction of persilicate into 
f» |!'. tn>ili»;ue and its conversion into carbonate of iron has been 
proved by Gustav Bischof 's experiments, f It followed from his 
investigations that decomposing organic substances in the presence 
of carbonic acid reduced hydraled peroxide of iron to protoxide, 
and also persilicate of iron into protosilieate and carbonate of iron. 
In most of the ironstone bands thin cti< s pi e d undt r micro- 
scope showed round red ferric oxide. These 
^presented grains of some highly ferruginous mineral, entirely 
""•"lnposed by water and carbonic acid. 

lhese chemical : ,>re significant bv making 

; : - "I Mr. Sterry Hunt's . : The chemist 

mows that the iron as diffused in the rocks exists chiefly in 
combination with oxygon, with which ii forms two principal com- 
pounds, the first or pint.. \idi »\hnh N 1. \ soluble in waters 
"npregnated with carbonic acid and other feeble acids ; and the 
«cond or peroxi. 1 , the same liquids. I do not 

ft ere speak of the magnetic oxide, which may be looked upon as 
* compound of the other two. neutral a, 1 indifferent to the most 
natural chemical agencies. The combinations of the first oxide are 
X r r 0l0UrleSS or bluish or greenish in tint, while the peroxide 

reddish brown and is the substance known as iron-rust. Ordinary 
Tj* cla > TS are bluish in colour, and contain combined iron in the 
| '" M protoxide, but when burnt in a kiln they become reddish, 
< ahsor!,. from the air a further portion of oxygen, 
wh ls ^ onvertecl into peroxide. But there are clays which are white 

nen burned, and are much prized for this reason. Many of these 
eve 0n i? e ferru S inous clays. . ll by a process 



■an. Mid G«,l., Essays, p.! 



72 THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

becomes coated wit.Ii n shining iridescent scum, which looks s,^ 
what like oil, hut is rea side of iron. The 

water as it oozes from the soil is colourless, but has an inky ta>K 
from dissolved protoxide of iron. "When exposed to the air. ! 
ever, this absorbs oxygen, and the peroxide is formed, vhidi - 
no longer soluble, but the surface of the 

water, and finally sinks to the bottom a.s a reddish ochre, crui:' ;•: 

somewhat different conditi ns becomes \ related as a mass 

iron ore. A process identical in kind with this lias been :■ 
work at the earth's surface, ever since there were decaying or.m. 
matters, dissolving the iron from the porous rocks, clays, ai 
sands, and gatherit « it t< -< tin 1 in beds of iron ore or iron ochre. 
It is not necessary that fch ihould colour. A 

iron in the state of protoxid •. since th< - organic products (which 
are themselves db-oh 4 ii wat -i are able to remove i p"'< _ 
the oxygen from the insoluble peroxide, and convert it into 
soluble protoxid.- of iron, being themselves in part oxydized a: 
converted into carbonic acid in the process. 

Thus we see that decomposing organic 
of reducing the oxides of iron and rendering t-nem w» • 
this process the organic matter is consumed and converted I 
carbonic acid and water. In this way we may regard the be* 
hyclrated peroxide of iron in the Hawkesbury rock- 
destroyed vegetable matters. Some of the carbon is however s u 
preserved in the shales. 1, nti< alar masses of coal and vege» , 
impressions are common. In some of the concretions <*W*£ 
ferric oxides casts of the t . |,e found - ^^ 

in a sandstone on the Burnett River I have found a cone ^ 
fully preserved, and closely resembling some mesozoic Cycas . ^ 
will form the subject of a subsequent paper. At i*^ 
vegetable impressions are often composed of peroici 

Anyone crossing the Blue Mourn 
capping of yellow soil on the sandstone. This yellow coour^ ^ 
to iron, and represents t! 
materials, produced b. 
This carbonic acid is derived from th 
surface. If we ask what becomes of the trees and grass 
grow on the surface, the yellow soil gives the reply, in jj^ 
Bents the surface vegetation of ages. We m 
few or no fossil impressions remain of so abundant a ve 
The oxide of iron consumes all. , i a t j n an 

Mixvl origin of the strata.— We must not suppose i ^ 
immense deposit like the Hawkesbury rocks one 
suffice for all the appearances met with. W« 
other besides wind-blo 1 



with. We ma 

This will be best Ulustra^ 

a description of what is at present going on in one o ^ ^ e 

formations of Europe. There are few who have not nw» 



iWe it. One covers an aiva «»f 15,000 acres. Much 

cofthesanclisanvM ,11. vein .' ''";,• s winch favoured 
h «.f vegetation, ami at Araehon forests of gigantic ]>ines 
redone sand tract, with oaks winch were 46 feet in girth 
•s ago. On the other hand, there are plenty of places in 
os where there are traces of former forests now covered 

JB may expect fofii formation traces 

me deposits, with- former marshes and lagoons. In these 
dd become entombed, and the way in which they are 
this sandstone may be explained as follows :— In one of 
expeditions he found in Lake Eyre, in the central desert, 
when the waters had become very low, a number of small 
"ied and caked in salt. Now it is easy to see how in the 
ands which form the shores of this lake, these fish might 
•d fay an advancing Hand dune, and thus entombed as 
Jerethey formed a belt along the shore about 12 yards 

-There is not much hag for the shale 

sandstone areas. They are the remains of fresh and 
»es or lagoons, such as are now found in the central 
Australia. The process may be seen in operation on the 
id coast. Near Id r Pyalba, on the 

Harvey's Bay, ■.-.; . - aly" Island, there 

7 on the site of former marshes which is very like turf 
3wn coal. It is full of vegetable remains such as roots 
toass i S ' Wlth S rains of sand sufficiently numerous to give the 
^n a ° 0Se consiston(, v. In spite of its carbonaceous aspect it 
^ot burn. Exc. ; t thai it is a younger deposit, it is like the 

Cr^ Ce ° lI \x Sllaies often found ^ tne sandstone rocks. 
% rn7' r ~ must aIso ex P ect to find in the Hawkesbury rocks 
mams °* creeks and streams with their denuding effects, 






which of course would be very great on a loose sandy deposit It 
is thus I explain all those appearances which have been attribute! 
to ice action. Mr. Wilkinson, the Government Geologist, thus 
describes such appearances.* "In the sections exposal in thefW 
ries at Fort Macquarie, Woolloomooloo, Flagstaff Hill, and other 
places, may be seen angular boulders of the shale, of all sizes, up 
to 20 feet in diameter, embedded in the sandstone in the most 
confu o 1 t ier, some of them standing on end as regards their 
stratification, and others inclined at all angles. They contain the 
same fossil plants that are found in the beds of shale from which 
they have evidently been derived. These angular boulders occur 
nearly always immediately above the shale beds, and are mixed 
with very rounded pebbles of quartz. They are sometimes slightly 
curved, as though they had been bent whilst in a semi-plastic 
condition, and the shale beds occasionally terminate abrupt .\ 
though broken off. Had the boulders of soft shale been deposited 
in their present position bv running water alone, their form wouM 
have been roui i r. It would appear that tw 

shale beds must have been partly disturbed by seme sue > a." 
as that of moving ice, t\i< - of shale 1)ec * >mm ^ 

commingled with the sand and rolled pebbles earned a l. n_' i 
currents. Occasionally in the beds above those which contain m 
angular boulders occur a few rounded pebbles of shale, sho*i£ 
that the currents had swept along for some distance a tew o 
an-ular fragmei r* nmil tiey had become rounded. T ^ esep ^ n 
are usually oval in shape, and are embedded in such a m 
that the longer axis of the pebble is nearly d* 
dips towards t hltthe rTulS 

currents had chiefly conn : 

boulders in the beds below are, as before mentioned, cow g 
heaped together without regard to size.' [n 
Wilkinson says :— " From their lith 

bury rocks appear to have been formed in a comparative!) ^ 
sea, which was subject to rapid and changing currents. .^ % 

was bounded on the west by the moi 

northerly direction from the Shoalhaven River to the ^ 

Goulburn River. It is in the rocks near the 

but none have yet been d S^ 

to great denudation, cannot so readily be dete " toWsr ds 

probably did not extend north of the Hunter Krver , ^ 

the east its e. 

Pacific Ocean." Mr. Wilki 

Bacchus Marsh sandstones, and cites the yT 1111 " , ^jer ** 

Selwyn and Daintree as to those formations being ion 

^Jour.^oy. Soc. N.S.W., vol. Xffl P- 106 ' 



THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

Tlie difficulties in the way of such an explan 
nountable, as I shall show at the end of this pa] 
icoount for these boulders is that they arc the its 



long, 3 feet wide, 
Nairn, in Scotland, 
on the river Dee | 



forced a nuavof 

piano, lea\ in- tii< in in a -rent ivuanjrular heap on the summit. 
A small rivulet called the College, in Northumberland, when 
swollen by a flood in August 1827, " tore away from the abutment 
of a mill-dam a large block of greenstone— porphyry— weighing 
dearly 2 tons, and transported it to the distance of a quarter of 
t mile."* 

Glazed surfaces.— In these blocks of shale there is often a dis- 
I . NOB to divide into small blocks of irregular form but curiously 
glazed surfaces. I have noticed the same in carbonaceous allu- 
JMun i in other places. The creeks near Bathurst are, in the neigh- 
borhood of the basaltic rocks, full of a dark brown shale much 
!«e what I have already dascribed. When drv it breaks into 
^regular blocks with glazed surfaces. Again, the same curious 
JPpearance was noticed in a creek near Lytton on the Brisbane 
jwver, which also is close to basaltic rock. It is quite a recent 
wmiation, some of it having accumulated within the last few 
"J^ 8 " 7^ is must not be confounded with glazing from friction, 
18 the shale is too soft to take a polish i " 

Uenuaation.~Therfi is nothi " 
J*ry sandstone which has been matter for speculation i 

e manner in which it has been denuded into such extraordinary 
ttlf P K CeS and gorges as are found in the Blue Mountains. It 
BDh 1 remembered that there is not the slightest evidence of 
As ft i? subsidence > except at the downcast already mentioned, 
tae beds were deposited, there they have remained. In the 

*^lt Princ i pkso S 0eolo Sy, && edit., p. 208, where similar instances 



7 b THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

deepest gorges the horizontal beds on each side correspond in such 
a way as to make one believe they were once continuous. The diffi- 
culty is ht'st expressed by the eminent Charles Darwin who. in d- 
" Naturalist's Voyage," thus tells us how his visit to these moun- 
tains had puzzled him :— 

Darwin's v'fn:-: — " The first, impression on seeing the corre- 
spondence of the horizontal f the valleys m i 
great amphitheatrical impressions is that they have been hollows! 
out by the action of water, but when one reflects on the enormous 
amount of stone which on this view must have been rafiovw 
through mere gorges or chasms, one is led to ask whether ftii 
spaces may not have suhsid.-d. V-ut < >nsid< ring the form of the 
irregularly branching valleys, and of the narrow promontories pro- 
jecting into them from the platforms, we are compelled to abandon 
this notion. To attribute these hollows to the present alluvial 
action would be preposterous, nor does the drainage always, U I 
remarked near' i ..f the-i- v.n! -■ 
but into one side of their bay dike masses. Some of the inhabit- 
ants remarked to me that they had never viewed one of those bar- 
like masses with headlands receding on both hands, without being 
struck with their resemblance to the bold sea-coast. This is cer- 
tainly the case ; moreover on the present coast of New South 
Wales, the numerous fine widely-branching harbours, which are 
generally connected with the sea by a narrow mouth worn through 
the sandstone cliffs, varying from one mile in width to a quarter of a 
mile, present likenesses, though on a mil iai m f de, to the - 
valleys of the interior. But then occurs the star! 
Why has the sea worn out these great though circumscribed de- 
pressions on a wide platform, and left mere gorges in the openings 
through which the whole of the vast amount of triturated matter 
must have been carried away? The only light I can throw 
upon this enigma is by remarking that banks of the most irre ^. 
forms appear to be now forming in some seas, as in P arti *?. / 
West Indies and the Red B « are exceeding! 
steep. Such banks, I have been led to suppose, have been ) 
sediment heaped by strong currents on an irregular sea-bot ■ 
That in some cases the sea, instead of sowing sediment in a un*wn 
sheet, heaps it round submarine rocks and islands, ltw ,. \ 
possible to doubt after examining the charts of the West lncuj, 
and that the waves have the power to form high precipes ^ 
even in landlocked harbours, has been noticed in many P a , 
South America. To apply these ideas to the sandstone piaw ^ 
in New South Wales, I ima- .:<• that th..* strata were f^^n 
the action of strong currents and by the undulations ot an r^ 
sea on an irregular bottom, and that the valleydike f*™^ 
left unfilled had their steeply sloping flanks worn mW ^ b0Jie 
during a slow elevation of the land, the worn-down san 



THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 77 

being removed either at the time the narrow gorges were cut 
by the retreating sea or subsequently by alluvial action." 

None of the difficulties suggested by Dr. Darwin are met by 
his theory, and the absence of upheaval or marine remains is fatal 
to it. On the other hand, the aerial origin of the rock exactly 
explains the facts. These immense sandhills may have been 
always detached from one another, or if united, could have been 
easily cut into the gorges previous to their consolidation. No 
doubt they have become precipitous to some extent by -weathering 
and by the sweeping away of outlying masses of loose sand It is 
the tendency of loose aggregations of sand to consolidate in the 
perpendicular direction, and this is best seen in the deserts of 
Africa and Arabia, where the consolidated sand has formed the 
most abrupt precipices and gorges. I do not think that the denu- 
dation has been very great, for most of these aerial hills were 
never united. It used to be the custom to refer the small horizontal 
caps and outliers on the tops of mountains to the remains of an 
enormous formation -which had been denuded away. I myself 
thought this of O'Connor's Nob, near Cooktown, and Mount 
Kgeonhouse, near Jervis Bay. Such stupendous denudation on 
horizontal strata, without any upheaval or subsidence, baffles com- 
prehension ; but when the aerial origin of these outliers is under- 
stood the difficulty vanishes. There has been little or no denuda- 
aon. The sandstone has been deposited just where it is found, 
wd was never much larger than we see it now. But the very 
widest escarpment show fragments of rock at their bases which 
^■y broken away from the undermining of looser friable portions. 

Unvih^lnr, <>/ sand.— A difficulty with many will be the im- 
mense height of these sandstone cliffs, some of them being most 



Jf th ^ height an ea At Cape Bogador 

^Pe Verde they are over 600 feet in height. Another difficulty 

a y be the consolidation of loose drifting sand into stone. That 
frw! n i Sand hardens into stone is certain, for even the recently 
Si ^ dunes of Cora :,]l i9 used for 

gliding purposes. The accounts of all observers confirm the 
anTJ rt° f the nartleni ng of • g sand in Africa 

asanl ■ ^ r - James Ha . I intei -ting account of 

qoS- G in course of format ion i u Fi i'esh in '. * The sandstone in 
11 "■ ] • ii i i iil\va\ bri lw ■ ai Aidi. ~>, \ i^ resting upon car- 

uiierous strata, above which was a bed of tenacious clay contain- 
doCb nt She11 -' Above this was blown sand wW ch was washed 
, , by the rain over th r> <-l >i v n n . I . 1 , .-„-,-: i t ,-., I , . n 1 pH ms formed by 



i over the ok Ledges formed by 

Projecting beds of shale, whi . i icles of which 



78 THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

the sand was composed were cemented together by carbonate of 
lime held in solution by rain-water. It was derived from the 
recent shells which occurred not only in the sand but in the 
clay. Theceim Iso partly composed of hydrated 

peroxide. The result is a hard sandstone, not unlike one of much 
older date. 

It is a remarkable fact that stone derived from the wind-blown 
sand hardens by exposure, probably from the greater faeiiny t« •> 
afforded for the formation of the great cementing medium, mIicm 
of iron. The initial cause of the consolidation would of course be 
the pressure, and this is why we find in these formations the • -"■- 
or centres of the highest and heaviest sand-hills. Still it must h* 
remembered that the strata of all these mountains are of a com- 
pound nature, portions of them containing shales, which prove* 
them to have been at one part of their history lagoons or marshes. 
The fine aerial siliceous dust of which much of this rock k com- 
posed would also eon*. 1m it. very < i-il\ b\ the men iW* 
and pressure of sand above. The h y 

used to consolidate graphite, would be nothing to the effect o 
thousands of tons of sand. . . 

Fine red sands.— Some of the Hawkesbury sal 
very fine texture, and of a peculiar salmon colour, which is p^ 
seen in some fresh broken masses. I was struck by the rese 
blance of its colour and grain to a thick deposit of sand whic 
fell on the Mosquito Plains on October 8, 1865. The spring <* 
that year was particularly dr\\ and the hot winds set in ra^ 
early. At daylight of that morning the sky h 



appearance, very much like dull copper 



Xh,:-:-.' ■■ 



^ ■ ;. 
showed a rapid movement southward. The thunder was *«*£ 
and with a liar-: from the WW>* 

echoes of heavy rain clouds. The lightning used to shoot- 
the sky in forked streams. In the middle of the da 
of fine dust began to fall, which soon covered ^ 
yellow or salmon coloured crust. I gathered quantities ^^j. 
found it to con - i ted grains of rounde ^ 

noussancl At thattime I was interested in looking for W« ^ 
In referring to my notes on the subject, I do not find any w ^ gj _ 
to the presence of any angular particles, but the dust ^ 
tremely fine that an inch objective did not sun 
The wind wa - 
oving in a conti 
The sand came from the eo^ 



which reached u 

tremendous northern hot wind in) that locality 

had been blown away in large quantities, so as quite 



to P thenorih,aswelearne^om^ 
days subsequently, ^f^s^ 
rind in, that locality, and tiie*u 



roots of the porcupine grass. The deposit of red dust was fully 
.' inches deep in a few places on the Mosquito Plains where the 
wind had drifted it along the ground. It easily hardened where 
it hud been moistened, and would bear considerable pressure before 
.■nimUiiur again. 1 have no duubt that some of the Hawkesbury 
sandstone is composed of such a deposit, which probably was 
derived from a desert interior, where the moisture was less. 

• ■ in China.— Baron Kiehthofen, in his large 
»"• rk «.u ( 'hina, describes a formation which covers vast areas in 
that country. He mentions it as forming cliffs or bluffs on the 
Mm Hirer, which in some places rise to a height of 500 feet. 
I" many places, lie says, it readies a thickness of 1,500 feet. It 

>'• :■■;- Uilund overall the hi-'h piains, from the alluvial flats of 
"" ( ' ; iit <>f Tahiti, over the • ins up to plat- 

•••'■Jx l.-i'u metres high, and even to an elevation of 2,400 metres 

--i-7.:>ih) feet) above the sea in the Wer-tai-Shan Mountains, 
rthern Shansi. It stretches south of the hilly grounds beyond 

•'• valley of the Yangtze, and up that vallev in a westerly direc- 
tion for an unknown distance. Itcan be followed up thecourse of the 
Wan, to the watershed of that river, and it is known to extend up 
the valley of the Y- 1 . ,, |; : , .., w ithout interruption, into the pro- 
vince of Kansuh. This enormous deposit, according to Eichthofen, 
is solely the result of atmospheric waste and wind action, and he 
^2 0u g ht forward a large body of interesting and important 
l his theory 
ite: 

Dr. Geikie, in his l>re-hi*toric Europe, from which the above is 
^en, adds (p. 167) :— "It mavbe that we have hitherto under- 
rated the action of winds as geological agents in dry continental 
*J«w hke those of Central Asia, and that aerial currents have 
P yed a much more important role in the past than has been 
S^rally supposed. 'No one * can realize the capacity of wind 
a transporter of fine material who has not lived through one 
X St0r ! m ° n a desert In sudl a simoom the atmosphere is filled 
, •■ - femng mass of dust and sand which hides the country 
febri a ^ aa,ntle of impenetrable darkness, and penetrates every 
a diw* ° ften destr °y s life by suffocation, and leaves in places 
1 ml* SeVeraI f eet dee P- ' But such rapid accumulation occurs, 
bfLk T' ° nly } 1 or its immediate neigh- 

2Zf- DeSert -bounds by a 

tiauall en ] Croachment of the dunes of the peripheral regions, con- 
%hte/^ anCmg ** the directi on of the prevailing winds. The 
**quentl ! Which is carried on the win S s of the ™ nd and 
^^transported for distances of several hundred miles, 

* p «anpcU Tj Amer. Jom Science and Art, toI. 17, for 1879, p. 139. 



leaves but a slight film upon the surface of the ground where it 
falls. And if this be so, one cannot but be amazed at the length 
of time required for the sub-aerial sifting of the material and f-: 
the transport from the dry central regions of Asia of thai liiir- 
dust with which so large a portion of China eventually became 
covered, to a depth varying from 50 to 100 feet up to 2,000 feet.'' 

Perhaps it is not entirely such a formation as this with which 
we have to deal in the Hawkesbury sandstone. Ours isa sand-dune 
area possibly not wholly like that of the Desert. It is no use at 
present encumbering ourselves with speculations as to whence this 
sand was derived. A very diligent and long continued examination 
of the constituents of the rock, taken from a very great number of 
places, and a 1 m t : >h the physical characters >'t 

the older formations, will alone throw light on this question. We 
must not suppose either that the surface was wholly devoid of 
vegetation. If we remark how very little if any of the present 
vegetation is preserved in present soil we may be surprised to find 
so many impressions of ferns in the Hawkesbury sandstone. 1 
should be inclined to think that tie- land a round was a desert hke 
Arabia, in which stand storms would be numerous ai 
lation of dust rapid. After the upheaval of the Permian strata 
the area may have been a desert region in which a few coal plants 
survived. A dry climate caused a rapid disintegration of strata 
and the accumui I do not pretend to assert 

that the upheaval took place immediately after the Permian 
period, but that it was not previous to that time, and may ha^ 
been as late as the Cretaceous. The evidence of the plant reman* 
is as yet insufficient to establish any period. 

Stratified rocks not all aqueous.— At one time every fonnation 
not obviously fresh-water or i concluded to a 

been derived from the sea, w-hether it contained marine rern 
or not. But we are no more justified in calling rocks marine ww- 
out direct evidence than we are in calling them fresh-watei. 
are not acquainted with any'existing sea-bottom utterly destitute 
of marine animal remains, no matter whi 
Foraminifera at least were always found, and I 
from the earliest geological periods. Put we hav 
any marine area where the dredge brought up on!; 
and vegetable B ] 

rounded pebbles. Mr. Selwyn, in his Notes on the J £ ^ 
Geography, Geology, &c, of the Colony of Victoria,* refers 
absence of marine fossils from th<- low\t Led, of 
of Victoria, succeeding beds of evidently terresti 
This he calls a marine gravel. It is a wide-spread i<- ^ 

~~ ~ ~ TimI in Melb° uraC 

'Oneofthelntercolom : pabbabea 



being found over hill, plair 
composing it is rounded and 
that there was evidence of too extensive and powerful an action to 
be ascribed to river floods. He adds that " very considerable areas 
imw forming dryland in Victoria have been submerged in late 
M'tiarv times is' unquestionable, ami 1 believe that most if not all 
l .ll.i j^old nra\« K if not al M.lut 1\ < f i ' I" such cause, ha\e at 
least been subjected to its influence, and in that case must be 
!'■ | Aided as marine."* In answer to this, one might say that no 
HHine remains are known to us of such a character. 2nd — That 
these gravel beds are very often found hundreds of feet above the 
IfwJ to which we know the tertiary submergence extended, viz. 
about 600 feet. 3rd— That 1 1 «' apparent than 

real. 4th— That they of tenet ■ ;iUl1 regetab* 

remains. 5th— 1 I veil have been derived from 

the weathering of the carbonaceous conglomerates before the land 
was submerged at all. 6th— Finally, they may be the remains ot 
a terrestrial" formation such as I shall now describe. 

H&wan eolian strata.— It has already been remarked that m 
many places in Europe there exists a recent formation at various 
altitudes which is more like a fresh-water deposit than any other, 
tot yet found ii 

explanation. Th re deposits of an 

argillaceous fine gravel, n on tertiary beds. 

within 500 feet of the strata. A similar deposit is described in tl e 
Grecian Archipelago. It is a reddish 

atthe highest altitudes. The explanation of these and Minn >>' J •■ - 
^ been given by Mons. Virlet-dAoust as the result of his obser- 
MVxico f 
W. Virht-d'Aou.t tir.t remarked in M.xi- o a yellow d.- r it 
of clay or argillaceous marl, which not only completely enveloped 
I '■> 'hi isolate lv volcanoes, but also consti- 

1 the sides and base of several chains of r 
, Cetlater 



°f Papocaler.f.11 r. 1 1 .i , ,..H , . „l ( »•!/.■, 1 , / 1 7..°. 70 f< et). This forn 

te igbt of a 

?»'*ia% inks lower part a thickness of fr. 

^ deposit is somewhat of a miscellaneous c 

- -ti..;. 



Mons. Virlet-dAon 


viuminto th 

ii this w 

from the mo 


c plains 1 clow. 
as an alluvial f( 


deposit was found 
have been upheave 
fragments of potte: 
wood and plant rei 


chforiti 


cas horizontal.; 
Vs for its reoen 


mnrams. It c 
ind in any case 

r upheaval by ^ 



none of them have reached r ; <■ h.-L'l t m whit I) this <H> - 
found. At last .imiItu- -it « ■ -i — \\ is l.mnd in the dust-storms 
which are exceptionally violent and frequent in this region. The 
whole plateau is distinguished by immense whirl v. i 
" remolinos de polvo," as they are here called, which ate v.i... ■ - 
along from various points on all fine days, carrying up m their 
course stones of very considerable size and other objects. These 
were thrown to heights of nearly 2,000 feet above the plain- 
Often the higher stratum of the air is rendered quite lite a 
yellowish cloud from the quantity of dust remai 

I need not give all the arguments or the detail- -f I'l' 1 
which fstablisl bevMiid :i d-,i[bi tiiai the r'< .nuation is an aerial 
one. The able observer who thus explains the formation draw 
attention to the fact that there arc many similar deposits, ijj 
also remarks that if the intennittent effect of win 
produce such a result, how mm-h more vast and regular would® 
the effects in th 

and strong hil.pa in^ov, ,1. . _>■ Thus in China, th 

trade win.U ■ , : • Ucsert of Gobi often bring* 

Dr. Macgowan describes ■ ral hours, and *» 

so dense as to hide the sun. 

At Fontaineb/mi'.—Tlu- sandstone of Fontainebleau 1 



. 



t geologists 






anVl a ,-cuhar hydrocar^ 
:,! in ,],, sand-dunes of «? 

. .ru:lV. Slid'' '-■■• 

l ' ,'; i Tin '-i; d. - 
L f,lieali..,l ai 

. ! ",o',-Vs an<l ■ 



to the mi 

f'm,j that 
th- Lane 



THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. M 

Conglomerates. — The only question which still remains to be 
dealt with in dealing with these sands is the presence of pebbles 
and conglomerates. These latter cannot be attributed to wind. 
Tli it the smaller linos of pebbles are aerial I make no doubt. 
Until I began to investigate the subject I had no idea how easily 
pebbles are borne along and up into the air by strong winds. On 
every windy day for the last two years, whenever I could, I have 
been out amongst the dust examinii s I ■ h« i - of stones formed 
by the wind, and watching or stopping the pebbles as they were 
swept by. All those of large size and shape I put aside for com- 
parison, and it was surprising how much the dimensions of some 
exceeded my expectation. The conclusions I have conic to are 
that a very 'small amount of wind action is sufficient to round the 
edges of very hard pebbles : that the abrasion is even more rapid 
than in water, and the result -very similar. Some are completely 
rounded like water-worn pebbles. It is not necessary to suppose 
that these pebbles were more than rolled up the gradual slope of 
the dunes, a slope which always exists on the windward ~ide. 
The broad and Hat stones in the sandstone ar of 1 rger s e 
from their being more easily carried along. It is not at all an 
uncommon thing for a strong wind to lift up and carry along 
pebbles of an inch or :1 little more in length and half an inch thick. 
Ut it be further borne in mind that except in the lowest strata, 
pebbles are rare, and those that are found are very small and only 
such as would I the wind. 

Whatever be the origin of the conglomerates, those of large 
^e or great extent are only common at the base of the forma- 
tion. They belong more to the coal measures than the sandstone. 
Ah 1 the other instam s can well b. ic< ounted for by (1) the action 
^ creeks, of which there must have been many : ( 2) extraordinary 
***S or tornadoes ; (3) concretionary action. That the latter is 

ii; an iiisignifi ant » i ise can < tsilv b si en from the experiments 

T s < mis us M< m ier, who found lo tin infiltration of chloride 
tflime and silicate of potash through heated loose sand, that 
concretions v.eiv r.midl'v forme,!. AecM-m revealed another 
Justration. Duih u • of l\u - d * -heaped upon the 

fl «or of the Go, ,1< an len the effect of the shells 

, th« l,„1lri;™ A Wn of this sand layjit the foot of 



aa immense bio. d an Portugal. Th< 

^ „and that .. _, 
, portions of which were exceedingly! nh like 



flowing from the iron on to the stone deposited so much hydrated 
^de of iron on r, in i gular - msoh- 



84 THE HAWKESI 

Concretions. — Concretions or fragments of rock broken small 
and the edges abraded present pebbles of every variety of colour 
and apparent consistency. This can be easily seen by the examina- 
tion of pebbles at the bottom of any stream. The river Medway 
in Central Queensland flow n every re* ' 

like the Hawkesburv samUoi ■. thou-h it niav be older, as r - 
full of impressions of /. r i,/,,.l .,,!, ,„. unthua and other plants 
The pebbles at the bottom of the stream are of every colour, and 
differ much in mineral character. Some have come from a dis- 
tance, but not many, as the river is rarely anything but a mere 
brook. The conclusion [ u . from this fact is that it ^ !l 
impossible to account for the conglomerates by even wind action. 
Supposing a wind-blown sand to become much altered and con- 
creted. This always takes place by pressure, moisture, and other 
metamorphic processes which we are not able to estii it 
case, but whose action is evident. Let the sandstone be disin- 
tegrated by simple aerial weathering. This is no forced hypothesis. 
The thing is ever takii, - pia.e m the arid deserts of the world. 



3ST0NE. 85 

sandstone which abounds in other parts of the continent. Where 
tin* strata contained a great deal of iron, there were formed siliceous 
concretions which iv>isted ,]«■,•,, mpusition, while the rest of the 
rock fell away. * * * The red sand is certainly derived from a 
Mtagmotu sandstone. And if it be asked how the ridges should 
be so high and uneven, and the plains so low and flat, I answer 
niat when the strata decomposed, the lighter portions drifted away 
into ndges. leaving the heavier remains scattered below on the 
plains.' If the sand di fts a- ino\ i these plains, and consolidates 
as it may easily do, we should have a wind-Mown sandstone rock 



be found over thousands of square miles, as it actually is so 
found in Central Australia, but no amount of ocean or river 
action that we know would produce such results. It is thus I 
offer to explain the wide-a - 1 1 h * e find 

lying on the coal formation with very little change of character 
over thousands of s.pmn- miles. Near Warwick and Stanthorpe, 
|n Queensland, they are cemented together ; at the Liverpool Range 
ui New South Wales they are often found loosely aggregated. At 
111 Endeavour Eiver tlit saim f tares manifest themselves, just as 
they do at the base of the l.lue Mountains. A coast line might 
Produce such a shingle, hut then.- it w<> Id be of small width, and 
' should 1 ml imiri] « rem di s. \ ] i, h here we do not. An ocean 
w <*ldnot produce such results, and nothing of less extent than 
an ocean will meet the requirements of such an area ; and then 
the presence of land plants, and the absence of marine remains, 
Jain to destroy the ocean theory. 

. Tee action.— 1 have now a few words to say about the ice explana- 
n ; ,! > for these rocks. It is true that there is a very scanty amount 

1 tessds found in marine ice deposits, and also that tie y are quite 
^anting from some glacial beds : but. as a distinguished geolo- 
8«* has observed,— if we have not fossils, we have signs or marks, 
Jucn are as clear indications of ice action as marine shells are of 
^presence of the sea. These indications are— (1) Till; (2) Mor- 
aines; (3) Glacial mud: (4) Boulder clay; (5) Ice grooves, 
matches and polhhin-. '/';/' is a deposit of excessively dense 
<%, stuck as full as it can hold of . ,i ■ -, of all sizes, which are 
'•"t arranged in anv order, but look as if thev had been forced and 
?mmed in anyhow ! - tnd little, i . tl : u d rounded together, 
jnose fragments which are rounded, and in fact nearly all of them, 
ow ice scratching and polishing Moraines are confused masses 

* e ™ and stone 1 to size, weight, 

• shape. The fragments are less grooved or scratched than m 

«e till, because they have ridden on the top of the glacier j but 

J e y are always arranged in lines along a valley, or in a horseshoe- 
st *ped heap across the em . : is an < J 



86 THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

fine deposit of clay derived from streams issuing from the base of 
glaciers. It is formed by the impalpable mud which represents 
rocks ground down by glacier action. Boulder clay is a deposit 
formed partly by the drainage from glaciers, and partly of trans- 
ported blocks of large size and various kinds of rocks. Boulder 
clay is stratified, but the stratification is often thiown into kft 
folds and wrinkles, and ploughed up as it were on a gigantic scale 
by the former stranding of icebergs. 

I do not think it necessary to go into detail in this matter any 
more than to say that we have none of these formations in the 
Hawkesbury rocks. The sand is utterly unlike any ice_ clay, and 
so are the included fragments. We have no bu 
scratches and grooves. Mr. Wilkinson mentions one instance of 
boulders which he attributes to ice action— this has been already 
referred to— and alludes to another which he does not d® c ™*- 
But if the ice interpretation were the correct one they should be 
the rule and not a ran; exception in tlir.-e vn-r di-pn-m. 1 '-'■ 
every confidence in the wide experience and conscientious observa- 
tions of my esteemed and learned friend the Government Geologist, 
liffer from him in the interpretation of these tacts. 



uiries as well as on a 



But another difficulty is, that these glaciers must have co ^ 
from an enormously high land to produce them on so gran 
scale. We have no evidence that there has ever been sncn 
mountain range. If there had been, it must have disappear 
under a great and rapid subsidence. Yet it is upheaval, not 
sidence, which we want, to account for the presence or 
sandstone 3,000 feet and more above the sea. XI 
in all geology for the app< m rta tee of nioun 

ranges in this manner. Moreover, we find this deposit ^7^ 
the tropics, and where is th< 

climatic changesl Finally, ice action is certainly uniavou 
to the formation of coal and the. luxuriant growth ot tern , . 
these are the common remains in the sandstone. But , ^ 
do not think it is necessary to pursue this part of the subjet 
farther. 

Conclusion—It these Hawkesbury rocks are the slow **^ 
lation of aerial deposits since their uj. 
in them & nonu the extreme antiquity rf 



the Mesozoic neriod. The plants give us no great clue. They are 
those which belong to the Upper Coal basin, such as Thiuufthlia 
odontopleroides. Probably the beds went on accumulating long 
after this ; or the plant may have a long range in its life history. 
We cannot fix any age for these beds. Similar deposits overlay 
marine beds with chalk fossils in Queensland These cretaceous 
deposits are inclined at angles of between 20° and 30°. We have 
no such beds here in Now Smith Wales. The beds with Thlnn- 
feldiain Queensland aiv similarly disturbed, so that the Hawkes- 
bury sandstone has been less motions of other 

parts of the continent. Here then we may suppose has survived 
that ancient fauna and flora which represents a long past epoch in 
the world's natural history and perhaps a link which connects 
us with the present time. Whatever disturbance there has 
heen relates to the period of volcanic activity. This was shared 
hy all the caster] 1 f of . . tin* in tertiary times. Some 
of these lavas have burst tin I the strata and 

now form the highest parts of the range. This outburst of vol- 
canic matter on s , .'as no doubt attended with 
an alteration in II as the watershed. We 
nave daily increasing evidence of what the flora was, from the 
vegetable fossils which . ■ i ing e: humed from beneath the beds 
of volcanic ash. It was qui* ii grows around 
us now, as far as the fossils will guide us. I may thus summarize 
the results of this essay :— 

. 1. That the Hawkesbury sandstone is a wind-blown formation, 
interspersed with lagoons and morasses, with impure peat. 

2. That there has been no upheaval, but rather a subsidence, 
*nich probably extends from the base of the range to the sea. 

3. That the peculiar lamination of the beds is due to the angle 
a t which dry sand slips and rests when blown by the wind. 

. 4 - The beds of ironstone represent vegetable matter destroyed 
"* oxidizing the 1 so few plant remains are 

found- ' 

5. The irregular layers of the sandstone formation probably 
present what was a tranquil portion of the surface for a time, 
? a y nic h there may have been a vegetable growth now represented 
b 7 ironstone bands. 

, 6 - The smaller gravel may be wind-blown ; the larger may have 
°een derived from creeks. This is also the origin of the fragments 

s hale. The creeks have undermined them and broken them up. 

'• Conglomerates may have been derived from stony deserts, 
J** as we have in t 

J e stones , : t rom w hich 

blo *n awav. 



SANDSTONE. 

8. The precipitous cliffs of the Blue Mountains are t 
central cores of sandhills, the loose portions of which ha 
easily blown or washed away. 

9. That in all respects the sandstone is like many deser 
3 of the interior. 

desert re-ion lias existed in .\ 




of knowing the e 
ancient desert, as there has been subsidence on that side. 

13. This formation differs but slightly from other an 

extensive aerial one's in other countries, especially in . 
China, Arabia, &c. 

14. There is no evidence of ice-action, and all the J 

f i s ire again i« h a sui no it ion. 



APPENDIX. 

The following illustration of an eolian rock in the oft-cited case 

- : 

Bermuda.— From "Notes by a Naturalist on the 'Challenger'' 
By H. N. Moseley, M.A., F.R.S. ; page 18. 
The islands are almost entirely composed of ' 
Band, more or less consolidated into hard rock. ! ' 
and especially at Tuekeisiov, n and Klbow Hay, tlrl " ''^'/i' 
siderable tracts covet >d with i . 1 n ml-du i -. s " m ' ot \ 
are encroaching ad, and ha ^ 

whelmed at Mbo* Bay a cottage, the chimnt 
now to be seen above the sand. The c< 1 1 
is prevented by the growth upon them of sever* 
amongst v.-H I 

penetrating root-fibres, is the mu,i elfieieiit, a -' 
Ipomcea pes caprce. When these bi 
removed the sand it on. heg n to ' " 

■ h ,. thro igh < f some aneien 



The sand may be seen to be made up in 


by far its « 


greater 


part of the shells of mollusca. 


Sp-Cies ,t 






and Area, contribute most largely 








with large quantities of pink-colon 


red frajiiiM 


■nts derived 1 


■rom a 




t the islam 












iber of 








careful 


f 'X;imiuation would reveal the pr< 






Libes of 


Serptilie, corals, calcareous algas, B 


n/nma. aii( 


I'Cirrhiped,. 


shells ; 
lerive.1 








from the shells of mollusca.* Tin 


I. .! H.l 




ions of 


]>«'i'inu.la and its natural breakwatei 










, . : th. 


: part above v 




mostly derived from another sourci 




below the wa 


„ter the 


Millie is the ease for some distance, 




ne beds of sandstone 


were met with in an excavation carried to a depth of 50 feet. 


Hie sheila more or less broken 


are thrown 


up upon the beach 


^d there pounded by the surf. 1 


Is the tide 


recedes the re 


articles 




the .sun, ai 




















luiioniv-d. 


.posits it as a i 


■ 






ive showers 




'•''' ' av W add^^S^ 


.e charged more, some les> 


- 




,n the surface 


S of the 


i!.ickness°pTOduce a 


■ " 


ery thin, hard layers 


"i the mass of sand, alternating wit] 


t seams of 1 


' 


edsand 






rfaees of ftvs 


h sand- 


**<*. These layers or strata of t! 




I sand follow 


in form 



^position, some being ^hdyforSiniferous. 
«t- The Process is described by Jukes, in his account c 
V oyageofthe'Fly > "'p. 339. 



90 THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

the contour of the dimes, and thus, where these have been perfect 
domes or mounds, dip outwards in all directions, with curved 
surfaces from a central vertical axis. Such an arrangement is 
constantly to be seen where sections of the older rocks are exposed 
I saw especially good instances of it in a small island, near < V 
Island in UYtnii -ion Sound. Where I ,a i , L , or long ridges of sand 
have been fori, i | , ieSt biffi 

tion are produced. 

All kinds of curious irregularities in arrangement are to be found 
in the bedding of the stra i from the encroach- 

ment of one dune upon th<> ed U e of another, or the action of 
various eddies of wind, or the burying of a small dune in tIl- 
edge of a larger one. In some cases an already hardened done, 
after having suffered denudation bv the action of the waves, 1^ 
become buried in a more recent "wind mound, and this proa- 
may have been repealed several time , as the accompany^ 
diagram showing the arrangement of bedding in some rocks a: 
! lstl ° Hu! " " will I, v. | saw no rock in Ih-ri.iiida witl 
inclination in its bedding of more than 35° 30' which is not iu« cl! 
more than the slope of some of the sand-hills. ' 

Dana terms this calcareous sand rode " drift-sand rock"* 

Nelson terms it "eolian formation," in his account of the 
geology of the Bermudas.! 

Jukes observed that in Heron Island the main strata of cal- 
careous rock composing the island dipped outwards from the 

: , ' ' :•. . ■■.-:. -::"- ' 

witn an inclination of from 8° to 10°, and Nelson observed similar 
dispositions of the strata at Bermuda. 

The rock at Bermuda presents all degrees of consolidation, k°® 
beds of mere „ iremdy If* £ 

pact stone. The main c , d softer * 

Bath stone. A much I two places mP 

islands only, and is quarri ion efforts. f* 

red fragments of ,s>„ , ;/ 7„ s dull 
£ Abedoflignitc^innrA-M a depth of 10 i 
level in excav. | evident 

ancient peat b, i 'o, ( ui mth - 

overwhelmed w ith sand ary sand rocks, » 

conglomerate- i, M \ ine places cow- 



* Dana, Corah and Coral 1 
Mr*! Nelson, 



the hawkesbury sandstone. ^l 

Discussion. 
Mr. Wilkinson, Government Geologist, read his paper in reply, 
as follows :— I feel it incumbent upon me to offer a few remarks 
upon the able and interesting paper which has been read, because 
in it Mr. Tenison-Wooda hi a pu before us a theory not only 
opposed to the views rut. riaii 1 l.y .ill previous observers as to 
the aqueous origin of the Ha • but also to the 

supposed evidence which I had the honor of bringing under the 
notice of this Society, of ice action having been concerned in the 
deposition of these rocks. 

I am sure Mr. Tenison- Woods is desirous that we should 
freely express our views upon this very interesting question, for 
he kindly gave me a copy of his paper several days before it fU 

The paper, as you have heard, deals largely with the formation 
of blown sand deposits : and tl des pti m l. \ n of these is, in 
nearly all respects, very accurate. I may, perhaps, he justified m 
thus endorsing Mr. Tenison-Wonds' d. - i ipt .11. s. ing th it 1 have 
made many examinations of blown sand deposits dunng the past 
twenty years. I shall not, therefore, dwell further upon this part 
of the paper, but I must take exception to the theory he now 
propounds. Were it not that I have made cuivf:- 
oftheHawkesln;: • l might have 

had some reluctance in questioning the opinion of such an 
eminent scientific observer ; and seeing that Mr. Tenison- Woods 
has happily s iven us a case in point, where Darwin's theory as 
to the formation or '- has been prove,! built v. 

I venture to be a little presumptuous, and say that my friends 
theory may be at fault also. . __ 

Mr. Tenison- Woods thus - ''■* lus essa y. : 

J 1. That the Hawkesbury sandstone is a wind-blown formation 
"'trrsp.Tscd with lagoons and morasses, with impure p-at. I 
do not question the possibility of blown sand deposits occupying as 
extensive or even a larger area than that of the Hawkesbury 
formation. For instance, even in the Herbert and Diamantma 
district, beyond Cooper's Creek, there is a vast area, several 
hundred miles in extent, covered at intervals with blown sand 
*<%es in the course of formation. My assistant, Mr. J. X. 
Came, who has . I country, informs me that 

some of the sand ridges res ei ! -ankments, and 

J* for a distanced 12 *■ They vary 

fr om 200 to 500 yards in width, and are about 60 feet high, 
»»d generally lie in the direction of the prevailing winds. -Between 
them are mud tl, ■ a. In the dry gather the 

m «d cracks, and numerous large and deep fissures open m all 
Sections, so that in places you cannot ride across them, but ha\e 



to take a circuitous route along the flanks of the sand ridges. 
The sand is of a rod colour, and is evidently derived from the 
ferruginous quartzite rocks (probably Cretaceous), which, in a very 
fragmentary state, crop out at intervals, and form the Downs. I 
may mention ai ough bul a small one, with 

which you all are familiar. The valley lying between Sydney and 
Botany Bay is partly filled with blown sand deposits, while Iht 1 
and there occur small lagoons, in whirl, carbonaceous sediment is 
accumulating. To a certain extent this illustration may serve to 
show sandstones and irr. _ul n -' 1 b b in p ..cess of formation; 
but only in a small degree will they resemble the sandstones and 
shales of the Hawkesbury formation. The Hon. Francis Lord 
informs me that on the ' *posed *• , : 

easterly winds, the sand dunes have risen 10 feet during the last 
sixteen years, burying up as they advance on the lee side the t 
and other vegetation. You cannot but be struck with the un- 
dulating and liillv surface of the,.,, blown sand areas. Now,* 
you look at the beautiful section^ exposed in the cliffs along the 
Bondi coast, or in the smaller dills fringing tl, 
still, in those magnificent pn-eipie.-s in the lUue Mountains, w 
most prominent feature that you will notice is the horizon^ 
stratitieation of the beds of sandstone: in fact, the i 
main lines of stratification is a pr< vailing featur* in ~ ] ' lu " 
bun formation, and this alon< i. ex id. nu of tie 1 d,hau»r 
fl -posit. (1 n i.ler wat. r. But in wind blown foi 
fication is seldom seen to extend for more than a few yarns. ^ 

Then, as regards the thinly-laminated shales, 
sandy ironstone shales, which sometimes occu 
main beds of sandstone, I do not see the nee. 
their origin to dust-storms; for, in their h 
they exactly resemble the aqueous rocks of the 
and other formations. Then, again, there an 
shale beds, which Mr. T.-ni-.n- Woods believes to be ot aq ^ 
origin, and to have been formed in lagoons or ^orasse . ^ 
if you will closely examine these deposits— and tt^^ 
many instances of them to be seen in the quarries and ^ 
about Sydney— I think you will come to the 
after the sand had been laid down, strong I- 

.:■'.. ' ^ - e ■ ; 

tl-flneearthvmnUer.hiehe.euMne, -nl.-in 

drifted the sand along, now settled down in tin- 

and so far tilled ,1.,,,, up, until reeur.ing currents «ther 

up the layers of , . ,d. , ,.',,,. ,!,; ; . i ,1, ,, with ft« J^g, 

of sand and pebbles. The evidence of such changes , W ^ 

place is very clear. I will adduce further proof ot uu^j tf 

origin of the Hawkesbury s< -ins, in replymg 1 



the other « 



THE HAWKESBURT SANDSTONE. 93 

The second conclusion is, "That there has been no upheaval, 
but rather a subsidence, which probably extends from the base of 
the range to the sea." This question does not bear directly upon 
the mode of deposition of the sandstones, excepting as tending to 
show that the rocks now below sea-level, if of wind-blown forma- 
tion, must have subsided. It has always been the opinion of 



y a horizontal position. But then the same remark 
io the Lower Goal " oewWaltoMr 

i elevation of 3.000 feet above sea-level, and are hill ot 
d other marine fowl remain. Tin v b, ds exhibit no 
sturbanee, their bed d i , i, u a 1. 1 ri outal, like that 
ft-kesbun rocks overlving them, and yet tlu upheaval 
omthe sea is unquestionable. In a sum ir mai n r 
mnd above sea-level in the Wollongong and Kiaina 

TJi^uinX ,' - they lme 

J disturbed and tilt, d up, as n- ar Maitland, we hud no 
ry rocks for it i- locality the over- 

have been removed bv denudation. At Mittaaong. on 
8 , rl j. .,. L g -, M'achvte which 

rill near th< a * through both 





tality of the 




■xce } 




haps, ii 




• see that th 




Mesc 








, which exa 


aids ini 


o this Cole 


.ny ab. 


I>arUng and Mount 


Poole distri 




beei 


' 














. The third concha 


the angkat 


that th 


e pe< 


juliar 


lamim 


J^m support the tin 






saiac: 


ier of 


th--- i 


b ury sandstones. T 










be-bed. 


rt is usually called, i 












eolian rocks, but it i 


is met with in almost 


all 


Verim 


., • try 


^mw, whether of n: 












m dicative of more oi 












86611 it frequently i 


n different aqueous i 


•onm. 




Mr. 



94 TIIE IIAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

F.E.S., formerly Director of the Geological Survey of Victoria, 
and at present the Director of the Can.idnu Minn, «W In- 
experience in geological surveying slmuM entitle him to be con- 
sidered one of v a upon the structure of rocks, 
speaking of the Mesozoic Carbonaceous formation iu\:;:v. 
says, "The character of Hi indicates that they 
have been formed in shallow water, under the influence of strong 



stantly -varying c 



iagonal and 



.ion or 'false-bedding.'" The forma; 
ivf.nvd to, whi - 1 lui\ «■ examined and surveyed in the C 
Otway, Geelong, and Gippsl md <.i.t,nt . < .agists not only of si 
stone and shales, but of beds of coarse pebble c 
Selwyn also mentions that much '• f.-i < heddinif i* observaui 

ling' is a proof of frequent diunge in the direction 
velocity of the currents which brought the s.md and gravel 
the water. * * Such , p i m,,s ,-, ndh Indict. sLa 
water, and are often seen in cutiin- through an old estuar 



delta." Dana, in < 


[,■ rii>ii - 


from river and ocear 




to sand-flats, such at 




50 to 80 miles wide 




tion), says, " The sti 




surface of the fiat, I 


^.Ub, ti, 


this surface, consequ 


ently the 


so. The sand beds, 


vh-iv, in 


the tidal currents, 


have ofte 


Where there are stn 


ong flows 


mainland, or among groups 


part pebbly, and obi 


! ; 



- 



point, and tends to show ;.h ' <■ to currents 

of water. The prevailing direction of tin- din of tin- false-bedding 
is towards the north-east, slow lng tliat the currents came from the 
south-west ; hut there are often seen beds with the dip towards 

Mr. Ten i son - V- . 4 and 5 refer to the origin 
of the ironstones. I do not consider that the irregular bands 
ioned repi it old ' d stu ees, for the bands not only 
curve in all positions but are sometimes vertical. They may be 
well seen in the cuttings all rn Railway be- 
tween Penrith and Lithgow. Most of them have been for 1 

from the oxidation of iron in solution in the water, permeating 
the sandstones and shales and the joints traversing them. Pro- 
fessor Liversidge has made analyses of these ferruginous hands. 

Conclusion 6 states that "the smaller gravel may be wind- 
blown, the larger may have been derived from creeks. 'This is also 
the origin of the fragments of shale. The creeks have undermined 
them, and broken them up.'' The smaller and larger gravels are 
included in such a maimer in th- sandstone beds that they have 
evidently been brought by the same currents that transported 
the sand, and which 1 have already alluded to. It is very un- 
usual to find creeks traversing for any great distance blown sand 
beds for such a distance as these must have done, for the rounded 
pebbles of the larger gravel (which are sometimes o\er 6 inches 
a diameter) cons - rte, silicious slate, 

l$j which may have been derived from the Hartley ranges, some 
' ' m il' - dist tut, v, hi. h are the in an st format! -us of the character 
°r the pebbles. Amongst tic of wind-blown 

jands it is very in eks would have 

been sufficiently constant to have enabled pebbles to have been 
conveyed by them for such a distance ; whereas the transport of 
: . currents, and 

their deposition in the manner in which we find these, is well 
jaown. As *■■ . if vou closely examine 

^eirniode of occurrence vou will sec- that they have not been 
"^■i-mmed b\ en . k. s f , ■ 'mans oi the fra-rm. uts lie immediately 
ab °ve beds of shale that have not been disturbed. The sketch 
Placed before you shows one of the fragments, 12 feet in length, 



*y represent all the stones of a sand : iii ■ ii^rs-i.- from wh 

e sand has been blown awav '' It is impossible that 

^omeratesi I ave been derr 

he manner just mentioned. To satisfy this theory 



bes must occur at the base of the series ; but they do no 
Eounded pebbles are certainly found all through the series fro 
bottom to top, but the conglomerates occ n \ ri 1 n dl\ in tin , 
most portions. Our fori,, President \Hk»k 

Rev. W. B. Clarke) mentions this fact in the passage quoted 1 
Mr. Tenison- Woods at the commencement of his paper jand I '<:" 
also states that the pebbles increase in numbe 
upper beds. I have examined many sections of the Hawk*!! 
formation and have not observed conglomerates at it> I* 
Near Govett's Leap the conglomerates are cemented by u • ; 
manganese oxides ; the pebbles are generally small, but some 
them are over 2 inches in diameter; a epoch 
this locality containing a hard sandstone pebble is now on t! 
table before you. 1 also exhibit specimens of the conglomera 
from the "Woollooniooloo quarries, as they well show the diflere 
kinds of the large pebbles, as well as the ang 
shale. As you approach the western margin'': 
formation, near Marulan, you will find the upper sandstone be 
gradually pass into massive pebble conglomerates of great tnic 
ness. This is just what we should expect to find on the niarg 
of an old estuary or lake. In the cliffs at Bondi, and elsewW 
about Sydney, you may see small beds, 3 feet thick, or F 
In their mode of arrangement the _ pebbles 
plainly seen to have been deposited by aqueous agencies. 

Conclusion 8. "The precipitous cliffs of the Blue M< ■''••■ : '■■•/■ ' 
the hard central cores of sandhills, the loose portions oi * 
have been easily blown or washed away." The honzonta J 
the beds and their structure, which 1 have already de.cn>" ■■ 
obviously against such a supposition as that now staO-d : ^ 
not therefore again refer to this. The precipitous dirt- " r ^- 
stone, and the sloping surfaces of th< 
where exposed, plainly indicate the nature of a t 
that have giv ;■;<■ shapes. Dut u> ta.- 

the subject of : ning nu t, of the r n " :iX \^\ 

which furrow both sides of the Main Dividing Range, an ^ 
views have already been published in the " N' • "' r . 
Railway Guide-book," I will not enter upon the siibjeG | 

Conclusions 9 and 10.— "That in all r< -poets tin «" ' " 
like many desert formations of the interior," and " \ hA }\ " 
and arid or desert region has existed in A 
times, while to the no, - 

sea," In reference to these conclusions I will only rem ** 
many of the " desert for; ,ln lH ,"\ j '<■: 

resemble .the Hawkesbury formation, then, fi 
already seen of this foniuiti-.., I \-.-i\ much question uk- 



we know that after the Cretaeeous 
and during the T< n ity was mani- 

fested along the elevated land which forms the Great Dividing 
linage ; but with the exception of a few places along the crest of 
this range, I do not think that these eruptions altered the drain- 
age, for we find that the old Tertiary drainage channels, or 
"leads," as the miners call them, took the same direction as the 
present ones ; and the present range of Paleozoic rocks which ex- 
tends through this Colony and Queensland, and the lateral range 
which branches off from it nea . s away to the 

Grey Range, must have existed in Mesozoic times, as they evi- 
dently formed the eastern and part of the southern margin of the 
Cretaceous sea. 

Conclusions 12 and 13 T need not now refer to. No. 14 states 
that "there is no r\i,hmoo of i<v aeiion, and all the physical 
features are against snch a supposition." Now, the mode of 
occurrence of tin ■ •, which I described in 

a paper which I had the honor of reading before the Society last 
7ear, I can only attribute to the ad ton of ice. I do not see that 
^e physical features of the period when the Hawkesbury rocks 
were deposited may have be* i . ■_ tii si this - ipposition; on the 
contrary, I think tie 'V loav have favoured it. fur on the western 
jaargin f the Hawk,' .bury area, ni ar \\ wenfells, ve bind that at 
«ast a thickness of 10,000 feet of the Devonian formation has 
been removed by denudation. This is no supposition; it is fact, 
Pertained by actual meat • strata* as shown 

jjpon my geological map of that district. What may not then 
jjave been the denudation of the remaining margin of the Hawkes- 
b jry area? Besides, W e do not know the extent of the subsidence , 
?* the eastern margin of the Ilawkesburv an -a. as Mr. Tenison- 
Woods has justly stated in his Lihh cwhisi 1 do not look for 

Jty of the signs of ice action mentioned by Mr. Teauaca-Wooda, 
bllt I do for certain sigi s th it la has m nenti med, and they are 

hp signs of i/i-ound v At different h els in tin series in thm 
j^s of shale, and the saiulst.m.'s immediately above these shale 
P 3 frequently enclose angular boulders of all sizes up t nn 

f et °r more in diameter. These boulders have l>een torn up 
j. 1<? underlying UmI.s of shah md embedded in i very coni 

■ and mode of occurrence of I 

..f oft hale ,wd,uth hh.'.s ih^t the shale beds 1 
f^ been disturb,, I by muvin- iee. Professor Julius von Haast, \ 
J h jI>.,F.Rls, Dip • .aim, New Zealand, 1 

48 a lso examined these boulder beds, and expressed to me his I 



opinion that the underlying shales have been broken up by 
'■ ground ii < ' in DcuimImi. 1^7','. I l 1 l l' ' 

subject to the Royal Soci, t\ ..t N.w South Wales, and Pr<-r- 
W. J. Stephens, M.A., communicated to the Linnean Society ot 
New South Wales the results of similar obs< 
himself of the Hawkesbury rocks in the Upper Nepean district 

Professor Stephens said : When I heard last Wednesday a most 
ingenious account mid by Mr. Woods on the geology of our sand- 
stone, I felt I should like to have some opportunil 
at least one or two details, but as tin- tune w.i- -h-rt wi ^ 
evening, it was suggested and resolved tliat th. 
be deferred to an adjourned m.-.-ting. On Sate) 



Now. so far as a 
or calcareous matter iiiv alone m-arded. thi- i 
probability correct- and thus -V far as the formation oi_ 
Hawkesbury rockYi, al n ■ ul d r , .^deration, the a*"** 
which depends upon it is jn.t. Hut 1 do nor 
Tenison-Woods needs to be reminded that the same obser*^ 
late Profes,or Sir (J. Wyvili,. Thomson, F.R.S, who was 



HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 



absolute and universal applic 

Under the head of Stratification, Mr, IV nison- Woods gives an 
account of the false-bedding or oblique lamination so character- 
istic of the Hawkesbury sandstones, and insists with perfect justice 
on the extreme prevalence of this phenomenon in their stratifi- 
cation. On one point, however, I must express my doubts. He 
states that " the irregularity of the dip of the false-bedding is 
surprising; in a few feet the dip will vary in almost every direc- 
tion and angle, though rarely at a greater one than 25°." Now, 
I have for many years habitually examined every example of false- 
bedding that has fallen under my notice; but I have done this 
only in order to see in what direction these particular sands were 
moving when they formed these lamina;, or, in other words, accord- 
ing to my own view of the formation, to ascertain what was the 
general direction of the currents which drifted the said sand. 
Consequently I never took special note of the amount, but only of 
the direction of dip, or, which comes to the same thing, I dis- 
regarded dip, and regarded only strike. I can, therefore, only 
state my strong impression, without actual measurement, that the 
angle of dip is almost constant, varying very little indeed. I 
should in any cas i tei Ltion to sections, as in these 

the true obliquity of lamination is only seen when the plane of 
section happens to be at right angles to the strike of the lamina?, 
the angle gradually diminishing as this plane becomes more nearly 
Parallel to the strike, until, when the section is along the line of 
strike, all obliquity' disappears. In other words, the apparent 
inclination of the laminae, as seen in section, varies from (say) 25° 
^ 0°, as the angle which the section-plane makes with the strike 
varies from 90° to 0°. This consideration has always led me to 
examine the false-bedding only where its planes are thoroughly 
exposed, as in the water-tables of mountain roads, river beds, and 
in those flagstone quarries where this structure gives special value 
*° the stone. And my impression— I am sorry that I cannot 
substitute a more positive term— after observing many hundreds 



01 examples, i ique L_ 

jonstant, and very near, but I should have thought less than i-> . 
1 am quite alive to the absurdity of opposing mere impressions to 
exact observations, and do not expect to have my general recol- 
lections weighed, even for a moment, against the statements of Mr. 
Venison- Woods ; but this impression is so strong upon my mmd, 
*at I could not , $ it before you as part of the 

defence of Water against Wind. I have not been able to leave 
Sydney since the original paper was read, and am therefore unable 



» verify my 






°r surrender the point. On this head Darwin is clearly i 



100 THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

first in stating that the dip of the laminae is frequently as high as 
45°, and, secondly, in referring them to disturbances of the sea 
during storms in which " the "bed of the ocean is heaped up during 
gales into great ripple-like furrows and depressions, which are 
afterwards cut off by the currents during more tranquil weather, 
and again furrowed during gales." For my own part, I have no 
doubt that this lamination is in general caused by the flow of water 
carrying sandy or other detritus from one level to another. As 
the grains fall over the verge they arrange themselves in sloping 
beds, descending to the lower level. This slanting front is imme- 
diately covered by another thin course, dipping at the sameangle. 
This process I have often watched in the sands of Morecambe *y ; 
It is, in fact, this drift of wind-and-water-shifted sands that 
changes with such rapidity the river courses in that estuary. 1 * 
channels are continually but gradually altering a 
the principal cause of their sudden and dangerou 
believe, the action of the wind on very thin shei ts 
ing very quick sands. And the layers so deposited are, * 
solidified, the lamina, of the oblique or cross or false striata* 
of which we have such abundant illustration in the Haw**) j 
beds. 

The broad band of red stone exposed in the upper cut J S 
the second Zigzag deserves further i 
sume to question Mr. Tenison- Woods' views as 
but only to indicate that it appears to form a distinct me ^ 
the upper beds, which may serve as a geologies 
which other portions may be referred. For not only ^ 
tinous along the range of Hassan's Walls to Bowenfels, an ^ ^ 
to Mount Victoria and t a t0 the ^ri-rbeds 

similar rock appears at the top of the Bulli Pass, and sinm rf 
of much greater thickness were pierced by the ^arnom 
Sutherland. I think that Dr. Hector was inclined to Mr^ 
that in the latter case, at least, it marked th 
Carboniferous to the Hawkesbury beds ; and though t ^^ 
the ascending scale would throw the lower portion ot ^ 0% 
cliffs into the coal measures, yet the i 

The undulating character of the true ; lit- 
is frequently u d to by Mr. l«u» ^ ^ 
And if such inv-nil ; iriti,.sof*<l.-p<^itio:. «nv : 
in the Hinl ,J,„n\ ,-,„ | ir e <_" ". r ilh * 

■■':■■■■ " '.. 



during th 

completm 

Hawkesbury beds is their principal feature. . 'A* 1 

thicken here and thin out there, and their surfaces 



completness of his demonstration ; but the horizon ^ ^ 
Hawkesbury bed, is their principal feature ■ ^^ the*** 



THE HAWKE8BURY SANDSTONE. 101 

not truly horizontal ; but they are horizontal enough to be called, 
as they are by Darwin, Clarke, and Mr. Tenison- Woods himself, 
horizontal rather than undulal ' water was con- 

cerned somehow or other in their levelling. We may admit that 
where exposed sands arc saturated at a certain depth with water, the 
friction of strong or continous Avinds will plane down all elevations 
above that horizon of saturation, and leave a surface as Hat as those 
in question ; but is i u l< aitly of water, 

should blow sands into horizontal beds ? 

Again, the material.-, of which the partings which separate 
these beds are composed are arranged in laminae, which are " thin, 
horizontal, and rather difficult to trace." They are sometimes not 
to be traced at all ; and, where they do exist, they may quite as 
well have been the'i <ul oi h. burying up of fresh-water algae or 
other aquatic plants by successive layers of sand under water, as 
of a similar overlaying of aland vegetation, including, I suppose 
trees, stems, and branches,, with hard woody tissue, or at least 
with nuts or the like, which might as well have been preserved in 
fhe partings, as casual fragments of the kind have been in the 
Intermediate thickness of the beds. Now, Mr. Woods does, 
indeed, allow the action of water in swamps or pools, and in 
bfc of « hich action the shales intercalated in the sandstone give 
frequent indications. They have been, he says, deposited m the 
swamps, and subsequently eroded by the creeks. And this would 
account for many, but not for all of the phenomena presented. I 
quote Darwin again : -In M-vral parts of the sandstones I no- 
ticed patches of shale, which might at the first glance have been 
jnistaken for ex: . their horizontal laminae, 

however, being parallel with those of the sandstone, showed that 
% were the remains of thin continuous beds. One such fragment 
(Probably the section of a Ion- narrow strip) seen in the face of 
a cliff, was of greater vertical Ith, which proves 

that this bed of shale must have been in some degree consolidated 
«ter having been deposited, and before being worn away by the 
cn *rents. Each patch of the shale shows also how slowly many 
°jthe successive layers of sandstone were deposited." Examples 
of simil ar erosion are common j an excellent one occurring in a 
^arry to the west of Eushcutter's Bay, which is duplicated by a 
nearly parallel section at the foot of the cliff to the east of Wol- 
io omooloo. The evidence in favour of the existence of strong 
JJtfrents of water is unmistakable. Tkey have cut channels 
rf°ugh sands and shales, and filled them up again, sometimes 
7«a stuff derived from the immediate neighbourhood, containing 
' : - ! -■■■-, of tii- already indurated beds, and sometimes with clean 
^a which may have been drifted some distance. Such rivers are 
J 01 to be found in a system of sandhills, unless the dunes be 
to nued by the river, or intervene between it and the sea. 



Wli THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

Though the sandstone is generally fine-grained, yet it often be- 
comes gritty and coarse-grained, sometimes so much so as to pass 
rather into a conglomerate. And the conglomerates of the Hawkes- 
bury rocks are, so far as my observation extends, of two distinct char- 
acters. One, in which the pebbles are chiefly or entirely of quartz, 
very imperfectly rounded and almost always cemented by iroa 
sandstone. Such rocks are common near Mount Victoria, 



Katoomba, and many other spots < 
inhere. In the immediate nej._dd.oi 



immediate neighbourhood of Sydney, however, 
there is a locality very easy of access and examination, in which 
this formation may be observed. I mean Clark Island, off Rose 
Bay. (Specimen produced.) WTj ere the iron cement is absent 
I observe the quartz pebbles to be smaller, whiter. ;md very w>i.y 
separated, as in many places about Nm-tli Head, e.g. Clifton 
Heights. The larger pebbles are often, as may be seen, traversed 
by ferruginous veins, which, however, may not have been impreg- 
nated previously to their being imbedded "in the composite mass. 
The second form of conglomerate is much rarer, is not very ferru- 
ginous, and contains larger and well rounded pebbles of vanous 
rocks or minerals. I observed a "ood instance last year, in com- 
pany with the Rev. Dr Wool!. in the <'oi of the Grose Rw». 

aboutamile, as I should guess, from the junction of the Sprmg- 
wood Creek, or two miles beb.w that of the Burralow. Itishoj 
intercalated with and passes into the sandstones, and has v* 
much the appearance of a reconstruction of the materwls ; or 
older and more massive conglomerate, such as is found a t* ' 
burndale, near Kirkconnell. It may, indeed, be supposed I uw 
the point which I have mentioned the coal measures have been 
into and exposed by the river. LVrhaps this is the fact, as 
tainly is a few miles higher up. I can only say that, ^ 
strongest desire to find indications to that purport, I waS \ ave 
obliged to acquiesce in their absence. Now, whatever may ^ 
been the origin of the tiiM da.-s or qnartz..so conglomera ^ f 
second are undoubtedly of aqueous, and in many eases proo J 
fluviatile origin. Bui ■ I,,ie loC ^*» 

may appear to be, of aerial origin, ..wing their coarseness*^ 
to thp siftinr, „..*; en • , : ...,-,.,!.., I • 






quartz beii,_- able to travel so far to the eastward, u 

i|„. whole p.-rioa <■"." 

beoottingptt 



Island. If, indeed, any of our conglomerates were composed of 
concretionary lumps. I mi-lit nr,--\,\ Mr. 'I'. r.i vm- Woods' theory 
so far as they were in question. 

Once more, as to the horizontally of the beds. The general 
slope of the original s irfaee from th base of those cmim nces, such 
as Mount King George, Blount Toinah, and Mount Hay, which 
have been preserved from denudation by their caps of basalt, down 
to the eastern escarpment, is of course determined for us by the 
summit levels of the various ridges which remain as watersheds of 
general drainage. This slope, which is at the rate of 100 feet per 
mile, presents all the appearances which would lead one to suppose 
that it was a plan ;. I am confident t!iat no 

one contemplating it for the first time could come to any other con- 
clusion. But, as Mr. Tenison- Woods justly urges, marine action 
is out of court.* The " plane of marine denudation" must there- 
fore have its nam- erased from the evidence, in spite of its extreme 
plausibility. And we shall [stake has been 

inade in this when we observe that the underlying coal measures 
slope in precisely the same manner towards the same quarter. 
Then the question occurs, — Were both formations constructed 
upon a pre-existing slope, to wdiich their own bedding was accom- 
modated ; or has there been a general movement of elevation in 
the west, and depression in the east ? I am certain from ex a min a- 
tion of the phenomena of the Hawkesbury valley that its bed must 
at one time — perhaps as far back as the period which we call Cre- 
taceous — have been several hundred feet above the sea, and that 
^}thin the Tertiary epoch it must have been at least 200 feet 
mgher than at present. These considerations induce me to con- 
cede that there has been a movement, though not perhaps to a 
Ve ry great extent, and certainly not such, either in direction or 
^tent, as to raise any marine formations above the sea, but rather 
tfi e contrary. 

The portions of Mr, Woods' paper which deal with the shape 
°* the sand-grains are exceedingly interesting and important, 
/he recrystallization, or epicrystallization of the quartz had ind.-ed 
«** previously considered by the late Bev. W. B. Clarke ; but 
n ° one, so far as I am aware, has previously attempted to apply 
10 the Hawkesbury rocks the tests of roundness and angularity, 
18 distinguishing water sands from wind sands. And although 
^etamorphic action has obliterated, as the author laments, the 
' HW4 riatic form on which he relies, there are abundant instances 
^er e the grains have remained unaltered, and testify to their 
J^gat one time or other suffered attrition, or rather contrition, 
^der i ong protracted periods of sand-drift. But though their 



sphericity testifies t 
ing by molecular d 



in thi-ir sphericity. 



,- portions may have 
-nly with reference to 
sin these rocks that 

, r hvpDtliesLslias^e 
lt ft. t. rilv accounts 
i -'■■■ Hlue Jlountain 
h'icli has now been pro- 
,. n .loubtful, ho^ff' 
';.v,,.H v similar on?*; 



of the (livid int;- mngo, from the ridge lirtwiru Cassilis and the 



sandstone, and have therefore had n<» inrluence on its deposition; 
but it is reasonable to suppose that they are only later outbreaks 
of the same energv whieh'ha'l previously formed a (possibly broken) 
range, penetral bedi in the position and 

direction above mentioned, just as the main Liverpool range does, 
running, as we see, nearly east from Casilis, and therefore almost 
at right angles to its southern extension towards the west. From 
the terminal point of this extension we see upon the map a most 
extraordinary streak of sandstone, forming the Main Dividing 
Range, but at rijit .. !•>-, ; > i i ■ s -uth-western extension of the 
range. It is like the handle of a frying-pan, when the pan itself 
represents the Ha\ k. I>ui \ I i n, and, until T 1 id the pleasure of 
bearing Mr. Teniscm Woods" paper, ap] eared to me quite inexplica- 
ble. Now, onthe eoiitrarv. ; t a] pars the most natural thine in the 
*orld. Grant tha . -rvard. blow- 

"ig for ages unci pen of tie ■ Tall „ agar, and 

rising to the crest d the dividing range at this point— itself of 
then recent ori «™ on the lee, if 

lot also on the windward side of the elevation such a stripe of sands 
--ultimately to b we find them If this vol- 

canic ridge t tended ah i to the southward— and what 

***>■ be more prol h« valle y of **"> 

Jwn and Ma© !umuk*e about it, 

to be in time also converted into sandstones, and to be capped in 
Particular points by subsequent eruptions along the same general 
J^e. The sands, or sandstones, not protected by this capping, 
ly, I am ready to believe, by 

Is' argument, I may refer to 
Samoi. In the open valley 
.no-es, there are no sandstones 
)f° carboniferous date, which 

arge nollows in the original valley 
rhite quicksand, evidently of eolian forma- 
abundant, as for example, at KiUarney 



equently removed, pari 



HAWKESBURY 



Creek and elsewhere. The only fossils I could t 

are obscure remains of veg h a few wei 

fragments of cycadaceous plants Here, 1 repeat, in the broad 
open valley which runs without ; break up to the head of 
Breeza Plains, or ratlier to the (hip, where there is a station on 
the Narrabri railway line, there areno sand-hills worth mentioumir; 
but to the southward of J 5o^ ] i. n hrre the rau-es which ^jan; 
the Terrabeile Creek from the liriiralow formal break-wind, v 
have a capping of undoubtedly 'eoliau sandstone. This, the 
Willela range, has a very gradual slope to the west, but ends in a 
very steep escarpment upon the east, resting there upon beds of 
shale which are so ferruginous as to deserve the name of iron ore, 
and which overlie eonfonnal.lv the sandstone and conglomerates 
which there cover very thinly the actual coal. These rocks a . 

something like some of the upper beds of the Ua* kesbun r 

between Blue Mountain line and Mount Victoria ; but they are 
not indurated like the greater part of the formation, and are much 
shallower. From their position, overlying as they do the Carboni- 
ferous beds, they may be really coeval with the Hawkesbury's, 
and the vegetation is very similar though richer. 

At the same time, the general appearance of the stratification 
and composition of the rod la range is so very 

different from that of any portion of the Hawkesbury BerioW J • 
while I admit that its geog I evidently eohan 

character sene to illustrate, and to a certain extent to corro- 
borate the views which Mr. Tenison- Woods has so vigorous} 
maintained, [ am nevertheless hound to fix my attention upon 
the points of d m on ,j^ e ^f resemblance, 

and to infer that different mode, of deposition have been folio** 1 
m the two cases. If the Will, , r;,.-, ,\ of entirely aerial ej'- 
as_ seems certain, then it also seems probable that the Blue m 
tain beds are not. 

I regret that, for reasons already stated, I am obliged to deer 
Efie farther statement of my own opinion upon thi 
ing subject to a future opportunity. Meanwhile I should **£ 
to express, in as emphatic a manner as possible, my sense oi 
great obligation onder whi la has laid sll 

geologists, even tlmu-di his vien-s nnv not in all respects »* 

with unqualified a P| bation or as^nt. It i 

W made the, m will be a^ 

from time to time. ^ 

Professor Liversidge said :— I am sorry to say I have not? 
pared any writtu u , „ M, |, , Woods' ]»££ 
tnat, in consequence, as compared with the previous speakers, 



very much in the position of a guest unprovided with a wedding 
garment ; but I made a few notes at the time Mr. Tenison-Woods 
was reading his paper, on the copy lie kindly placed at my disposal, 
and I may now, perhaps, be allowed to refer to them. I think I 
was appealed to by Mr. Tenison-Woods in one or two eases, and 
perhaps it will be best for me to comment upon those matters in 



lavrkesbury 


There is, I 


think. 


"*t part tins material is of ; 


: 




uperficial e? 


Lamination the > 




is at 01 



of more or less rounded grains of sand, upon many at which ■ 

crystalline structure has been developed by metamorphic action, 
cemented together by a felspathic paste; in addition, scales of 
mica are usually visible, and smaller quantities of less common 
minerals. This sandstone has been probably derived from the 
disintegration of a granite or similar rock ; the grains of sand 
represent the quartz, and the felspathic cement the felspar of the 
orignal rock ; the mica scales. Win- light and more easily decom- 
posed, have for the most part disappeared ; some of the rarer 
minerals present in the sandstone were also derived from the 
original granitoid rock, but others have doubtless been formed in 
it subsequently. 

Then there was a question as to the presence of hyalite — a 
nydrated form of silica. I am not quite satisfied that hyalite is 
present in quantity. The in « » g ood section 

01 the sandstone renders it very difficult in some cases to say 
whether the fragments are particles of crystallized quartz or 
Particles of the non-crvstallized hyalite. When you can prepare a 
pod section of a rock for the microscope, the use of polarized 
"gut will generally enable you to distinguish between the two, 
Jit the sandstone is far too friable to permit of this ; accordingly 
lam not satisfied tl at •■ hvdrated sili, a has aeted as a cement be- 
tween the particles," as stated by the author of this paper. 

The next question was as to the origin of the masses and layer 
J* ironstone in the Hawkesbury rocks. There can, I think 
"* no doubt that the theory first put forth by Gustav Bischof, 
aad now suggested by Mr. Tenison-Woods as an explanation 
of the presence of the oxide of iron in these rocks, sufficiently 
^counts both for the presence of, and for the peculiarities pre- 
dated by, much of the ironstone, but not for all. Probably 
^^e of the larger horizontal bands or layers have been formed 
m «ch as we see | - I **» present 

•* The larger veins have perhaps been formed by infiltration, 
bu t the smaller irregular veins, and the nodular concretionary 
^es, have probably been formed in a somewhat different 



108 THE IIAWKESBURY 

way. In the first instance, it may be assumed that the oxide of 
iron was fairly uniformly dill'ii—d' throughout the rock, but has 
sin :c grad i illy segregated together until it has formed a compact 
mass, vein, or layer. It seems to bo an order of nature for certain 
like particles to collect together. In many eases you will see a 
nucleus of brown hematite in this sat i<h tone surrounded by con- 
centric bands of a brown colour (also oxide of iron), which get 
fainter as the distance increases from the central nucleus; audi 
think that in most cases, certainly, there is no doubt that this 
oxide of iron v. , distributed throughout the 

mass of the rock. The calcareous and other cor 
hales often afford striking instances 
of certain substances to separate out from the i 



extent, but if 



denovo. I regarded t hm, ; « • f, I, wat-r origin. Ofcourse.it 

they should prove to be of < I here is th e same 

necessity to assume that uph.-.-u >! ]ius\:.k-n place. Mr. Tenison- 

Woods states that th- aivt o, ,■■'., i ; 

for them to be of fresh 

' - - 

area covered by them is not very mat - ter than " ' 

f^'oTby tiL^C '■! \ !. , I ' ,VC !a, rt ! 

' i ' "... J . '■■ : ' " 

izedbyeertaii , most of all ^ 



THE HAWKEfiBURY SANDSTONE. 109 

I agree with Mr. Tenison- Woods that the evidence as to ice 
action in the Hawkesbury rocks is not at present sufficient to 
warrant us in attributing the presence of the shale boulders to its 
agency. It is true that I have not made a special study of glacial 
deposits, but I have examined many of them of various kinds in the 
old country, and I have seen nothing here resembling them. The 
mere presence of angular masses and fragments of shale is in itself 
not sufficient evidence of either ground ice or other form of glacial 
action. I think it is probable that by some agency the beds of 
shale have been undermined, whether by running water or the 
action of the weather, and that the talus of broken-off angular 
fragments has become covered up with sand, and since consoli- 
dated. The screes or accumulations of rock fragments which form 
at the base of cliffs, both inland and along the coast, are either 
ground down into rounded pebbles, giving rise to conglomerates 
and sands, or they may be covered up without losing their angu- 
larity of form, and the latter appears to have been the case in this 
instance. 8ub» < v bring to light 

indisputable signs of ice agency. 

Mr. Tenison- Woods speaks of the consolidation of the loose sand 
into a solid rock by the men -sure of the sand 

above. Now I have no otyi kifi at all, for the 

effects of thousands of tons of pressure should have a very great deal 
to do in bringing about the mas of loose and 

porous sand, 1 ut 1 think that the cementing material has played a 
much more important part. It has long been a very interesting 
question to me, but one which I have not yet had an opportunity 
to tackle, whether there is any appreciable difference between the 
specific gravity of a rock taken from the surface and of another 
portion of the same rock taken from a depth, i.e., whether the 
deep-seated portions of a mass of rock have undergone greater 
consolidation from pressure than the superficial layers. At first 
s JghUhe question looks a simple one to settle, but I do not think 
that it would so prove, for many matters would have to be taken 
mto consideration. J merely throw this out as a suggestion, with 
the hope that some one may take it up. 

In speaking of the Stony Deserts, Mr. Tenison- Woods attributes 
their formation to the fact that certain portions of the loose sand 
have been oonw >] i ghter uncemented portions 

w ere drifted away by the wind, leaving a mass of stones behind ; 
on this layer beij r "we should have a wind- 

Mown sandstone rock a i aid a hi ivy rounded conglomerate at 
the bottom. It is thus I offer to explain the widespread con- 
glomerates which we find lying on the coal formation, with very 
kttle change of ch miles." But I 

do not think this would account for the very heterogeneous 
character of the pebbles composing these conglomerates ; it would 



110 THE HAWKESBUEY SANDSTONE. 



not account for the presence of pebbles of jasper, vein quartz, 
slate, and of numerous other materials such as we find in these 
conglomerates. If they had been derived in the way suggested, 
then, I think, they would be almost entirely composed of quartzite, 
or of ferruginous and sandstone pebbles, i.e., they would practically 
be composed of the one material ; in other words, of sand in a 
more or less hardened form mixed with ironstone : in fact, they 
would resemble in composition the masses of consolidated sand 
found lying on the surface of the ground in Wiltshire, and known 
locally as greywethers, from their fancied resemblance to sheep at 
a distance; or Sarcen — i.e., Saracen stones— from the old idea 
that they had been brought over by the Saracens. The huge 
blocks of stone of which the Druidical temple of Stonehenge is 
built consist merely of masses of sand uunvi rt< d into quarziu ai 1 



J I think that there are ;, jrn-al many difficulties in the way of this 
explanation. The Haul.. I,im\ andstom cms to have been 
fairly uniformly deposited over'its whole ana, and I still think 
I that the mountain:, are mountains, became tin' matter which once 
\ filled up the \ .1 II- \ ,l,„nn,; i, i , • i, < lift" has since been 
I scooped out by the action of the weather and running water. J»j 
aslhav< said before, 1 wish to a-ain examim thes rocks wi n 
"the new light which Mr. Teni on Wood, has thrown upon the sub- 
ject of their probable origin. . ,. „ 
Before concluding I should like to state how much gratification 
I have derived from Mr. Tenison- Woods' paper, a 
deeply we are all md,l, t , d to him for having drawn attention** 
an nl.h; wav It is a most valuable and suggest! 
paper, and I hope it may prove to be the commencement of * ^ 
era in geological u,.rk in eonneetio; 
tainly one of the mo.t mton-.tiu^ which ha. been brought betore 






Ill 

all those of Mr. Wilkinson touch my argument. He says that 
"the parallelism of the main lines of "stratitioation Is a prevailing 
feature in the Hawkesbury formation, and this alone is evidence 
m their having been formed under water." I answer that the 
parallelism is neither more nor less than is seen in sand-blown 
formations. The real question is this : Do these sandstones cor- 
respond in every particular with exposed sections of aerial sands 1 
This I have answered by showing from many actual instances 
that they do, and Professor Stephens has supplied other instances, 
equally convincing. -You miinoi but be struck," says Mr. 
Wilkinson, " with the undulating and hilly character of these 
blown areas"; and he goes on to prove that nothing of the kind 
is seen in the Hawkesbury rocks. But I maintain that the 
undulating character is a conspicuous feature in the formation. 
Let any one look down into the valley from Piddington's Hill and 
see whether the whole contour of the ridges and ranges are not 
strongly suggestive of aerial sandhills. Why, what could be more 
undulating than the gorges and gullies of the whole mountain 
system 1 and though on the whole the greater layers are horizon- 
tal, as seen in large masses, they are clearly undulating when 
examined in detail. In fine, the external contour and the internal 
stratification is that exactly of all the aerial sandhills I have 
examined. 

I think that I have not been quite understood about the 
absence of upheaval. I haw stated that these beds are found 
just in the way they have been deposited by the wind, and that 
they have not been upheaved by the sea. Now, though horizon- 
tally may be no argument in small areas, yet when we trace the 
same thing over an immense territory, and see no tilting or incli- 
nation, then the evidence of non-upheaval is strong. In South 
Australia, for instance, we have the nea-ine Miocene formation, 
*hich at about 90 miles from the sea is about 270 feet above the 
sea-level. Now, a fall of 3 feet in a mile is utterly inappreciable 
ju a section, but can readily be traced over long distances. But 
j^re, at less than 50 miles from the sea, can we trace any tilting 
Inclination, though the beds must have been raised at the very 
teast some 4,000 or 5,000 feet ? Observe, also, that it is not a 
question of the Blue Mountains merely. The same formation, or 
a very similar one, is found scattered over the whole continent. 
fi ut whether we | westward, on the summits 

°f mountains, or on the eu aid close to the 

^ it is always the same, with no tilting or inclination, but just 
a8 it was deposited in its | % layers and laminated 

^fse-bedding. Wh. n < e ad 1 u> this that the structure is that of 
^ud-blown rocks the argument is very convincing. To say that 
jbe whole continent has been uplifted in one mass without any 
br eak or tilting is rather an extreme hypothesis. But these beds 



JL J- ^ THE IIAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 

may have been fresh- water, it is objected. But the fossils are not 
fresh-water fossils. The ferns are land ferns. 2 
land fern, so is Gleichenia, and so are all the ferns I have met 
The few water ferns that are known in existence are so peculiar 
that a very little experience would distinguish them. We have 
none of these in the sandstone. We ought also to have fluviatile 
shells or other fresh-water remains, but we find none except two 
species of fish, which are rarely found in what I readily admit 
may have been lagoons or civ -L-, in i' - I. - \. .n. n. 1 K ■..;:. 
if it be objected that land , 

rivers, I should admit such an explanation if we found them 
associated with other fluviatile remains, but there are no such 
things to be found. Again, it the ferns drifted long in the water 



Is are aqueou 
the Victorian sandstones 
Selwyn's name for npini. 
great weight if we knew 
put before him. It is a _, 
therefore the names of Dana, Jukes, 
support of their reasons for any opir 
they can command our assent. At p 
proposition that the peculiar eh&note 
Hawkesbury rocks can only arise in, 
see strong reasons for al>amh>niu<i Hi 



,velv 



HAWKESBUEY SANDSTONE. 113 



dissolve peroxide of iron. It must have the aid of decomposing 
organic matter. The only way in which this can be explained is 
by the surface vegetation. In this matter the conclusions are not 
mine, but are received by all chemical geologists, from Bischof to 
Sterry Hunt. In reply to the objections against one of my ex- 
planations for conglomerates, I must repeat that these thing* are 
rare in the formation, and the pebbles are of small size for the 
most part. Mr. r " it is impossible that the 

conglomerates in the Hawk tave been derived 

m the manner just mentioned. To satisfy this theory the con- 
glomerates must occur at the base." But why] May not a part 
°t a sandhill be blown away by small degrees, leaving all the 
heavier pebbles behind on the surface as' a thick layer to be 
subsequently covered up by new layers of drift sand 1 

I thought I should have had the concurrence of my friend, Mr. 
Wilkinson, with regard to the change of drainage following the 
outpouring of tertiary volcanic lavas on the summits of the divide. 
He admits, however, that the old channels were often filled up by 
these igneous outpouring, and a new sv.,Um formed. That a 
higher watershed was formed is not to be denied. That a change 
or climate was probably the result is not, I think, a far-fetched 
Terence. The whole of the igneous table-lands in New England 
-sometimes 4,000 feet above the sea— have originated in the 
Period I refer to, and any one must see what an important in- 
fluence this has had in effecti s. It is one of 
Vuuisfs which I Migg^t . "-it area of the 
we Mountains a more humid climate, and thus encouraged a 
ygetation by wl u . . : i entiy moored. 
10 the rest of Mr. Wilkinson's objections, as they are more matters 
°t opinion than facts in dispute between us, I shall not refer more 
Particularly. The ice theory and the drift theory are now both 
we the world, with the observations by which they are sup- 
ported, and they must now rest upon their own merits. 

•I think on the whole that I must thank Professor Stephens for 
Jh e support he has given to my views in this matter. On one or 
^ ' l'"uir, I., l u > mi, iMlerstood me. One is with regard to the 
Vhallenger's" dredgings and the azoic regions of the deep. If I 
°JP that these were not destitute of signs of life, I meant life 
*hjch was doubtless derived from the surface. Thus, in what is 
*pl the Globigerina ooze, there were abundant traces of forami- 
ni tera. Now, these organisms have existed in all seas from the 
_ . e st or nearly the earliest geological periods, and some of the 
^cies have come to us from very remote antiquity. They are 
j°ind in all seas • they are also very easily preserved in rocks, 
cannot imagine any marine remains destitute of such organisms, 
«Uess they belong to the early paleozoic rocks. There is no 
^estion that th< • Professor Stephens states, 



but they are hardly cases in point. Even the Caspian Sea has its 
peculiar mollusca, and the Dead Sea, which supports but little 
marine life and no mollusca, has its shores strewn with fresh- 
water shells brought down by the waters of the Jordan. It is 
said that there may have been fossils, but they have been carried 
away by the infiltration or' uat.-r-,. Xow, whenever such a thing 
takes place we have either the Gists of the shells regaining empty 
or filled with other material, or we have a disturbance of the 
strata by the filling in of the spaces occupied by fossils. The 
latter case is almost u n k n o w n i n e;eo] ogy . But would it not be a 

organisms perfectly preserved, and every other fossil so completely 

sandjn '■■ in / ' , ,' "| ', , L 'n.nnatio^of aqueous 

origin, having been originally derived from the weathering of an 
aerial rock ; yet the ease would be an extreme one. Consolidated 
sandstones hardly ever weather into their original grains," 8 . 1 

Jun!u]:ui'"' l ;' M th 1 .' 1 ' romei'" '■'■ruins'";, n'\ \'i w ind-blovra structure 
to tin rocks' ire fo i . ~\ , t [ - neeted origin of both is 

treasonable explanation 

In the matter of the dip of the laminations, I am not quite 
sure that I under.'und Prof, - „■ St, ph. us : but if we mntnaU) 

explained our view: I tliii liquid find our observations to 

agreeinmost particulars. l'racti,-allv, the dip is not alwajsj 
right angles to the ,iril,, than, i„n rh- dip is q^Tfo 
as it is very commonly in rounded accumulations of sand, 
this case, a section diagonal to the axis will give almost^ J 
angle to the laminations. That the variation is due *°%er 
many instances I have no doubt 
cause had been in operation, and. that is the varifltic© ^ 

- \ 









THE HAWKESBURY SANDSTONE. 115 

harder felspars or quartz), even though the surface has been 
polished by the action of blown sand. Through the kindness of 
Professor Stephens, I am enabled to place before the members of 
the Society to-night some specimens of granite and felspar from 
the first cataract of the Nile. These are continually exposed to 
the action of blown sand from the desert, and the members can 
judge of the effect of this from actual inspection. It can be seen 
that the constant impact of blown sand has given the stone a 
most brilliant polish, but at the same time not a single angle has 
been worn away. If the pebbles found in the Hawkesbury rocks 
do not bear a more evident polish, the cause must be looked for 
atombment. But the facts remain that the surfaces 
generally abraded, not rounded as they would 
that of running water. The i 
i creeks, as they are so uncommon. 

SB, 

i those matters 

about which I especially appealed to him. I have not expressed 
myself decidedly about the hyalite, though I threw it out as a 
suggestion that polarized light gives a good test for its detection. 
But we must not expect very great results from this method, 
■^cause if the original grains were derived from granite, some of 
«»e quartz from that rock presents under the Nichol prisms the 
Play of colours observed in colloid silica. In the beginning of 
^ microscopic work in this matter, I was inclined to think the 
polarized light and the selenite plate would give me definite 
results ; but when I varied the experiments, using rock crystal 
artificially pulverized, and various kinds of felspar, with true 
hyalite, the results were conflicting. I am going to try again at 
getting thin sections of the rock, and then I am in hopes that the 
grains in the cementing medium may be better seen. My friend, 
*r. Wilkinson, does not believe that the grains of sand will 
att ord any clue j yet I may state a fact which will be significant 
ln the matter. Since my paper was read, Professor Liversidge 
^hed to bring my theory to the test by the microscopic examina- 
7>n of sands. With this view he asked my opinion on about a 
a °2en slides of dry sand, the origin or locality of which was 
entirely unknown to me. In every instance, except one, I was 
!l to . stat e, after a short examination, whether the sands were 
• aerial sands. 

of conglomerates I went out of my 

ich, whether explained or not, does 

[ differ from Professor Liversidge as 

may do in forming pebbles in such a formation 

*iere silica, alumina, 

magnesia, potash, 

The colours and 




forms of silicate of alumina and i 

e finally consolidated, 
the trap rocks began to have their influence. We must not forget 
how rapidly sandhills are cut down and form again by the wiod. 
Thus a conglomerate in the middle of a sandst.'.:. 
a late portion of its history, and its pebbles belong to a trap rock 
now separated from it by many feet of sandstone. Howerer, as 
Professor Liversidge says that he prefers to approach the subject 

-of the formation, I ran h-aYe the facts to the painstaking and 

impartial examination whirl. I know he an-lon 

To him and to l»n,f.-^oi- Stephens and Mr. Wilkinson my best 

thispap^ I U have heard 



Tropical Rains. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.AS. Government 



2 Royal Society ofN.S. II 



*or some years past I have been collecting all the available rain 
records for this Colony, not only for their value as statistics, 
though that is very groat, but also as data for studying the 
causes and limits of our rains, in the hope that by so doing some 
light might be thrown upon questions of great practical and 
portance. 
At the present time rain observations are sent to me by about 
270 observers. Of these by far the greater number are private 
observers, that is, gentlemen who keep the rain-gauge for their 
own information, but are willing to give me a copy of their 
rain measures. The majority live in places where there are 
ao official observers, and it is obvious therefore that but 
for their assistance it would be quite impossible to make the 
Records as complete as they are, or to hope for any success in 
investigating the difficult question of rainfall, &c There are, 
however, still many large areas in the Colony from which I get no 
observations, and some from which the ram is sent without any 
n otes as to the direction of the wind v ! en it rained, or to the 
character of the storm ; and when I come, as in the present 
Histance, to make use of the observations in tracing the rain- 
storms, the want of this information is a great drawback. 
Already the observers are numerous enough to show us roughly 

*rious drought affects on fore the whole 

Colony is suffering, and the fre ■•!• u v, ith v. hi- li " drought in New 
south Wales" is spoken of must be somewhat curtailed by the 
^dition of the name of the district affected, for it would appear 
that the Colony as a whole * wi of rain. The 

a- districts may 
suffer for many months for want of rain, and that others may 
£* v e an undue share. They show us that others are always dry, 
froni local circa i -. for the same 

J^son, and we na1 K>. Past labours 

ha ^e answered in part ouh . "hut we huj.e that the widespread 
"Merest in the subject will make the observers so numerous as to 
Jdject the rain and collateral information for every part of the 
Colony, and ultimately for every part of Australia. So far as we 



118 TROPICAL RAIKS. 

have gone, the main features of the meteorology of our continent 
Island are very simple, if we are to judge of the part unknown 
by that which has been investigated ; but, with the exception of 
the observers on the overland telegraph line, more than half of 
Australia is meteorologically unknown, and it is just that part 
within the tropics where we may reasonably look for valuable 
information of approaching seasons. The trade winds and the 
monsoon come round with wonderful regularity ; and as each 
change appears, it is stamped 
properly read, would give 



weather. It will take Queensland 


'and South Australia some 


time to cover their northern are;i 


s with obs> - ' 


private observers there will com*' to 
in New South Wales ; where in tr; 




oil," the ,' ; 




observations of thirty persona 


in a district from which a few yean 


i since I only got those of one 


observer. 


1,. rainfall took place, and the 

, th- time has opened 

,hi,.h would take 


up some \<tv interesting subjects ■> 


that I have been obliged to hurrv th 


, n of this papery 
on, ^ »,„« irv rain referred to 


order to bring it before the Society 



began on February 4 (see map),* but the s 



the culmination began in the north-west some days before 
The observations taken at Bourke show that the winds baa 
from S.E., and variable for -one- weeks before, being* taw F" 
of the S.E. trade wind ; the temperature had 
110° in the shade, and the barometer began to fall slowly ^ 
24th ; the total fall to the Mrh. when it began to rise, *»j 
0'20inch. At 7 , m. ,, tll , ,, ;ll .his rather was ^ 



r such small , 



wind, which waa strength ; audit is recorded 

that on the evening of the 6th, scud began to come in with the 
KE. wind ; and at 8.30, a.m. of the 7th it began to rain. It is 
therefore evident that the N.W. monsoon, which attains its 
greatest force about the beginning of February, was forcing its 
way right across the continent to New South Wales, and in con- 
tact with the eas ■ « >rms and rain ; 
these two winds charged with moisture had brought into the 
district abundant rain ready to fall the moment there was a 
sufficient cause. At Thargomindah, a station 200 miles N.W. 
from Bourke, the heavy rain began on February 4, and over 
5 in. fell ; at Caiwarro, 60 miles nearer to Bourke, 9 in. fell 
The consequence of such a heavy fall in a flat country was a heavy 
flood that covered everything but a few slight elevations. Two 



of the town, and the i 
food ; in short the flood was high enough to prove how general the 
heavy rain had been. At Bourke, as I have said, the heavy rain 
began at noon on the 5th ; at Baradine, 190 miles E.S.E. from 
Bourke, it began at 6 a.m. on the 6th ; and at Eversleigh, near 
Armidale, another 150 miles, it began at 4 p.m. So that the rain 
advanced at the rate of 1 2 miles per hour throughout the 340 miles, 
and this, be it remembered, against a steady opposing wind. You 
*ill see on reference to the map that the line of progress was 
S.E. from Thargomindah to Bourke, then it appears to have been 
checked until it got to the valley of the Macquarie, when it resumed 
the S.E. direction to Coonamble, and thence turned to E.N.E. We 
*ant more observations to follow it in detail, but some things are 
*ery remarkable. At Kallara, a N.W. surveyed line forms the 
boundary between that station and Dunlop, and this formed the limit 
°f the rain, and this well-defined margin was traced in the same 
direction for some 20 miles beyond theParoo— in all about 100 miles. 
Yet the directioi; I -aptly changed at the river 



n ver round till the Macquarie seems to have helped it on in its S.E. 
course until, on reaching Terembone, 1 1 inches fell, and the direc- 
tion changed again. It will be seen on reference to the map that 
tiie heavy rain did not follow the rivers beyond Terembone, but 
from that point travelled eastward, or rather E.N.E., and was not 
so heavy at any other station. Looking at the stations which had 
heavy rain, they seem to be arranged in a great eurv.-. ftS if if w.-iv 
Part of a great passing storm ; but there is no barometric evidence 
of such a storm, and the steady N.E. winds for so many days is 
Proof that the winds were not of cyclonic character, but formed 
Part of the S.E. trade current then blowing over the greater 
Portion of the northern part of Australia. For reasons already 



preceded this ram storm 
however, we hud tin: ! 



proves that the storm was small, and if the centre did pass north 
of Bourke its effect could nm extend into this Colony. But ve 
have already seen that the slight fall in tin- bm-. 
which may have been conneeted with a storm centre passing 

30, four days before the minimum a( Townsville ; ami yet the 

two places only dime in loimimdo hv about e'O miles, wind), 

at the rate the storm nly occupy *« 

hours, so that the dr-piv - to have had no 
connection with that al Townsvi 

storm acrosa . and found that 



go on depositing i_ „ ^ puillu Wi „. 

whole atmosphere i- ( I rift in < !■*,>., rd, t hi.-, 

with it, and the deposit of rain go on until all had fallen. J>» > 

I-"- .:■:!;._.-■ .. ■ :;■. 



several days, 
to Coonambl 

for the v, .; 






<■' wasi i tin was so ] . ha the bhn-k spots almost 
} map, but the excessive fall did nor cross the mountains; 
Hid thence as far as Hay. also along 
1 passage north of Sydney, also at Mudgee and Dubbo 
ol Plains, but in the valley of the Hunter 
5 very little, and all the north-west of the Colony, especially 
e rain was so heavy this year, none at all fell.' You will 
he map that the winds were from E. to N.E., while in 
>y were principally S.E. This year the run began eta 



the E. and S.E. winds were blowing over New South Wales, and 
thence to latitude l.V on the overland t eh -graph line. It appears 
from the weather map that a storm centre" passed along the south 



Wy and aln 


iost confined to the 


line indicated In 


.' Port Macquarie. 


Armidale, anc 


1 Warialda, the 




3. The s< 




shows the rainfall from 11th to 


10th of the same month, a 






Y on the coast so 


uth of Sydney, a 






100 miles west 


; of Dubbo, the r; 


ling in the Bo 




r m- livjrht, am 


1 in the Liverpool 


Plains nothing 


. This tin. 


e the 




>m S.E. to S. It 


is worth noting 


that on the 








v increasing in 




the fall of temperature was not so 


marked as l 




^ instead of 
does, it did no 


appearing betwee: 


a the 5th and 12 




"■> 


t come until the 1 






. and 


>'OU will see tl: 




fell on the coasl 


-, and that it was 


abundant at a] 








°f Dubbo, and 


in part of the Albert district wes 


t of the Darling, 


Je wind being S.E. to E. The 


map for Feb™ 


lary, 1881, i 




th « tin- rainfall. 2nd to 9th. wa 






erhJ 


^ar of the fiv< 








,'. '._. 














ion of the wind 


was X.W., W., 




v. 


Cerent from 


either of the otht 


:r years, and thi 


ire was evidently 



on the 6th 
6th, hut it 









i fall in the tropi* 




take op the inv. 


Sri':; 


" .-' 1 l 1 ' " 1 •'! ,'i 


F:ilU C-V.TV 

"full li.-ai 


III! 






the X.H. 


n this inftteoee 






, ur northern (list 

:,n as of cause 



TUOPICAL RAINS. 123 

[n February, 1880, the rain again began on the coast about 
Clarence River on January 29th, with S.E. winds, and fell here 
and there about the Colony with winds south to east, until Feb- 
ruary 8th, when the wind got to N.E., and it began to rain heavily 
at Bourke. It is evident therefore that although the rain always 
comes about the beginning of February, at the time when, as we 
have seen, the monsoon is at its height, yet there is no obvious 
connection ; and sk if there is any other cause 

which becomes effective when the earth reaches this particular part 
of its orbit ; and we find that there is, in the sudden fall in the 
temperature which is known to take place, at that period — a fall 
which is obviously due to some cause external to the earth, 
because it affects both hemispheres. In the north the time is so well 
known that we have ice saints for these days of freezing cold. 
M. Saint Claire Deville, in searching meteorological records for 
evidence of this fact, found it in all, even in the most ancient 
meteorological documents — for instance, in the observations of the 
pupils of Galileo. These observations extend froml655tol670,and 
show that the minimum was reached on February 12, and I have 
before pointed out that the same remarkable phenomenon is ob- 
servable in Australian registers. And in searching for a cause, 
several Continental astronomers have not hesitated to say that 
there is little doubt that it is the intervention between the sun and 
the earth of great numbers of meteors ; and the celebrated M. 
Erman pointed out that if the well-known meteor stream through 
which the earth passes in August is really a flat ring of meteors — 
as it probably is — revolving round the sun, then it would cross the 
ecliptic in such a position that part of it would be interposed 
between the sun and the earth from the 5th to the 11th of Feb- 
ruary, and so partially eclipse the sun, cutting off from the earth 
bis light and heat ; and M. Erman considered himself justified by 
bis investigations into meteorological records in saying that 
it did so. I have been for some years convinced that this is the 
only satisfactoiy explanation of the fall of temperature in February, 
and that there is sufficient evidence to prove that we must take 
" teteors between the earth and the sun as the 



cause of many of the remarkable variations in the temperature, 
*hich are so unaccountable if we ignore the effects which may be 
produced in this way. Astronomy has satisfactorily proved that 
there are meteors enough in the solar system to produce the 
remarkable corona which, in total eclipses, is seen about the sun ; 
and we all know that this coronal light is never concentric with 
the sun, and that it generally runs out in particular directions, 
and is never seen twice in the same form. Almost every drawing 
or photograph taken in eclipses proves that it is much brighter in 
some parts than in others— that is, that the matter which reflects 
the sunlight is not uniformly dense, and stops and reflects more of 



124 TROPICAL RAINS. 

the sunlight proceeding in certain directions than in others ; and 
any planet placed, so to speak, behind the extension of the corona, 
would suffer !,-.-. ,,f .Lltt. If this coronal point be, as it some- 
times is, of enormous extent, there must be a coi 
of light and boat, ai d r , su< I, \ iriations of sunlight the earth is, 
beyond question, subjected. There are hundreds of meteor streams 
cut by the earth's orbit, which, as they all pass round the sun, 
must be concentrated, and hence it is more than 
when we look at an eclipse, there is just as great an extension of 
the corona towards the earth, where we cannot see it, as we see to 
right and left of our line of sight. Unfortunately, suitable eclipses 
come so seldom that the recurring forms of corona which the fall 
of temperature in February, May, and at other 
indh tt. , . mot 1m scon; but \v< km w that the meteor sti 
have definite orbits about the sun, and therefore would place each 
year about the sa tweeaii m 

and the earth at a particular date. And it must not be too readily 
assumed that the effect of it is insignificant. Dull brown or black 
bodies suchas meteors are reo la j ., . ' _!.' i nan they reflet and 
yet at solar eelij i,.' | hey do reflect « 

taken in a very short time. At the solar eclipse of 1878 many 
photographs of the corona were taken by American observers- 1M 
plates were exposed for various intervals up to 60 seconds, ^ano 
the shortest exposure was thr 



3 parts of it, and detail was lost in consequence. 



Probably 



should have been enough : and a photograph oi& 6 *? 
direct would take one-thousandth part of a second. 
light reflected by the meteors is considerable, 
for reasons given above, be but a sm 
by them. And it is reasonable to, 
of meteors under ordinary circumstances ma) 
ge sun\L, it, ,,.,,_;■ ,in February » 

May, to which reference has been made. The 1 
-Naval Observatory at Washington has verv ki 
Photograph copy of their eclipse plat, . No. 16 1 - 
the corona very satisfactorily. I may mention that tn 

"'"'"'"'■ ^ .-, I .;(. ,..;,.,„! 

longer the ex po 
corona, but ft 
drawmg, takin_ # best denned- 



ae, and he saw by telegrams that u* 



TROPICAL BASS* 125 

been a considerable fall of rain in the northern part of Queens- 
land ; in fact that there had been a very heavy downpour, 
the water coming down in sheets. By the use of the 
telegraphic win-s lie traced its course to the south-east until it 
reached the mountains, when a cold wind sprang up from the 
south-east and all the clouds were blown away. But for this 
unfortunate wind we would of rain, and the 

Colony would thus have been saved from the disastrous conse- 
quences which had followed, in the death, he might say, of millions 
of stock. The bank of clouds extended at first in a direct line from 
Bourke to Coonamble, but gradually decreased as it got nearer to 
the mountains. He referred to the heavy rain which fell at the 
breaking up of the long drought in 1878, and which came from the 
south-west, he thought, and came to the conclusion that the rain 
depended upon the wind. As the wind prevailed, so the rain 
prevailed ; if the wind ehang d suddenly, so the rain disappeared. 
If we only knew how we could control the winds we would be 
able to control the clouds ; but whether the winds were controlled 
by heavenly bodies or not. he thought none of them were able 
to say. All his observations had tended to the conclusion that 
11 T i . i 'get • pended upon the course of the wind. 

Mr. C. Moore said that in 1860 he was staying at Mr. 
Thompson's station on the Shoalhaven River, when rain began to 
fall at 4 o'clock in the afternoon, and before 3 o'clock next 
morning the river had risen upwards of 100 feet, but the 
cause of it was that then- wa- a wry high embankment, and the 
river rushing up against this embankment threw the water back. 
He afterwards visited a station about 60 miles further south and 
ascertained that there had been almost as great a rainfall there on 
the Saturday as fa Mr. Thompson's 

station on the Thursday. That was the greatest rainfall he had 
ever experience, I this Colony. 

Mr. Russell said he had not been able to finish all he wanted 
to say in regard to this rainfall. The fact was that he had to 
prepare the paper in a few days, whilst he was very busy with 
other matters. It was not very easy to get all the information 
that one wanted. As he had mentioned, he got a great many 
records, but many of them were, comparatively speaking, 
^complete. He would like to call their attention to this fact— 
that whenever a tropical rainfall had been general, it did not 
appear that it was due to the south-east wind. The investigat ions 
°i several leading astronomers into remarkable falls in the 
temperature had led them to the conclusion that they must be 
accounted for by other than terrestrial causes. The sun's heat 
*as undoubtedly the cause of the winds, and to the variation in 
ne sun a heat it would be most reasonable to look for unusual 
sanations in the wind. There were four well-marked instances 



126 TROPICAL RAINS. 

of fall in the temperature every year, which were probably caused 
by the intervention of meteors. There were many instances on 
record where the sun had been so affected from some cause or 
other that the character of the season had altogether changed; 
and one year when the ordinary fruits never ripened. Now thew 
must be some outside cause, something that comes in between the 
sun and the earth which stops the heat from reaching the earth's 
surface, for it was impossible to suppose that the temperature of 
such an enormous body as the sun could change. Whatever was 
the solution of the matter, it was clear that we had a greatdealto 
learn in reference to it. 




For M r Russells Piper on February Runs 




"or M r Russei/s Paper on FeArmru/ Rdns 




For M r Russe//s Paper on February ffet/ns 




For M r Russelfb Paper on February Ra./ns 




For M r Russe//s Piper on February ffd/os 







for M r RusseIJs Paper on February Ruins 



New Method of determining true North or South. 

By J. S. Chard, District Surveyor. 

[Read be/ore the Royal Society of N.S. W., 2 August, 1882.] 

This method is specially suited to this Colony and other places whew 

ingo] t i nasmuch as the 

truenorthorsoutii tt calcalfttiafc 

One of the chief features is the employment of a specially 
designed plane gla he telescope of a theodolite, 

instead of the ordinary spider-wel ,. 

LTin a horizontal lit;-', a 
'• rtii il fane, m ls a centre two circles. 

For the southern hemispln-ro the radius of the outer circle corre- 
sponds in angle :, \ 

Octantis, B.A.C., 7020. 

.Owing to the ditt; :•,-,-, in ndit pension between these stars, 
v «-, 2 hours I" . . v vhen tie- outer circle is 

Placed on a Octantis and the inner one on Oct. B.A.G, 7020, care 
'^taken to see that ,x<)ct. pn-.-e.lrs the other in its path round 
- ction of tho vertical and horizontal lines points 
a mth pole. 

rrui It- lat er is determined. \^l>< ;l 
■•fflteraection - 

of the altitude cird, n.iou, i, tn .. ,, < ^ t once the htitude. 
Mxtchtfthe Lines of the Diaphrwjm when placed on the Stars. 




- 



128 



construction of the telescope, a 
to ensure greater precision. 

The telescope ordered for testing the method was constructed 
by Messrs. T. Cooke & Sons, York. It has a focal length of about 
17 inches and object-glass If -inch in diameter; it is fitted with a 
5-inch vertical circle reading to ."'0''. and the pivots and clamp tit 
the ordinary 5-inch theodolite 1 have in use. Its weight is about 
4 lbs., and it is placed in a separate box, as it need only be used for 
the purpose of determining time south. The extra focal length 
renders it necessary that the circles on the glass diaphragm I • 
made larger, and consequently with greater precision, the angle 
in the field of view subtended by the circles being dependent <>:i 
the radii and focal length. The size of the object-glass, 1 finch, 
was thought requisite to see the two stars, which are respectively 
5-5 and 6-2 magnitude, wdien a full moon was shining and when 
the wires were illuminated. The pivots are of course pierced for 
illumination. The stars can be seen distinctly in the telescope 
under the above conditio].*. Jit loss of light 

caused by the addition of tl t the outer circle 

is somewhat too close to the edge of the field of view, and I intend 
to remedy this defect by having the focal length slightly decreased. 

Owing to the annual change and changes for time of the year 
of the south polar distances of o-Octantis and Oct. B.A.C., 7020, 
instead of one outer and one inner circle, two circles close together 
have been substituted for the outer circle, and two circles close 
together substituted for the inner. Convenient radii for the outer 
circles for the years 1883 to 1891 are 44' 20" and 43' 20"; for the 
inner circles for the same years, 38' and 37'. 




r-R NORTH OR SOUTH. 129 

< hi the 1st January, 1883, S.P.P. of o- Oct. is 
-• l.T; S.P.P. of Oct. RA.C. 7020 approximately 

placing tin- circles on the stars, the stars are mad!' io appear 
ling as the S.P.D. at rim 

the angular radii of the circle. (See N/,v /,■/,. ) 
I r is usual to place an a,' the telescope 

i-x. and such , ne i. , id, n [ a u d *« r the years 1891 to 1897, the 
adii U i.Y*. 13' 15* 10', 39'. 
The double circles, instead of one for each star, have another 
11 m&»o for t tli. v do i, r , 1, ,1 h« pi-, is, mgles; stated, 
found by testing, and 
the stars placed accordingly. 

The lines cut < >n 1 i ■ y Messrs. T. Cooke k Sons, 

viewed through the telescope. 1 are tin •■'■ th; n tin o litian -pider- 

*eb. I underst: is to 1-1,000 of 

in th,'telesroi)ed,.scrilied 12", hut as 

.I uithii - fev, v .ndsl.y testing, 

accordingly, the desired precision ' 





and other instru 






are 




A by 






ng the m 


e;im Of 






The 






•mined :v 








iV..uu 




think, with ordin 




the in 




lum erro 


rwill 


" --: t . 


i less than 15", w] 










;es of 




iffieiently precise. 








. 


.. , 



. . that, to find the stars, the a 

' to the approximate latitude, the v. 
' .-irele set to i he ai .proximate magnetic hearing 

I,| Of Vieu. 

. ; . ' ;. , ' - ' 

Je trouble' of oa,, . s well * 

ts ^t, will, however, heaved 

- have not the required knowledge oi 

,. the true south by the 
• "1 be enabled to determine it as 
— - — .v.1.. mure quickly by this one. 

■.JtZT ab . out ten times a ? ear h y e « h 

field? e above method n. be time ffi the 

ar anr 0CCU P it " advantage* 

W£ ent Hith «"*oin this Colon, • ,.- 

.. .^ ■'- ' ' - • _ ■ - -- " ': 



The more £re< or north is ref( 

a basis of bearings in the survey of land, the bett 
boundaries thereof be determined hereafter when the I 
been destroyed, and the more accurate will be the n: 

Since writing the ahove I have adapted this method t 
telescope of 9d inch focal length, which is the ordinal' 
5-inch theodolite. On a bright moonlight night, an 
lines illuminated, the stars can just be seen distinctly 
observation. Very satisfactory results were obtained, 
lines and circles are well drawn on the glass I estimate th 
error of the method at about 15 seconds. The cost of I 

10s. | the form 

fixed. For ordinary surveying work, the separate and lai.'-r 

telescope which I though; ' dispensed vM. 



: : nvo circles for the other star. 
to express my thanks to Mr. H. 0. Russell for his 
and help in working out the details of the mechanism. 



Notes on the Progress of New South Wales during 
the ten years 1872 to 1881. 

, Rollestox, C.M.G., Auditor-General, President. 



Ten years ago the privilege was accorded to mo of addres.Mii;: t Ue 

Royal Society of JN.SAV. "on tin; suhject of the \ 

Colony during the preceding decennial period. 1 l 1111 ! 1 "' 1 '- ;,t " '' 

the lapse of ten years, to review the progress we hive made, and 

to compare it with that of the previous decennary. I do not 

propose to use 1 

the results of our advancement under the heads of ( 1 ) Population, 

(•2) Production, (o) Trade and Commerce, (!) Accumulation. 



the •> 


id 


V 


187 


1, result 


•d in a total 


)'.is," 

10 im 


ix 


v'th 


3 popula 






■n't 


5 Th 


Cel 




i on the 7th 


yyv 


10 


were 


75 

feim 


;tfthe°i 


Lcrease in the 


,fml. 




litdl 


P or 


cent. Of this number 



hs over deaths, and 76,172. or 15 per 

- of immigration over emigration 

i out amongst its presenl 

Jmarked that, without exceeding the density o^ 

i the county of Cumberland, exclusive 

rould carry a population a rr -. 



mething like 
U t v ^the "want C 3 



of all causes which crea 
■*-l w*h the'power of poVuTation is the most influential. 

2. Productiox. 

in ence of our pastoral wed 

r industry. We commenced the 

^^p,,,,,, , vfl . ls , vith the undermentioned lr>e stoci 



x;:; 



132 THE PROGRESS OF NEW SOUTH WALES — 1872 TO 1881. 

Horses, 304,100; cattle, 2,014,888; sheep, 16,278,697. We 
close the decennary with -Horses, 346,931; cattle, 2,180,896; 
sheep, 33,062,854. It is a noticeable feature in the returns of 
live stock that whilst the cattle increased by over a million head 
during the first five years of the period under review, they have 
decreased bv nearly the same number in the last five years, and 

I have now to record an increase of only 166,006 head in the 
In our sheep-farming operations, the verj 
hibited, as the numbers are more than doubled. We 
commenced the decade with rather over 161 millions, and we 
close the decade with over 33 millions. These figures are taken 
from the returns of the Registrar-General, but if we take the 
sworn returns under the Sheep Act for our guide, they give us at 
the close of 1881 no less than 37,279,205. In the face of the 
exceptionally dry seasons expcrh cv<i <\u in.n the last three or 
four years, it is a very remarkable feature in her history of 
progress that the main pastoral industry of the Colony should 
exhibit such expansion. In connection with this increase in the 
number of our sheep, the question that forces itself upon our 
attention is this : to what extent our pasture lands will enaWe 
us to increase our production of live stock, so as to supplement 
the deficiencies of the supply in Europe. It has been estimated 
that the production of meat in the United Kingdom is equal to 
1,090,000 tons, whilst the consumption reaches 1,740,000 tons, 
showing a deficiency of 650,000 tons in the home supply. It is, 
moreover, known that the continent of Europe is not able to feed 
its own population, the estimated consumption being in excess of 
its production no less than 143,000 tons. The statistics also 
reveal the fact that the cattle of France and the sheep of Great 
Britain are declining in numbers, whilst the average increaseof the 
population of Europe is advancing at the rate of three millions 
annually. The difficulties of conveyance have now been overcome, 
since a 70-horse power engine is able to maintain a temperature 
6° below zero in a chamber capable of holding 10,000 frozen sheep 
or 250 tons of dead meat. Some idea of the magnitude of the 
question of meat supply for Europe may be formed by the lntor- 
...; :...■ ■ country. 1W 

importation of meat into the United Kingdom has risen from 
144,225 tons, of the value of £7,708,000, in the year 1870, to no 
less than 650,300 tons, of the value of £26,612,000, in the ye£ 
1880. The increased consumption of meat in Europe, it may " 
observed, is not only attributable to the increase of population 
but in a greater degree to the higher wages that manufacturin 
industry has introduced amongst the masses. 

It is not within the scope of this paper to follow this question 
further. My object is to point out facts revealed to us by stati 
ties, leaving to others the investigation of their bearing upon tw 



THE PROGRESS OF NEW SOUTH WALES — 1872 TO 1881, 133 

progress and well-being of this country. There is just one point 
more that I wish to draw attention to, and that is the diminution 
in the number of our cattle. The returns on March 31, 1881, 
showed 2,580,040, whilst those of March 31, 1882, showed 
2,180,896, a deficiency of close upon 400,000 head in the twelve 
months. This is partly owing to losses through drought, but I 
believe may be attributed in a greater degree to the suLstitutmn 
of sheep for cattle on the pastures of New South Wales, and the 
demand for cattle to stock the vast plains in the Colony of Queens- 
land, lately brought into occupation. And there is yet a further 
< moderation w] ' v mind in connection with 

our pastoral industry, and that is whether without artificial aid 
we can maintain the rate of increase in our flocks which ttM tad 
ten years has developed. I am disposed to think that we have 
arrived at the maximum which our native grasses will in ordinary 
seasons enable us to depasture. We are apt to regard moist 
seasons as the criterion of the capabilities of our pastures, RHP- 
getting that moist seasons are the exception and not the rule ; and 
we are not readily disposed to make allowance for the deteriora- 
tion of them by persistent overstocking, by the ravages of marsu- 
pials, and by the injurious effect of long continued droughts. 
There is no chance given to the best grasses and herbage to seed, 
and they are said to be dying out in many districts of the Colony 
It behoves us to look seriously to the injurious effect which this 
*ant of rest to the ground must inevitably produce not only upon 
f /- • ipabilin of supplying meat to the mother country but upon 
™e growth and quality of our wool. 

Wool—l n the year 1871 we exported the produce of our own 
Colony as follows: quantity, 65,611,953 lbs. ; value, £4,/ 48,160, 
^timated at a little over Is. 5d. per ft. The clip of 1871 was esti- 
mated to have produced an average of 4 lbs. per sheep shorn ; and it 
*asfirrtherestim a in the London marketthere 

^«ld be a surplus returnable to the Colony of a million and a half 
g?% or thereabouts. There are no means, however, of testing 
ir est "*ate, and it must be regarded as an assumption only, la 
the year 188 1 we exported: quantity, 139,601,506 fts.; value 
f M49,787. The estimate.! , very little over 

£ Per ft., as compared with Is. 5d. in 1871, and this may be set 
^ to the much larger proportion of wool going home mthe 

eWedw 00 l t „, -° r t tthe ^e 

^^ a half millions per annum, calculated at the average 

resin? f°^ ^ved Meats, <fc.-In order to arrive at the 

SL T ? astoral industl 7' ^ behoves US t0 ^ TnTsTl 
nber P«>fit our flocks and herds have been converted. In 1»< A 



&c, £317,604 ; total, £1,407,093. To these figures was added 
the value of wool >w] >vu !. £ ,7l v I'll) i.n _m^ up the value of 
the total pastor; | J 5 3. Now, we will see what 

we did last year. It seems that we have no record of the live 
stock driven overland l.o Oueensland. The figures are therefore 
confined to the numbers exported seaward or across the border to 
Victoria. It appears, then, that the live stock exported was 
valued at £777,674; preserved meats, etc.. £211, 564; tallow. 
hides, leather, <tc., £677,064 ; total, £1,666,302. If we add to 
these figures the iously shown, £7,149,787, 

wo arrive at a total of £8,816,089 as eke produce of our pastoral 
industry in 1881— that is to say, an increase of over 2- millions 
upon tke returns of 1871. It is more tkan probable that the 
surplus over the advances on the clip of 1881 would bring up 
the value of our pastoral produce to considerably over ten millions 
sterling. 

Agriculture. — In my review of the progress of our agricultural 
industry during the ten years 1862 to 1871, I find that I divided 
the period into two equal parts, as offering a 1 tetter illustration of the 
advancement that bad been made in this hut ortant branch of in- 
dustry. I struck the average acreage under crop of each quinquen- 
nial period, in order to reduce the figures to a more reasonable com- 
pass, without in i ess or accuracy. What did we 
find then? We found that from 1 ^62 to Lm5<; the average acreageof 
our principal crops under cultivation was as follows, viz. : wheat, 
124,666 acres; maize, 101.225 acres ; other crops, 125,614 acres 
—making a total of 351,505 acres; whilst the acreage of the 
second five vears (1867 to 1871) was: wheat, 160,965 acres; 
maize, 118,361 acres ; other crops, 15,1,738 acres. The average 
acreage under wi; ■ _>!» acres, or 30 per 
cent. ; under maize. 17,076 acres, or 17 per cent. ; and under all 
other crops by 30, 1 2 I acres, or 2 t per cent. The average yield of 
the wheat crop over the whole decennial period was calculated at 
not more than 1 1 bushels per acre, which, at 7s. per bushel, was 
calculated to have iriven to the cui < L t< , in return for bis expendi- 
ture and labour, sons ■wiiat ui d< r £4 per acre. 

Well, now, let us see how we stand by the statistics of 1881, 
after ten years, as we would hope, of well directed industry. For 
the first five j& i ge acreage under 

wheat, 159,086 acres; maize. 117,872 acres . other crops, 173,109 
acres ; and for the second five years, 1877 to 1881, wheat, 
208,293 ; maize, 122,634 ; other crops, 272,349. Now, we notice 
here that the % .cage under crop for the five 

years '72 to '76, differ very little from those given in the years t>< 
to 71, showing a stagnation of agricultural industry during w 



THE PROGRESS OP NEW SOUTH WALES— 1872 TO 1881. 135 

ini ■'• rive years of the period unde 

numbers, 50,000 acres under wheat, 5,000 acres under maize, and 
100,000 acres under other crops. The number of occupiers of 
land, excluding pa>! ' ' *« stated, increased in 

the ten years from 2S.17 I to :?i>,0£fJ, or about 37 per cent. ; whilst 
the total extent of I ion was 706,498 acres, or 

alMU IS acres to each occupier. If we analyze the figures which 
denote the produce of the wheat culture, dividing them into quin- 
miial pc m Is, wo -lull Hud th. a rage result of close upon 14 
bushels per acre for the first period, and close upon 15 bualM ta t..r 
the second. I really hardly know how to arrive ■,- 
estimate of the value of the wheat crop per acre, taking the »▼**■ 
age of the ten yeaw ; but if I assume that it equalled the value per 
bushel set down as the average of the previous ten yeai», iti fair- 
ness may not be questioned. Well, then, the average value per 
bushel for the ten years— 1862 to 1871— is given at 7s. in Sydney, 
yielding at that rate to the growers about £3 16s. per acre j wtaW 
• T.uh.of the last decade— 1872 to 1881— show a .return l ol 
over £5 per acre. This is * J 1 ™* °f _ 

husbandry or a more suitable soil or climate for wheat culture 
•nought into occui «**»»£ ^ 

^ must not ovc; ^^VSS 

«m been under the average. It may, therefore, be assumed that 
• ' ■ Of ■ limate is less unfavourable to wheat-growing than it is 
found to he to other descriptions of grain crops. 
l Here again, as with her meat supply, Europe is no longei awe 
to ^ her population. If we sum up the total of gram crops in 

' «i - am . , s, ad compare them with coi 
Jnd a deficit of 8J million tons of grain, which must ^ jmpOTtod 
from other couur us that the breadth ofland 

"der wheat is diminishing, not in England only, but m Germany 
^ some other wheat-producing countries of Europe America 
h ^ hitherto supplied the deficiency ; but the increas ed deman d tor 
fought to stimulate its , • ^/"Xer 

that South Australia raises a ton of wheat for each head ot ner 
P°P«lation, and I tfevr Zealand are becoming 

^exporting countrieg _ when shall we follow their example 
^enca has an enormous population of its own to feed. _ Wben£ 

~ T mUSt E » ro P* look for f00d t0 SUPPly ^rSThe 
2* but to the Australian Colonies] It is ™ amfes J\f 7 ™ 
demands of the mother country must stimulate the growth of our 
^uraland pastoral ind ? strie s to a degree far beyond our 
S 0011 ^ 0118 - Europe paid for grain last year no ess 
2J*f ¥e "^ ™* 35 T Ul ° nS ' imported 

3 0Q d the seas. It should here be noticed that we nnporte* 
last year into New South Wales— flour, 33,047 tons, vaiuea a 



bushels, valued 



us vi hard cash gom- m: 

of our sugar industry lias l.oen v.v 




is, of tne 

nly 190,4 

the value of I r of persons engaged in *» 

search for gold during the decade 1862 to 1 S7 1 vari. d fr< .m U 1 
to 20,000, wW I ■ • • be number of 'persons engag* 

in gold-mining did' not much exceed 10,000. There have b#* 
produced during the ten years under review 2,095,6") 1 ezs.. c-t - 
aggregate value of £7,643,1 3,580,615 ;•" 

of the aggregate value of £ 1 ■>. 1 1 3,2 >-\ dui ig the decade whw 
preceded it. I am not sure whether the decadence of the gjj 
mining industry should be regarded as injurious to the permauf 
progress of the country. I am disposed to think that the divers 



labour into other less 



In- tt-n years lSii-2 to 1*71 our coal 
j of coal, of the value of £.".,141».77i 

r <k per ton. In the ten yours is] 



r-ili.'lfihourtliiHi-uhy'i.s lo^s precarious; and tin 

it any mention of oui tin < npp. 1, and L. k>~. n« di Je. Tin did 

', and the product of copper was sot down at .t ' - - 
"*-no shale at £:U.0:»0, nuddn- up the modest total ol £Sl.oi.> 
■ the following ! .ted to the courtesy ot 

Department of Mines, and I giv< 

Handeven'up ^ th.^'ear 1-71 th- . nly miiu >vls ^hhh hil 
V»o*ed were coal, shale, gold, c 

en added to our mineral 

' ','-■ ^withstanding the dem-as, 

^1, there has heen an increase in th 

taken together of from £l,47-"U7i\ m 1>I \\ V ' 

fenced in the year 1872, has mainly c 
tbe re has also been a considerable increase m the value ot tn 
£*« coal and copper. „ a .,, 

"* important progress that the mining 
qp^i 1 made is a PParent when we coi 

"!f Production of the past ten v,-ar.s v. id. that ■ i the production 
d 

s ending 1841, £81,275 j 18 

umf Ue ° f the coal ra ised prior to 1S32 is £4 194. Such 
tuT ^^ fail to show the increasing and national importance 
« mining interests of New South Wales." 



138 THE PROGRESS OF NEW SOUTH WALES — 1872 TO 1881. 

3. Trade and Commerce. 
It was shown in my review of the progress of New South 
Wales during the ten yeara 1862 to 1871, that the total 
value of our imports s. aw aid leached ±> 1.832,363— not to 
embarrass jou with the precise figures, nearly eighty-live millions 
sterling, or at the average annual rate of eight and a half million 
whilst the exports for the same period were valued at £74,148.e7o, 
or at the average annual rat..' of nearly seven and a half miliums 
The rate per head of the population was— for imports, £19 17s.; 
and for exports, £17 7s. : ' Ten years (1>7'- 

to 1881) the imports amounted to .£133,070,109, or at the average 
annual rate of £13,300,000; and the exports amounted to 
£129,609,204, or at an average annual rate very nearly 
approaching the imports, namely, £12,960,000. The import 
were at the rate of rather over £21 per head of population, and 
the exports at rather over £20. But there is a notia able Uj 
in these returns, as indicating the growth of our trade during the 
latter half of the decennial period, viz., that whereas the import 
from 1872 To 1*76 ivach-d £:><. 1 3.;.«')'.'-l, and the export 
£58,856,046— together, i'l 16,992,7 10,— the imports from In. 
to 1881 reached £74,933,713, and the exports £70.733,1^' 
together £143.6nW3. Th. -■ 1li:i- < . .d.-m-e a comniercal 
expansion of £28,891,133, or not far short of 23 per cent., mm 
last five years: whilst comparing the decade ending 18,1^ 
the decade ending 1881. a-, find tha ui ti l< expanded tx> 
£158,981,239 to ^6i\679.6l:;. being an increase of over one 

\eats. The .pi si 1 . to wh ivoit .his del-, can ulyll^ 

employment of money has doubtless very largeh inlhu-nc.d 
introduction and profitable investment, and the refinement ot '^ 
banking system enables us to do a business that would be q<^ 
impossible if we had to depend upon our own resource.-, am' '•': 
deprived of the powerful aid which the extra.-*-. 
velopment of tlie age affords to commercial and well drrec 
enterprise of every description. , 

Shipping. — In order to carry on the trade just ret. u dto.it^' 
be interesting to notice the expansion of the shippi 
that purpose. In 1871 then- were . nt< red iuw; rds ■■"■' i J'.""' 
equal to 706,019 tons; and.. utward^. 2, 1 23a .--els equal to,. '4. « 
tons; together, 4,(»U\.-.-K..fth.-airu'ivmter>unaue.. i l.'» -,. 
tons. In 1,-1 there were entered inwanU 2.234 w-w-K .;;!»*;. 
itwards, 2,103 vessels, equal W M^ 
ssels, of the aggregate tonnage o* '•- 



nprised in these two F poa> 



THE PROGRESS OF NEW SOUTH WALES— 1872 TO 1881. 139 

i m that whilst in the number of vessels employed in the trade 
paordinary expansion, yet in the tonnage of those 
an increase of 1,286,021 tons, equal to 85 per cent. 

Kitttvu or twenty years ago t n- 1 gei sailing-vessels which fre- 
quented this port, of from 1,000 to 1,500 tons burthen, made not 
"•:>!! more than one voyage in fhe year, whilst at the present time 
At trade is carried on by a fleet of powerful steamers averaging 
3,000 tons, and making three trips in the year. The statistics of the 
ii 'tlier country show us tliar tie tmud> rand tonnage of vessels 
n!t la>t year 'in <{iv;i ilinn , . .. 1 nv riling before known, 
dunlin round niimhev.-, o million toi^. Indeed, the carrying 



t simultaneously with agricultural decline the wealth of 
try seems to increase. The Australian Colonies must 
- v 'y I'uni, iouo in rli. i vt ension of her 

commerce brings to the mother country ; and New South \\ ska IB 
! -ulur. with her gre I ■ her unlimited 

supply of coal, he, .,,1 her free-trade sympa- 

^ «houM of all others take the lead in the race of commercial 
i'l^ess which the facts 1 have stated present for our com- 

.. A * *e close of the year IS? 1 there was, in coin and bullion, in 

7 ™Jd Mint, in 1 v. and in the several Banks 

tftheColony, £2,5 inthe Banks, £7,043,885 ; 

** m the Savings Banks, £945,914— together, £10,512,185; 

lT , N t " ^\, om t . n million, ml a half sterling, or about £16 

F r head of the population. The discount, mortgage - 

mw 1 " 1 Cr ° ps counted in round numbers to eight and thm- 

ib. Let us see how we stood at the close of lbbl. 

the Mint, Treasury, and several Banks, 

; ■■•.'■•\:;i:i: ,} 16; deposits in 

£35 per head of the total population (£35 >5s. ), 

I de what it was ten years ago. Inese 

gw» bear ample testimony to the great advancement in wealth 

beZ + ! racterises the hi^ory of the last decade. There is no 

£T t St ° f the Prosperity , A *>unt of deposits 

Wl fi! U ] gS J> ' though far trom 

ofavl hnft ^' .ures before us 

see i! a ^ 88io] the industrial classes. We 

nat whil st - : , vea rs ago did not exceed 

,4 JL£ *** head, the average on the 31st of December last 

sent^kaafi, savings repre- 

m b y the two millions and a-half in the Savings Banks 



140 THE PROGRESS OP NEW SOUTH WALES— 1872 TO 1881. 

are not perhaps one-fourth of what they ought to he if our 
people were taught to exercise a little more self-restraint) 
at the sacrifice of a little present enjoyment to make pro- 
vision for the probable exigencies of the future. It is no 
exaggeration to say that there is no country in the world where 
the hours of labour are so short, the remuneration so liberal, the 
necessaries of life, on the whole, so moderate in price, and the 
means and opportunities of enjoyment so largely availed of : ! 
we are a thriftless community, as is amply evidenced by the large 
amounts of eleemosynary aid contributed by the State and br 
voluntary contributions in support of charitahle institutions.' 
ceeding, as it does, £200,000 a year, or at the rate of 5s. 6d. per 
head for every man, woman, and child in the Colony. 

The discount- t the close of 1*71, and t 

mortgages on land and live stock, and the liens on 
amounted to nin< i 1 a-h ill' i lilli uis sb ling : 
of the year 1881 they amounted to :— «'i •■■!;;.•■. -'- ■'.. '■•■'■ 
mortgages on la 

liens on wool, £904,011; ditto on crops, £42,255; M 
£31,774,224. The discharges during the course r.f the } 
amounted to £i urn of £i!6.:>7t.O»5^M 

net liability on the trade and industries of the Colony at the eta* 
of the last year. The net liability at the close of the year 1™ 
was £6,906,066 ; at the close of 1871 it was £8,733,847, and at 
the close of 1881, £26,974,068. 

No greater evidence could be adduced in support of the con 
elusions to which this inquiry has brought us as to the marvello l 
development of the trade and resources of the Colony. I _ d0 ^ 
think that we have any occasion to be alarmed at the magnitww 
of our credit system. If m on there is noting 

to fear. But money won't manage itself, and we have seen 
we have more than three times the money to look after that 
had ten years ago. It behoves us, then, to study and examine i 
system on which this large credit is worked, and assure 0, "*|L 
of its soundness and rectitude. Our large monel 
are, perhaps, watched over by men of business habits as keen 
able as are to be found in any part of the world, and they vj 
readily recognize where capital can be safely advanced to pe 
capable of understanding the opportunities constantly presen 
themselves in a new country like this, and making a good use 

At the conclusion of my review of the progress of the 1/u ^ 
from 1862 to 1871 I find these words :— " We appear now J 
on the threshold of another epoch of excitement and P^PV^ 
and whoever may live to see the decade out may have aB J a f ^h 
story to tell of the country's progress, far outstripping that 
I have been able to show you to-night." By the merciful v ^ 
dence of God, I see around me several of those members o 



THE PROGRESS OP NEW SOUTH WALES— 1872 TO 1881. 141 

Royal Society who listened to that paper, and they will be able to 

;:!,''' in. how far the picture brought forward to-night transcends 
that presented in 1872. In 1871 the population of New South 
Wales was 519,182 souls, !mr iw.w * i* £2,727,404, and her 
trade amounted to £20,854,540. In 1881 we have seen that her 
papulation had increased to 751. 4G8 souls, her revenue to 
17.377,786, and her trade to £33,458,8-29. The tra,h_ inward* 
and outwards, per head of the population, was— in 1>< 1. at the 
tftt of £40 3s. 4d; and in 1881, at the rate of £44 10s. Gd; 
£5 5s. per head in 1871 to 
881. Figures like these be- 
token a development which few countries can equal ; but whether 
or no we can boast of a • '^ in all those 

hi™ which «o to form ' ^ ifc is W ™ 1 

the province of this paper to discuss. The question admits of verv 
aerious doubt, and ntl y, as it may happen to 

be regarded in its social, moral, or religious aspect. I would only 
express a hope that, with the increase of our wealth, we may not 
be unmindful of tlu» ■ i isun which arc necessary to promote 
toe true happiness of the people, and to develop in the rising 

tbri.il that is'u I ami pure aval lovable in our 

human nature, as well ;•..-, h.u.Pi. no r<> tli ir 'ui^fiiu ^ hm after.' 



Discussion. 
ils. G. A. Lloyd hoped this paper would appear in print U 
nuhl gnr rli. uemhers some , 



^ .;.',V,:..; 



'^'Ihe woll. ,i this subject, and see 

!-■■; 






» loQ g, the first eo ! i M entertained by 



the late Mr. Mort, who spent a large amount of money in e 
vouring to develop these shipments of meat to England. No 
means had been discovered for sending it they had not the a 
to transmit, and it was evident from figures quoted by the Pra 
that an enormous market was to be found in England t 
quai it \ of meat sent then;. It was true thai there 1 '1 
falling off in the production of gold, but a similar dech -mi< 
noticeable in California, another auriferous country. Hut 

been followed up by the people of San Francisco, and many rw 
had become immensely rich by following up silver-mining, 
were large deposits at tab 

were deficient in the necessary skill for developing this i v. ; 
branch of mining business, and it was surprising that ti. :■ 
not before now men coming here from San Francisco aca;.- 
to the working of this business. The remarkable increase 
tonnage of shipping stance, and it 

puzzle to business men how it could be possible for this cc 
to employ the enormous amount of torn ag> throw n into it ' 
the last two or three years. He could well remember ta 
when a vessel came here one- in six weeks, and when poopl. 
away in crowds to the Flagstaff to see it come up the harbour 
now, in lieu of the small vessels of former .lays, we had eiio 
floating palaces coming in. show ing a d>-\ elopment in trad, 
rapidin luic-iualh ' in any other country. It would he • 
to tsnd'in the future that *thcs< enormous vessels left a han 
profit to the shareholders of the respective Companies in 

to the President for his very excellent paper, the disc.:--.' 1 
which might well he extended over to the next meeting . 
Society. 

Mr. "Wilkinson, Government G logist, quoted f t> 

of the Colony, although the production of gold m 
Mr. Chas. Moore, Director of the I • 

to the question of water eonseiw tion ; whilst Mr. Alex. 
, attributing the uei; 



On some Carboniferous Marine Fossils. 



[Read before the Royal Sock >t </ i/X.S. ii\. '. Ortukr, 1SS.3.] 

I exhibit to-night two good specimens of Aplmnaia mitchelli 

(M'Coy), and a very large one of A. urj.mtra (IV Koninck), which 
I think is larger and better preserved rhan any which have hither- 
to been found. As no account exists in English of the nature of 
these fossils, a few wort 1 s wi [ aheontological 

students. Among I o Europe by the eminent 

explorer, Sir T. Mitchell, and aHo bv the \Wx. W. B. Clarke, to 
?! ie^orSedgwich. th r, w<>iv a feu specimens from the sand- 

',„ ' W< Lt .us.' Wevr, 

- 

equalling the wi, ly oompwtt ,1 

,', p, ,j u , i-ved. dos. to the anterior 

^anterior side nearly stn ncate surface, 

S , Vi nUmerous strong,' coik-.-i ! i ri r- u n des of growth. 

Afie hinge margin of this species is much thickened, which removes 

' ' : while. ;l s in iM-inv of the German cretaceous 

™*nm, it is nol , , ay traces of the transverse 

tW CIltary Pits ' nor can we be sure whether thesespecies posted 

m or not. Meanwhile E shall leave the present species in the 

r^l? nU , S as [i ' even if futUre 

shoiiMf Uld P rove that ligamentary pits did not exi>t. we 

sent Li^ a distinct S enus : h - like th6 prG " 

imeston^ are 

^guoshed fro ; ( , U1))UH yW „/« of the 

^^Pfkozuh ey have been confounded 

^* thick sh, ngp mardn. 

lines; width, one inch 

half. I 

• the first to mi 



ii ON SOME ( 

It will be seen from this passage that Professor M'Coy, while 
lacing these fossils in a n 

ffinities of the form. It remained thus until the year lN\ 
hen Professor D. Koninek, in lm.hu ami d< cribing the whole 
f our fossils, created for this species the -onus Aphakia [a^ivk 

n obtuse posterior wing. Hinge straight, apparently _T.yith.-i.: 

, certain spe«i 
double, very 



little be 


hind 


th< 


hinge 


ma 


eharaet* 


r is, 


of 


eourse 


















md 


/)///;>• 






-■■Jul 




»le /„ 


: ;:: 



I the other j larger uniform, neares 
borbicular. Foot impression (1) I 

gin, and very small.'"* The generi 
aainly depending on the musculo 



lus. The right valve of the : 
never seen An Aph 



itions. The test appears to have b. 
e only manifes ing . somewhat 

near the border; one oval, 3 centimetres in its g«"~ 

A -. u * -.- . -•■'-- - ; _ ■ ■"''-.• 

par L. G-. De Koninek. Brass 
1 these fossils are gi T en on beautifully executed lithographs. 



idling with the other, which is 
arginate by the entry of the < 

l11 and faint, situate towards i 



hich was the only one ever foun 
utimetres ; diameter from the 
length of the hinge margin, 9 J 
I 3 at a distance of 6 from the " 



less at the thickest, portion, 
edge. It is probable that these i 
•rmation. The strata at the Cei 



rounded stones and pebbles, varying from ', ^ an inch to i 

\'-liicii I exhibit. I have not as yet examined them mi > [■- 
<%• The thinness of the shells, the deep sulcated growth, and 
the character of the shells themselves, all point to a I . . -u 
vater deposit, such as we find at the 

imulate. It is very di 
°ut any affinities to these fossils am 

have some of the characters <f (V/V, < «<■> ai.'J 
:-'<';>: and therefore we < 

■ '■ .. ■:.■ ,.: ■! ■ 

I irtfer gtabcr, 



Pleurophorus, which may prove 



)K OF PLATES. 



Mesozoic Fossils from the Palmer Rb 
Queensland. 



[Read be/are the Royal Society ofN.S.W., 4 Oct.ho; /.-..] 



At ono tiino it was believed that there -w 
V -tralia, and this, coupled with the exi 
forms of animal and vegetable life on 
'"any to think that most 'of its :iiv:' had existed as dry land since 
' lifozoic tiw.'s. Hut a= oarh as l^U Lrkhhardt records some 
? * t wK ! ( i, i l-l Mi 1 11 i i I s 0, 

found a Belemnl . in the same Colony.* 

The Rev. W. B. I that, between the years 

18ol and 1853, he had received a portion of an Am iiouit- tr. ia 
the Clarence River. In 1861 Mr. F. T. Gregory found In ., ", 
; ! 7.""" ; '-. i-c, in strata on the Moresby Range, Western Aus- 
I . m in a paper to be cited presently. In 
the Journal of th . of London for 1862 (vol. 

JJWi !'■ 244) Mr. paper on the occurrence of 

Mesozoic and Permian Fauna in Eastern Australia, in which he 
announced the disco vevv of a lai-v s.-rios of fossils of secondary 
ag l on f* Fitzroy Downs in Queensland. _ . ,. 

he nrst announcement th r f . < ' • •• >- '■"-'■ ' ' " r " ';' f 
untry Was made hj Professor M'Coy, of Melbourne, who, in 
n^ D '- read a P a P er before th< -oria on certain 

yuc remains I I Suti i J lai < 

K the tester] [ers River, at the base of 

2^^™ ^eldc^ 



...rM-Cy 



148 MESOZOIC FOSSILS FROM TIIE PALMER RIVER, QUEENSLAND. 

formation existed in Australia. Previous to this Mr. A. Gregory 
had, in a paper read before the Geological Society of London,* 
doubtfully indicated cretaceous fossils in latitude 30° 15'. 

Other papers announcing further discoxeries, written by the 
same author, will be found in the " Annals of Natural History 
for 1867," p. 3,3-"., and the "Transactions of the Royal Society 
of Victoria for 1868," p. 41 ; 1869, part 2, p. 77. In 1870 Mr. 
Moore read a paper before the Geological Society of London (see 
vol. xxvi, for 1870, p. 226), on Australian Mesozoic Geology aii'l 
Palaeontology. In this paper many species were descri »1 
figured, and it is undoubtedly the most valuable contribution t > 
the palaeontology or Vu- i ■ m >:-:<nc rocks that has yet been 
made. In 1872 Mr. R. Daintree published in the same Society s 
Journal, vol. xxvii, p. 271, a very lengthy report on the geology of 
Queensland. In ; p< r 31 r. R. VJ h y<U- >'' - 

c.-::-< I:.- ' . - 

of the int. rior . f the < .lony. In February, 1880, Mr. R. ll-Ji-ni. . 
jun., read before the Royal Physical Society of Ediid >urgh ' see 1 
ceedings for that year) a paper on a collection of fossils fr *m >■ ' 
Queensland. In this essay there are full descript to 
of manv pakvozoic fossil 

figs. 55 to 58) of a new Cretaceous Crioceraa (( . ' 
found by Mr. Jack in the mountain sources of the river Tate. B 
very far from tl, ■ 3 1 . rl „ it- >n 1 i i L -ti« id. In July, 1880, Professor 
Tate read before the Royal Society of South Australia a description 
of a new spcei- the mesozoic strata of Central 

Australia. (See Proe, vol. iii, p. 104.) In the Southern Science 
Record fori--! ' ,||U1 ' U 

fossils on the Burnett River in Queensland. This list m. 
the paloeontologieal literature on the mesozoic rocks known to n^ 

connected with most of the foss •> 

3 in the foregoing | w 
beds in which they occur are rarefv described. Tins ha- ai'_- 
partly from the fact that the specimens have be® 
those who knew little of <_ 

through two or three hands before reaching the geologist VvL<- 
scribed them. But there is another reason for this. in 
mountain rang s on th < stern sid. of the ta 
fossils occur ie creeks, am. ^ 

tirely unconnected Avnh an v keds or st rara. This k the e- . 
believe, with bl Tate River. In ™e «« 

those now to be described from the Palmer River, about loU fflu rf 
north of the Tate, the same thing is observed. In the cour * 
the stream. »] L«OZoic roC f S ° ]rl] A 



intone, large 






MESOZOIC FOSSILS FROM TIIE PALMER RIVER, QUWWSLAJTO. 149 

clav are found. They vary in size and shape, but are generally 

r undtd, and about (i to lit in , m ili uneti r. A good many of 
them are septaria, whieh, whoii divided and polished, are of groat 
b-autv. Others, when < iref ll\ divid '. revi d fossils in a mere 

edieonnected - mesozoic basin of the in- 

terior. They have been broken up at the upheaval of the table- 
land and denuded away, and these nodvles scattered on the 
I tfMWorees all over the most elevated portions of the plateau 

testify to their former extent. Possibly, however, undisturbed 
portions of the strata will still be found. In nearly every ease 
•'■" v, mains preserved are those of Cephalopoda, the only exception 
'■ - My.il Ida', some very imperfectly preserved brads! .p-da, 
which cannot be determined. It is no unusual thing to tmd 
i-.s.sils of only one or two kinds preserved in strata. Thus, in the 
eocene rocks of Mount Gambier only hrachiopoda, bryozoa. 
!"t.':,, urchins, with a few of the corals of compact tissue (Ocuh- 
nacete) are found. All other remains have been removed, and 
show their former presence as casts and cavities in the rocks 

I ' M ' in iti .n «,f this lias been given by the able researches ot 
?fcH. C. Sorby, F.li S., and h is be. n all ady ret rr, 1 to by ' «.' 

II if"Vlu t r|..p t ]-. it appears that the carbonate . ■ 

: in a chemical, not an i 
aragonite or ealcite. Thi i f o impound, easily 

jwomposcd {l „d | I cal< fce, on the other 

■ ! - ■' asting decomposition. Now it is found that those organ- 
isms m which only casts ar 3 found belong to genera in which the 
donate of lime , easily pensh- 

J n g, while the pre he carbonate o 

' ltte has existed in the form of ealcite. But this , 
J°t meet the case :, these nodules, 

because, first, the v. and not lime-in fact, 

here seems to be he Cephalopoda 

J^^J those in which the carbonate of lime exists in the 
rmofaragonite. Possibly 1 •, e m their ae- 

;™ S S 

ay around, wnicn r 



and they owe their preserva 



entirely 



'■sis borne out by the facts, 
S ^ Seen > I *™ informed, at Hughenden, and those are not 
Th eexcepion 
.„, ;illlllIt 4 inehes thick, full of 
. The rest of the fossils 



taimvi \l Vrj hend " 1 ls > Etll « Tlie 
ailwb hor izontal calcareo-ar 



lcareo-argillaceous^ 



About 



i y ° nd ^is locality hundreds of belemnites _- - 

,urf ace of two ridges, but they are rarely found in the soft 



150MESOZOIC FOSSILS FROM THE PALMER RIVER, QUEENSLAND. 

shales, says Mr. Daintree, which crop up under the Desert Sand- 
stone. Anion-- ich] have to deal are three 



(p. 258), a note isadded by Professor J. Morris on the BdemnUes. 
He says :— " Of 1 ■■ in the Australian collect^ v. 

sent me by Mr 0. Moor* , th. tir^t, .1 i _« phi Lgmocone typical of 
the oolitic system (meaning by this the whole series of beds_ from 
the middle lias to the Kimmeridge clay inclusive), is ."»■:> m< i - 
long, its greatest diameter 1'75; the section nearly circular. 
Above forty septa can be counted, and the whole number must 
have been fifty without counting the last chamber. The septa are 
a little oblique, advancing in the dorsal and reth 
the ventral face, with a slight lateral flexure. Depth of tie 
chambers about one-sixth of the diameter. Siphuncle clear y 
internal, its section rather elliptical. The phragmacone is nearly 
straight, with an angle of 18°. Of the guard only a slight 
s can be recorded. I cannot a 
,„,„ characters/ 1 From 
In many particular . mi i - *■ — i L « mv. ,p..n.K with the above, bu 
the difference will be seen from the following diagnosis:— 

Belemnites selheimi, n.s. PL 7, fig. 1. Phragmacone extending at 
an angle of 17°, circular, broken at each end ; 100 millim. long, ^ 
millim. at broad end and 15 millim. at narrow end. ChaW 
—twenty-live in number. bu,' a lu ;-' 

tin dowdiau. uid i, tn < on tl ^ntnl *ith dij.t 1' 
flexure. An obscure carina on the dorsal face, with a distinct 
shallow groove for the whole* length. Siphuncle 
with matrix, and not verv visible. The fragmeni 
that of Professor Phillips, and the chamb, i . : uv iel n\ '} ; ' , 
as there are fewer by fifteen in very nearly the same L< n S^ 
dorsal keel and obscure shallow groove are also very distuat. 
features. I have given the species the 

, t present acting as Warden s 
Charters Towers. Mr. Helheim has made mo- 
tions and collections in geology and zoology on the Palmer ■ & ^ 
All my Cretaceous specimens from the Palmer River were obtam 

A m nw.ntes olene, n.s. Front view, PI. 7, fig. 2 ; side v»*'5j 
fig. 1.— Fossil much compressed, periphery narrowed to an 
angle, whorls 8| probabh. ^ich is a PP* br0S 

naiTow, is covered by the matrix ; surface crossed by ™™**-0 
obtuse sigmoid ribs, which are rather acutely bent in the nu 



a led lobes on each side. The specific name is derived from 
the elbow-like bend of the ribs. 

This ammonite is very near the A. bijlexuosus, D'Orb., of the 
Great Oolite, except perhaps that the keel is not so acute, but a 
very satisfactory comparison cannot be made, in consequence of 
lh< < vtfnt to which the fowl k Ul \eiul by matrix. Any attempt 
to liberate it only imperilled the whole specimen, as it was 
exceedingly brittle, so I have been obliged to leave many points 
ion. The species is, however, msily 
distingaished from all others described from Australia by (1) its 
acute periphery, (2) its broad sigmoid ribs. Eight species ot 
ammonites have been described from Australia. Four by Moore, 
™.:—A. aaknsis, var. moorei, Lycett. ; A. radians, Rem; A. 
brocchii, Sow. ; A. „,..,;■>..; ,.!,„!, •*. Schloth. None_ of these have 
any resemblance to this species. In all the shell is not acute at 
the periphery, and the ribs are close and numerous. Three species 
^,U,nW!,v Kthondu... mM.u-ly:- A.'-"" /""<<'. 1 >>'""-; ! " Va ;' 
"■''-/"W, Etht-r. : A. ( /tti, t (;r,«, Kther. ; A. s»thrrtarult, Ether. 

d baci and the riba are close. A. 

,.":; 

! " "d»><-ti in the almost smooth shell, with fine strife, _ which 
»• Etheridge regarded as represented by a variety -(A. mitcheuy. 
*• Aria was already described by Professor McCoy under the 
name of A. Jlindersifhe noting at the same time that he regarded 



Crioceras irregulare, n.s. PL 8, fig. 2.-Shell loosely and irregu- 
kdy coiled, who, the distance irregular, much 

^pressed at the sides, tuberculate, in sixteen rows. Tie fin* 
^obsolete, tubercles, three on each side, conical, short, close on 
the sides, but at an interval on the dorsal edge, then disappearing 
?**pt that a faint row, seen near the end of the fragment altera 
2 interval. Costa, of two sizes, the tuberculate ones large, 
^separated from one another by simple, narrow, round, unrtu 
^pibs, which vary in numbed between the tubercles from 
lW0 to thirteen. 

i 3 "P«ifi8 differs from the typical form of the gemis w t the 
^ "regular coi I .ines something of Ancyloc 



152MESOZOIC FOSSILS FROM THE PALMER RIVER, QUEENSLAND. 

quite blunt. M. Astier* a great authority on the genus, is of 

adult state, and tiiat in the former genus we never hnd the perfect 
mouth of the adult shell. Again, Pictetf states with regard to 
7bxv>cvw* that, from certain iacts lie had observed amongst the 
fossils of Switzerland and Savoy, he believed that the Toxocerat 
form and Ancyloceras form entirely depended on mode of growth. 

might he i.h 11 Ium I - ■ ■>■ .nd anotl i was so unrolled as 
i is clearly of the Toxocem 
form, audit- awtl. would be referred 

to that genu*. ' the matrix, the 

shell seem, to h a, ,ira hu-n, I out and ' eoi * mAncyhcro 

Two species of Cnocrms have been previously recorded from 
Australia. One is figured \ *P< * * ]vml \ 

referred to. / . . in the Proc. * 

the Royal Phyaieal Soci. ■ cit., p. 43). Mr. 

Moore's species, C. fltuiwfe, will be dealt with presently, t^ 
«™ yVa-A-a, Ether, is 4 ui. idiff. nt h, d from ours. The 
whorls are iv- ' . rib are proportionately 



Wight in ■ : ■ ftving the transverse ribs la 

forking on the si ie, and a rove of large compressed tubercle 
each side of the back. It most re- 
French Lower Greensand. I name it A. flinderm. " I ne0t 
point out that this is entirely different from our species. 
Crioceras australe, Moore, PI. 10, figs. 5 and 6.— I believe thfl 

which is thus described:— " Sh il 
rounded, incurved, the inner whorls rather 
separate. In the younger state, as seen in the r 
shell possesses * \fjg, rounded 

largest chamber measuring :\\ inches al the back, anc 
poss >s very acut ring i.ossesoneac 

the depressions between the ribs I 

block contai ibers of the shell is su, 

compressed on the back, and though it is iwt^compiew 
:tageNeocom. Lyon. 1851- 



tailed nearly twice the din 
lower greensand. Its orna 



,'pn t-hirkri, previously n..ti.-d. lV..i. 
is reasonable to infer thai 



f i :, 



ar e the same. There are fragments of what may he another 

- <>f < ,'m, m„.i tl hen r. }„,Ln, L ., ^IulIu i - . 
b 'es in not being cmiipiv - hand in the tubercular nhs having 
°wy two distant tubercles at the side. But there is only one such 
1 ' l'^-m-ed. Fra-ment.s of the inner coil can be seen showing 
the whorls to he d -Mehe I, regular, and close, as in the species 

■ ]r i'M<'8 inflat us, Moore PI. 10 h>. 7.— "Shell smooth, slightly 

,iid-it l,i n-ui i- 1 N'^tuiul-^^ 

. ... ■■ •■ ! ■■ ■ ■ ' ' '■■' ■ 

b U is to be dis- 
«\v. its mure extended 

tZ° e * 8m P les are in the Ai ^ <* wlllch ar0 

ilia." 
Abe > above diagnosis corresponds very exactly with two speci- 
r^IWe, uhlethe size of 

£j tfi gwed by Moo so three otht 




the oolitic appearance of the rock is most mi iking. The marked 
character of the Amnu>uli< is r\ en older. Uut, on the other hand, 
the species of Crioceras, the shelly mat t -j- !n\ in-- n.-arb ■!>.■: 
peared, are fossils of quite another horizon, probably like [li- 
the Flinders River. Neocomian or Lower Cretaceous: The 
matrix has a different aspect, aiul dm shell -s are fresh and new- 
looking. How are we to account for this mixed fauna ? If the 

puzzling. Seeing, however, that they are found as nodular masses 
in the beds of creeks, there is no diJ 

association. Both are derived from beds of different age, which 
have been broken up and denuded away during the upheaval of 
the table-land or during its subsequent sui -aerial history. lt» 
not at all improbable that we shall in the course of time meet 
with other and more interesting relics. I could have nrocim 
many more but for the difficulty of carrying I 

so extensively distributed that large collections will surely soon 
find their way to our museums and learned Societies. 



,de view, r^ -■ Ln0it " 

.,.r,i*austr»b:, with part of* 



4 C vu u 

5. C. JACKI 

6. Mytilus; 


i (?), Etheridge. 




EXPLANATION 


Plate VII. Fig. 

of nodular clay. 
Plate VIII. Fi 

Plate X. Figs. 5 


Fig. '■>.' Front view 'of 
i and & Two views of 



Jour Roy Soc NSW Vol W. PI / 




fy 2, Ammonites olene 



Jour Roy Soc. K S. W. VolIVI. PI 8 





B 





m 




Notes on the Aborigines of New Holland. 
By James Manning. 

[Read lefore the Royal Society of N.S.W., 1 November, 1SS2.~] 

I* 1844 and 1845 I had the privilege of taking l 



that time I resided at Cumbamarro, very near the outside 1 
danes of the then location of settlers to the south, and near the 
i River, and for ten years prior to my Jaking such 
writing I was a resident of those parts. 



For the first 



church south of the little on. tha ng l!"ng, i M > l 

f ag- The cities and towns of Goulburn, Yass, Albury, and 
: i iot exist. It was a common parlance amongst the 
early settlers, when ti-\. lliie- -mth, before Goulburn and lass 
townships were f, . to *iy that " there was 

no bunday after crossing Mvrtle Creek," which is a " ~~~ 
ln g old Bargo I ! | Picton, and I 

*dyfrom Sydney. ^r came to 

Jrtnet at any tun I il many years later that 

£ attempt, in vai * that locaBy ' 

™° the Queei : t this Colony took place 

/hesefact^a,, 

a f on, apon the religious belief of the whole of ^e aboriginesoi 

i TJ in 

"It General 

5,1 met with fresh confirmations to the genera 

^fo fthel)1;u . k ^ m ,, . r d^ in all parts ot 

- Ne * South Wal< ' ; rampian Hills, 

^^eensland Hampton. At each such place 

W, ° f tneir fait * ^s in every instance represented toine a« 

I -ay further add my 

J? ^ without having visited the far interior of those pa 
sarTI v rke an d Wills perished, that the blacks are an o 



saw in the TUnsfrahd London News of that time the picture of 
two stalwart natives of that region, who were sketched from 
nature by one of the parties who went in search of those unhappy 
explorers. That picture represented those two fine-looking blacks 
to be minus the front tooth, which I considered had dcmbttea 
been knocked out under the sacred ceremony of the so-called 
" Irangung," the nature of which my notes fully explain. 

The extraordinary though incongruous parallel between :' 
r lit; inns l> li< f > : t\ ■ i tti\ , ■ f thi-> country with those of t; 
Hebrews or of I leal of douW ' 

cast on the ori<_< nts made by me. Many or 

those who read them pooh-poohed the idea of their truthfulness ; 
in some instances I felt myself to have been almost insulted K 
having propounded what seemed to be evidence of weak credulity 
on my part. I may mention that almost the first pewdn 
friend to whom 1 slm . 1 t\. ■ m , v. i. Mi « 
afterwards Sir Charles. He saw them when we met in 3I-. 
bourne, in April, 184 5. lie expressed himself to be much 
astonished at the lvvdat ms I. had thereby made, but could not 
divest himself of the idea that some, 'missionaries, catechise 
priests, or clergymen had been t imp. mi.: with or mIuoIu.' 
black friends into a crude hind of triuitarian belief : aifi 
expressed his opinion that tin notes needed coniirm ti 
other quarters ti parts only where 1 i - 

in New South Wales, and from whence I obtained my eg* 
and leading information. That confirmation I have since obtain ^ 
in various and widely separated places, as before stated. > - 
Charles (then Mr. Cowper) thought of these notes, so did *m 
many ; but when I hm them to the hue Bishop Brought-''- 
read, in 1851, he was so struck with the statements niade,* 
found them so Jly supported by |; hes !\ {or 

^ ■' : 

a copy of them to take wit h ' thxV ' 1 . l . 

there through one of the religious Societies. I ■ 
under a pledge to t n« >t to publish them in ay J 

until they had been published in England, for reasons wfi ^ 
appear to be just and warranted when the not 

■■■■■! • -■■ o.;. , ; ' . 

for England in 1 852 ; h ^ng home, a 

copy has never since been heard of." My original paper r ^ 
with me for twenty years afterwards : it was lent to van- ..- - ; 
among whom was the late Bishop Barker. At last, and a ^, 
year ago, this 1 1 1 friend to friend, also ^ 

lost; but fortunately (as the sequel will show), among «* # 
who had had the notes to read was the late ^^^T^tt 
had them in 1852, just thirty years ago, and wiiUS ' oB lj 
encamped near my station. By a strange coincidence 



i OP NEW HOLLAND. 



e months that our worthy 
[ heard me speak 



b them with Mr. 



with Lord Audley I 



' '■;'! juililio, there being no longer any reason for caution in 

making them known, my black friend*" Andy,'' who gave me 

:•,: ;• . a id the wlmle nv e 

of blacks in the ci their primitive 

- *e, and having decreed. 

dd, in confirmation of the i 
ness of these notes, that Black Andy was respected by all the few 
gentlemen who were in my neighbourhood; and that in my own 

*ith this fine aboriginal, whom I used to regard in the light of a 
natures gentleman," of no mean reflecting and reasoning 

- 1 vim 1 1 , i ] 1 i th I 1 u 

' me (singular advanl 

1 ' l I did. Mr. John Mawi knew i 1 is good " blackf ellow" 

will surprise, 

ind to give evidence of the tradition of the blacks 



unrloi m\ ,, fam «m\ with tin 






1 iin-h 



ii-1 hi a future state of reward and 
ae "Boyma," or Goo 
n the reading of my notes. 
alitvS n0te8 v ; 






1 the Hindus do theirs. 



In conclusion, I wish to say that the singular recovery of 
these notes is due to the interest which Lord Audley and 
Mr. John Mann took in them, so much so as to have copied 
them in detail unknown to myself, and that their resuscitation 
is due to the interest which Mr. Rolleston expressed about 
their having existed and been lost. To these gentlemen I wish 
to tender my thanks. Between us all these notes seem to 
have been destined not to be irrecoverably lost ; and now that 
I have them again, and that as I have nearly reached the 
full span of human life, I hope it may be accorded by this 
meeting that no more time should be lost to place them on 
permanent record, to which effect I have much pleasure in offering 
them to this our Sydney Royal Society. 

P.S.— The above constitutes my preface to the old notes 
which I am about to read ; iu ; bui since I have penned 
this preface, and, indeed, only this morning, I am phuvii 
possession of still furlher corrolioniUon of the originality of 
the subject matter of my notes. I had invited Dean Cowper 
to come here this evening, and, as an inducement I sent him 
a press copy of my preface to the notes, which lie returned to-day 
with a very interesting note of his own, part of which. 1 
sure, he would have no 'objection to my quoting. After infonnWg 
me that he regretted thai professional duties would prevent hm 
from attending this meeting as a visitor, he gives me the following 
information, whi.-li is mo'^.r iui.-iv-t in- .-i:d ■. 
confirmation to all I have written and said on the suoj«j 
Before quoting his words, I beg to say that I was pertec \ 
ignorant of what he informs me as having come from Archdeatfn 
Gunther and from the Rev. Mr. Ri< 

they had both written on the subject of the faith of the blacft 
years and years since the date of my notes ; and as they pe- 
tite same traditions, I shall quote them with 
satisfaction. 

The Dean writes me as follows : — « \ da not ' 
are aware that the late Arehdeaeon (Junther, 
pared a grammar of the .-.!..., _■;. I .1 _ ■. . - 

.'■!.. . !...:• 

],-,,., , • " , , . . , ■. - 

' ' \\, slant'-'"'- 
. 



ived far away, and that ~ 



i:>9 



men and reward good. This : 
Rw. Mr. Ridley, who was a missionary for about two years 
amongst the Kamilaroi tribe of aborigines on the Upper Hunter 
River. He also compiled a grammar, which I dare say you have 
■an : and in it he gives the same name for the Deity amongst 

1 aboriginals with whom 1"' had been associated, and whose 
language he had learned. I had a conversation with him one 
day, in which he referred me to his grammar, corroborating what 
I had heard from Archdeacon Gunther." 

With such unexpected corroboration of my own words, I end 
this preface by saying that if scepticism in this matter is still to 
continue, I think unite lie vers would do well to peruse the notes 
a second time carefully before they pronounce their judgment on 
; j 1 " revelations made, which were never dreamt of lief ore 1 made 
Jem public. To such sceptics I will venture the suggestion 
that they should consider how easy it. might be for intelligent 
niento pass almost a lifel inie among the blocks in any quarter of 
Jtis continent without scaring that" < ntire confidence" of even the 
test of the natives armmd ' them, through whom they might 
entrusted with their religious: secrets-secrets 
ot reveal to their own women at all, nor to their 
Jfuit youths until the latter have been sworn to reticence under 
^terrifying ceremony which inv notes describe. 

2 hcw ever, claim to have been specially fortunate in my 

- • ; ■ < . .- • ... ; • --.-M- -' •: 

are inquiries of 

tny notes confirmed in manner I have no doubt 

X ° TES os t he Religious Creed, &c, op the Natives of New 
J p h f . ab ° ri gines of the southern part of New Holland have a 

subWt • S ' T am of opinion that the same creed upon religious 
the whole continent of New Holland, 
at 1 i ° f their belief is called << Bovma. ' > 1. .. . h •" «>'. '^ L ? 
^ Sensed: a of beautiful 

W t S L PematUral a PP^ran. . * represented 

crystal of vast 

. ■ : , .,".,.: ,■ ^ 



160 NOTES ON THE ABORIGINES OF 


NEW HOLLAND. 


and his throne are countless rays of rai 


nbow colours, which are 


designatei! ' ; curanguerang." 






a great many beautiful pillars o 




, handsomely carved, and 


: matic colours. Thes 






This description of the Godhead hears 






? the 4tl 


:i chapter of Revelations. 


They believe in the existence of 






omniscience, and but slightly 






attribute. Him they call " Gr< 




y." His divine office is 


to watch over the actions of n 


i"d. 




dead to appear before the judgment-seat of his Father, who alone 


}'i-nnnm l( M - the awful judgment 




ial happiness in heayt-2. 


" Ballima," or eternal misery ii 






place of everlasting fire (gumby) 


. Their 


belief in God's creation 


of His own Son was explained t< 


> me thus 


by the intelligent native 
ition. " Boyma," on his 


from whom I derived my chief 


informs 


own creation, feeling " lonesome, 


" wished for a sou after In^yni 


likeness. He observed in the 


tirmament a li ■ 


blood, which, reaching with his hand, he 


placed in a crystal oven, 


and, m a short time, the Son of ( 




born a being resembling 


God and man. Boyma is desc 




of an incomprehensible 


greatness in appearance ; his Soi 


i they c< 








gent of his Father, *ho 




re. Tie 


> Son watches the actions 


of men, and quickens the dead 






interment. He acts as mediator 


for i heir souls to the great lT '' ; 


to whom the good and bad aetif 




1 are known. The »»* 


spirit they represent as belli" 




V part of the habitable 


world, spreading— as was o\pr< 




Ve-over the supp^ 


distance of England -in. 1 ^'l l - 






belief to beco-eipnd v.'i'rh hi ' \'[ 


(her ■ he 


/sees and knows all the 


wicked and good deeds of man 




it is not judge of the* 






day. 



^^ miu nave only spent some portion of their ]Wr± m wi 
ness. Boyn his So* [ 

There is a third j U of a senu-d 

iature,the great la i i 

■ 

mediate 



1 


. A ladder 

dm to the entrance of heave. 


ence of 


God to execute his mission t 




from them such laws as ma 




to the human race, espeeiall 




uvsoftVsaei d ''c^rol •• 



::• las virtues. He is the avowed enemy of all wicked men; 
misdeeds of such are transmitted 1 ■ v him tu Grogorogally, and hy 

Father and Son are onmhru'iit, ah odgeegally, alone of mankind. 
and himself living immortal in his own paradise on earth, has the 
power of visiting the heaven of Boyma. The happy land of 
Moodgeegally is supposed to he within three days' journey 
("nangery") of Ballima. U imbertess and 

wonderful featherless emus, ail' nl 1 m et rind happiness in his 
human occupation when not engaged in his divine mission to the 
abode of God, and from thence aqmn to the confines of this world, 
is to be unremittingly doing. From tins blissful 
region, far away to the north-. . - ami uh.'-iv land terminates, he 



«om the top of this i 
*here he arrives in t 
the Father and Son 



^ot fail to strike every 'reader" of these notes as showing a 
fog thceom- 

■ ' ; --5 . ■■ . .•:;.:...:■ 

d, I was told, 

.- di tam'e as far a! .art as "Sydney to lort 
their?" Th,U * Vl tel u ' l L ' f a spiritua 

4pTTv y fl * eqUentl y Visits tliem ' :u 

Pendwl !' Thisi ^>f a ervstal i itm from the heir i> - 
and wh ,a i? ea - Utiful cr > ^ t:J - sx ' ' r,! ' r v ' atl ' 1 t " lllotl " " ' 

'^PPosed semi i and priests. 



The wicked Boyma condemns to eternal fire in Oorooma. 
Grogorogally then hands them over to the devils outside of heaven, 
which are called " Wawamolong." These evil spirits are described 
as being of most hideous forms, and emitting flames of fire from 
the elbows, the knees, and the knuckles of the hand. These con- 
vey the damned down to Oorooma, where may be heard the 
frightful yells of the wicked ; they are then given in charge of 
lesser devils, and committed to the eternal " Gumby" fire 1m* 
devils are described as only half human in appearance; they nave 
long claws to their hands, with which they seize the unhappy 
wretches committed to their care. They are monsters, having 
ugly « heads as big as a bullock." The miseries of those suffering 
eternal fire were represented to me by my informant by mocK 
writhings of his body. * * * This severe description of eternal 
punishment by hell-fire is i other belief, tM* 

Boyma is never considered by them otherwise than as a bene? 
lent, though dreaded, being. The dread of eternal punishmeM 
acta forciMv as a restriction upon their conduct in life, and 
strains them from murder among themselves, or from slaughter^ 
of their own race, unless in the spirit of united 
revenge, which is not punished by " Gumby." No crimes, WJ 
believe, are so punishable but murder, falsehood, and adulter; 
when committed by married men. The act of thieving afflj 
themselves is wholly unknown, swearing is also unknown 
in their own la I • -inies as are heard from ^ 

are entirely such as they have acquired by their intercourse ^ 
Europeans. They admit they rob the whites sometimes, d 
not esteem this act punishable with fire. I remarked to - - 
that if I told the whites all he informed me of the 
and say " the blacks have been told all this from the wintes, 
M . h h „ w ;irkedj « Why , white eUow 

callbudgery u place heaven), or <***!' 

' Oorooma ' (1 .nor son ' Grogorogany, 

we blackfellow think and call them that way in our own «o> 
before whitefellow came into the country." He seem*^ 
amazed that whites might attempt to disbelieve their bi ^ 
on that ground. Their women do not go to hea 
have an imped there is another m » ^ 

them, but not in Ballima. The strange reason assigned ^^ 
is, that Boyma and Grogorogally, having no wife and n ^ 
will not admit the female sex into heaven, whether tney 

I was asked by Andy if we white people thought white ^ ^ 
went to heaven. On my expressing my assurance & J> ^ + 
pressed his surprise at our strange belief in entertaining^ ^ 
idea, Boyma having neither mother nor wife. *** , other 
when we die," was his final remark to this as to seve 



JTOTES ON THE ABORIGINES OP NEW HOLLAND. 163 

points in dispute. To women the grand secrets of their religious 
belief are wholly unknown. They are regarded as inferior beings, 
and that there is a law given them by Moodgeegally that 
they should always be kept ignorant of these mysteries ; 
for that, immediately upon the women becoming informed of them, 
there must be an immediate end put to the whole of their race by 
a general massacre, first of the women, and then each to sacrifice 
the other until the last man survives to sacrifice himself. So 
ngid are the men in the observance of this supposed divine law, 
that in no instance has a living woman been known to have an 
idea of their religious belief. 

It is the dread of this necessary destruction of the whole race 
that has in a great measure precluded the whites from obtaining 
information on the subject. I had in the first instance the greatest 
uee the men to speak to me on these points ; they 
^ired such secrecy on my part, and seemed so afraid of being 
°\eriieard even in the most secret places, that in one or two 
^stances I have seen them almost trembling whilst speaking. In 
one case I examined a native, and for the sake of secrecy made him 
J°me mto the house. He appeared willing to afford me inform*- 

on ; but he went two or three times to the door and window to 
J» « any being, black or white, might by possibility 

is respect he was perfectly safe, yet for further 
^nty he stood in the wooden fireplace, and spoke in a tone a 
A« «. e a whis P er > and confirmed what I had before hearth 

not !e r cautioned me to be very secret lest the station servants 
^t hear of it. j dxrat k This 

mat JL mai1 was the mo *t intelligent of those I 

won trom. He asked if I would publish my notes in England, 
nrioX T^ P roud to tM nk it should be done, and did not fear 
itZP trough that course. He said if his wife were to hear of 
to Jt *f . nim a question about it, he should immedi 
■ « aimseif and the whole racej Rg ordered by Moodgeegally. 

River I eXai!: - : - m tlie L "'' V " r La,;llkn 

i n^l/ ho cai »e from a distance of 300 miles, and was living with 
1 m the neighbourhood as servant, I had the oppor- 
e presence of my black 
nderstand. The Lachlan natives 

11 the others, excepting that he 

Wdnt Gr °goragally by the name of "Boymagela," which he 
GrC!^ nt Son of God or young god-a name as applied to 
UE^ly that Andy had never heard before. The other, or 

Mu^J f .Copied in his country. The Port Phillip and the 
«**bir ST* have another name for him, which I do not re- 

*» W nf !l!° UlS ° f the dead **» a ^ n SOm ^ erinte J m ^l 

^ ac y of the spirit of GrogoragaUy, who they say administers 



164 NOTES ON 

" water" to the relicts of the deceased men, which water of life 
being sent from the great Boyma instils fresh life into the remains; 
and when these are brought before the throne of Boyma, they 
instantly fall before his presence, when their spirits die a second 
death, as if to become abased before God and to throw off their 
mortal nature. Half an hour after this they suppose the souls to 
rise again in a wholly new and regenerate state ; or, to use Andys 
expression in his broken English, " They no good first time when 
come before Boyma — only all wild fellow and bail budgery (no 
good), and very miserable." After this new birth they become im- 
mortal. At this period it is that judgment of God is pronounced 
in command to his son Grogoragally. To those he has judged to 
be good, he orders the Son to put them into heaven— " Ballmm 
warrior bungandinge." For those he judges to be wicked he pro- 
nounces the judgment " Gumly ganoo niagroo " (" Let him burn ). 
These awards to Grogoragally are the only ones supposed to have 
been uttered by God in the presence of resuscitated mortals. 

The only prayer used is that at the interment of men, when alltbfi 
adult males of the tribe assemble, and having buried their deceased 
friend (ordinary men in the ground, and those who possessed author- 
ity in hollow trees), they all retire irregularly at a di 
grave, and all kneeling together clasp their hands behind their bads, 

and good deed , , j doring Grogoragally to inter- 

cede for his soul that it may be admitted into Ballima. AiteT ?^ 
prayer (which was represented to me), or just at its close, w 
have a strange superstition that always at this moment the a 
man is heard to kick in his grave, which is the signal that w 
soul has just taken its departure to heaven. The poor von^ 
never kick in their grave nor rise to heaven — no prayer is o 
for them. The custom of daily prayer to God is tl 
it is supposed to be only resorted to by those who have sinnea 
wish to escape punishment. As good men cannot have occ 
for such supplication, and as they say bad men cannot pro ^ 
it, it is altogether omitted. The use of prayer ai 
ridiculed on this ground, that men pray to Boyma and praise 
and rise from their knees and curse and swear and eo-jj 
rogueries. Andy's curios i r . id uced mm w ^ 

the Yass church recently, when he formed this opinion «, 
lower orders particularly; but he thought "real gent .^ 
seemed to profit by the habit of attending churches, as he 
heard them swear, and he seemed to entertain 
opinion of their moral conduct. Wicked men, though som 
unknown to men to be wicked, cannot screen themselves iru 
searching eye of Boyma. They, in common with other on 
are supposed to have a mark set on them, such as s» 
coughs &c, which, if they persist in sin, infallibly p 



death. J&ese afl I by Grogoragally to Boyma, 

who pronounces the judgment on them before me&ttofeted, vaft 

then they are handed over to Wawamolongs, to remain in eternal 
torture in Oorooma. 

re regarded as the expression of Boyma's 
wrath at some wicked deed perpetrated or being perpetrated l.y a 
man. It is regarded with great awe by them as by a 11 sa i n or 
1 1 • • '1 by all men who are wholly ignorant of the cause and effect. 
These natives do not think that some malignant being is the cause, 
as most other savages do ; they regard it (that is the men) as a 
d, proceeding from an angry God, who is never 
tigered by them otherwise than as a benevolent though 
dreaded being. When any recover from sickness or other calamity, 
it is supposed their guilt has not been too great for pardon, and 
gly restores them to health and vigour after their 
temporary punishment. Early death is supposed to be a sign of 
"oyma's wrath, for in the beginning, they say, all men were 
gjfted with longe\ - 3 them off in their prime. 

Old men must be good men, as Boyma would otherwise h*Ye 
vs. VVh.u the good old men become by their 
nature infirm and incapable of enjoyment, Boyma releases them 
. mip.i~i.., . , m,1 immediately they are trans- 
red t0 t]l e abode of the happy in Ballima. 
The religious mysteries are not divulged to boys until they 
^veatthe years of puberty, and not until the ceremony of 
mngung" has been performed upon them, a practice which 
may be regarded as a kind of adult baptism, as the boys are then 
nfH, ,° know aild belies t the religion 

ture of the creation of the world and of 
to believe in a future state of immortality and of 
oeuts. The age of puberty is adopted for 
h and from a care not to 
. ■; ''/- ; --:-- ■ -, ■ ■ . ..,,..::.■ ■ --' ■- 

of the nature of a vow or moral oblig 
Perfol^ t0 reveal - The a ge of the boys on whom the Irangung is 
Sm? 1S about fourteen ^ars. The blacks consider this 
il^^d, and to be especially sent from Boyma through 
*£ST$' The forms of ceremony involve the necessity of 
eeremnn ,, ntT ," sharp stone tools. At this 

Cd? \ hB n *bouring tribes for perhaps one hundred miles 

Cho TT Ji " ' : -■ The nien se ec VT 

S& d T^ynmy find from twenty to thirty fit for the 

the uJl n l Proportion to the total number congregated and to 

only ZfL * me da P sed since the last similar 0CCaSl ° n ' Si 

' CUra at Periods varying from one to three years. Thes. 



166 NOTES ON THE ABORIGINES OP NEW HOLLAND. 

youths being selected by the older men, are painted all over with 
red ochre and then formed into a ring. This being done, all the 
women and all the children over two years of age are ordered to 
lie down and to conceal themselves under their opossum cloaks, 
which they must do at the peril of their lives. The men then 
heap upon them light leafy boughs of trees, to insure their safer 
concealment. Upon this being done — and no white man dare lie 
admitted to witness the ceremony— the grown and selected hoys 
are, by a signal of one specially authorized, ordered to go off into 
the "bush" in a certain direction, and are accompanied by all the 
men, excepting one, who remains, spear in hand, as a guard over 
the women and children, and who is the one they say is gifted 
with sacred ai .. legally. Him they call » 

" Yaweyewa," and Andy compares his office to that of our priests 
or parsons. This Yaweyewa, soon after the other party is out of 
sight, tells the women to rise, and directing them a contrary course 
to that taken by the men and youths, accompanies them and 
remains on guard all the ensuing night. The same ceremony 
exists among the Darling River and Queensland blacks, where ■ 
is called the " Boree," for making youths men. 

At this time all the grown boys are conducted by the men to * 
most secret spot, where the ceremony of the irangung is completed 
The front tooth of each is knocked out, some ten or twenty men 
standing over each youth, pointing their spears in a men ^f° 
manner close to his person, and others holding his hair tign | 
make him swear most solemnly never to divulge to the * oro ?* 
and children those sacred secrets about to be told him. }oW» 
the affrighted lad is forced to consent upon pain of his ban» 
instantly speared and cut to pieces. The solemn oath being tfi 
administered to each youth »ta divulge to M 

youths their religious creed, and when the terrifying ceremony^ 
completed, they are taught a sacred song sent by Boyma , throu^ 
his Son Grogeragally and Moodgeegally. This song is held in ^ 
solemn reverence, and known under such severe secrecy, t 
found it quite impossible to make my informant reveal it 
My pressing him only seemed to make him impatient and aS ^ 
} LlTrfrom^further attempt 
He then said he was sure that I already knew more otwjj 
secrets than any oth r ' he was satl ^ 

that no others supposed i riained an t m ^ 

religious belief as h and others had. revealed to vie. 
cannot marry until they have -'.in- through the eeremony « 
gung, and any boy dying i> ism does D q» 



to Biillima, r si n-s the same fate as the luckh 

the death of a husband 1 1 

law to marry for a long while. Should this law 



ase him. 

The term corrobery is generally understood to signify a dance, 
whereas it is a changing ordinance of Moodgeegally, and is sup- 
posed to he transmitted from tribe to tribe from the far north- 
east. I cannot clearly understand this strange mystery, but I am 
aware that the ceremony is a very solemn one among the adults 
when it does take place. It has for its form the most curious 
Nfcfitg upon a sheet of bark, done in various colours 
<>t red, yellow, and white ochre, which is exhibited by^the 
"Yaweyewa" before mentioned, who is appointed by descent from 
Moodgeegally. This sacred cmvniony is as secivtly cmlm-h d 
«sthe "Iiangung" or Boree of the north. A gentleman of my 
hanced to come on a tribe whilst this ceremony was 
going on in a deep gully in the ranges. He had reasen to apprehend 
that some violence would be done to him for his int 
■MM*d by the intercession of one or two who knew him well. He 
saw the sheet of bark, and represented it to me as being most 
singularly painted, and was done so neatly as to resei 
oilcloth. It is consequent on these sacred <:,erad<m> that ti..-y 
meet and have those night dances which are ordinarily called 

To Boyma is ascribed the creation of all the heavenly bodies, 
^y believe the earth to be an immense plane, and fixed, the sun, 
a oon, and stars i give it light On my repre- 

fche rotundity of this world 
^d its own diurnal and annual motions, he was quite amused at 
0Ur str ange belief, and endeavoured to convince me we must be 
J/ong. This he did, not on the similar and false showing of Tycho 
Hrahe to the same effect, nor against the true system of Coper- 
^ Galileo, Kepler, Newton, and others, but a fortiori by Ms 
1 > ■ a* U Boyma's Ballima?" This I could not understand 
^ it was explained that the sun came from the neighbourhood 
°* God's heaven every morning, and, after running its daily course 
£F» them light, passed under the earth, and ^? ujd * 

w a for tL 

v^H could induclhm to regard m, 

^f cule, saying, « I would not believe that if everybody said 

ill T e Vil1 see ^™ ™ <*ie, but not before." 

^k S assert that Ballima is fixed in the north-east .that at 

^.^tinct, an d that connection with the - 

lt he topot which i~ 

honorable retreat, on which my opponent gloried ^ery mucu. 





it afterwards that 


Andy might, 


by hi> 


; own roas. 




fed what would be 


come of the stej 


,-ladd. 






and earth at the 


top of Blount I 










revolved as I • 




To Boy; 




the creation of the 




; therefore they h 




be self-created, ai 


id that he fori 






"" 


Upon this peculi 


ar point I asked 






for God' 




He replied tho 


,t he a 
















) be immovably fixed. I then a; 












in ['-all 


ima. Her 


that " ii 


b rose out of the i 


jreat water and 




"; but on 




iked to account f 


or the creation 








he replied that " ] 












ixedly at me, that " 1 






r one else— (' Bail 






' The sun 


l»-ii.\ .-' 


is only the orb of 


light, and not 






heat or 


' b 7 the g"»ter or 


• lesser eeliptiea 


1 alt it i 


„ie Of the 



:ie remarked 


1 that " 


if the sun m: 
,t for not make 


: 








the Pie 


- 






l altitude abo 


.. 


When 




- 




l this cluster <: 



■' ■ '. ■ ' ■_:--. ;:.'■■! : ""' 

i i I, ,■ their respective seasons. * 

obscure the bud in 



t think it possibl 



•vhichwrtH l,oni : ittlnsihih- 

lulty were not enou i. l! i '.I 

•. : ,,. ; .- -. .. • ■ '■' " 

~ i i^Milln ut! o , ,ih n 1m than iWti - 
C,J t!w exMit of gainin-: the natives to utter parrot-like and un- 
!s and prayers of no las! 

!',' k . have to content th. n lv. wit 

■■■:,:.•:■.,.,-,... r 7 ".,:.- .- : ■ ■ , : ■ ■' ; "^ 

the hope that if they obey the Divine Ia\ 
*em byhia Son "Grogoi i 

^•^U-jfiv LT ,onM..i;i.t ■■ I' 

» *eir women n £ and were not kept under 

WJ li tnUlge ' d ' fth^coun 6 - 

J^pable to any one who has seen much 

5 W very inferior the women are to the men in intellect,-- -an 

traced to the cause of Urn 
Jth the men the beneficial influence of 
range and absurd in sumo r< ^ <-K work* for good m 

Rim?"^* ° f the m «n, by *rTarJ and 

rards their ideal God and 

e God of their forefathers. 

Lumbum nzzo, Jugyong Creek, January, 1848. 



170 NOTES ON THE ABORIGINES OF NEW HOLLAND. 

Discussion 

In answer to a question from the President, Mr. Manniv; 
related an interview he had with Goethe, the great German poet, 
poet, fifty-one years ago, am f< ire he died, at the 

age of eighty-five. At that interview the question of foreign 
missions had been brought up, in which Goethe showed himself 
-.• I but little know- 
ledge. The conversation made an impression upon Mr. Manning, 
and it was in some measure due to it that he set to work in after- 
life to gather information concerning the religious belief of the 
aborigines of Now Holland. 

Mr. J. F. Mann gave very interesting reminiscences of his inter- 
course with native tribes in the Colony, he having spent about thirty 
years of his life in the bush. He had taken a great interest in their 
customs and mode of life, but he had never met one aborigine, not- 
withstanding the paper read, who had any true belief in a Supreme 
Being. They sometimes spoke of a god, but upon cross-examina- 
tion admitted that what they told the auditor they had learned 
from a missionary or some resident in the district. With ■ 
uncivilised tribes,* as it is wit!, not a f-u menders of ™i»t 
communities, curiosity is n hading trait. When the blacks were 
numerous and the whites few the greatest possible curiosity was 
shown by the former in the movements and actions of their "pale- 
faced brothers," and gathering scraps of information from them 
they carried the news from me of the gossips 

having fully developed imaginative powers, the stories lost nothing 
in the telling. From missionaries and residents they obtained a 
dim insight into the Christian religion, and by this fact some ot 
those who had ibes and had *****&»*** 

to the confidence of many of their members, accounted for p 
wonderful revelations made by some of the blacks 
their religion, which, as d^eribM bv Mr. Mai 
interesting "notes/' has a - 

in the belief in a Divine Being, a Son of God, a future heaven 
and a hell. Messengers were occasionally sent from tribe 
tribe. One of these couriers would often travel through it* 
bush a distance of 100 miles. On the arrival of one ot ^ 
messengers at a camp the talking at once ceased, and one oi^ 
tribe nodded in tin- direction of a certain portion of_the 
Looking in that direction 1 saw a blaekfellow coming WJL 
through the fore.t. ][.. ^mU.IU adsaneed to the camp <£ 
sat down abo,r , it He appeared to W 

no attention , IM| , lie held a s P"?l| 



NOTES ON THE ABORIGINES OP NEW HOLLAND. Ill 

greeted On his journey he had doubtless picked up many- 
odds and ends of news, and listening to his story the tribe sat 
round the fire all night, and no doubt wove into fictitious tradi- 
tions many a story to be told in the future to the white man. 
There would appear to have been among the tribes a national or 
religious custom of burying the members after death on the spot 
where they had been born. In one case a dying boy bad bee» 
carried on the shoulders of his father, and accompanied by the 
tribe, a distance of about 40 miles to the bank of the Hunter River, 
where he died about twenty-four hours afterwards. A deep hole was 
dug and lined with grass, the boy was rolled in a blanket, and placed 
in the grave. Then the gins cut their heads with tomahawks m 
token of their grief, and the men and women dividing, the one 
class went in one direction, the other on the opposite, and, rubbing 
Wr hands, raised a mournful song. On one occasion a gentle- 
man was dining at the house of a friend, residing near the 
M'Gregor River, when the cook ran into the room and said that 
there was a black man outside, who insisted on cutting down 
one of the posts of the kitchen door. Going out to expostulate 
*ith the man, they found him very obstinate, and it was not 
till the friendly medium of a bottle of rum had been produced 
that he could be persuaded to desist from his attack. Afterwards 
he selected a spot not far distant from the kitchen, where he 
commenced digging operations, and they learned then that at, that 
spot had been born one of the tribe who had died, and whom His 
countrymen wished to bury there. Women had also been seen 
carmng about the skeletons of men wrapped in hides, and seeK- 
! place of burial for them. In Queensland, upon the deatn 
ming sometime, for ^ the 
„„ she was interdicted from 
nple, anything that climbed 
W ui« she be again married till -he 
time of mourning had expired. She plastered clay on her face ana 
Jptfed it with her hair. A general impression prevailed that 
Sunder and lightning came from the evil spirit or " d^W^b 
™ during the continuance of a storm great respect was paid to tne 
Rested power of the " bad fellow. " Once during a storm a wnu 
y) *ho was assisted at his work by an aborigine, told his f ellow- 
*°*er in a loud voice to put the saw he was «^g ^5* Jjj 
* n(1 w go under shelter. He found that the saw had been i 
TO and the blackfellow who had got under cover was vey 
^jnt at his master having spoken at he had. "What for speak 
he, -now urn thunder hear and know ■where um 
g^ Vandhev, the ^ toaM r^AfeWi 

Z^onally g°t very mixed in their newly i 
brines. A blackfellow went up t 



homestead, and remarked to him, with an air of conciliation an<l 
friendship, "White one steal peach." The gentleman, knowi . 
that there was a large orchard near to the !; 
some of the no _,■ ; } m t upon making furtii-r 

inquiry from his informant he was told, " No, no : first lYIUv 
steal peach." The little transaction referred to was that between 
Adam and Eve. The account of Noah's Ark was a very general 
cause of confusion. As a rule, the aborigines wore t« -tally inl aj / 
of remembering quantity, number, time, or space. A pleasant 
little eeremon; - ! 10 y OU th of a tribe, on coming 

of age. into tin partieii iti i of certain secrets and privileges F-r 
some time previous to the initiation, about six months, the boys 
were starved down, and on the day appointed the tribe assemMni 
and the chief elder of the number knocked out the front tooth ? 
each with a stone hatchet. The secrets of the tribe were then toM 
them apart from the women, and they were compelled to sloop t ■ 
tho night on the graves of the departed patriarchs of their famili -. 
they being thus supposed to absorb the virtues of the deceased. 
One lad who related the storj ited to the narrator 

™ at h ': hm] T1 - : " 1 '!"'l with f.-ar and tl,. per>piration had poured 
from him whilst ho was taking in the essence of his deceased great- 
great-grandfather. The old gentleman had been a celebrated fisher- 
man and it was hoped hi a would follow in 
ins footsteps. Certain men who held the rank of doctors in their 
tribes always carried with them a crystal, which was supposed to 
be possessed of some supernatural power. A blackfellow, in whom 
ne had the greatest confidence, once took him aside in a most 
mysterious m Ied him t0 an inne r room* 
the house, and hat no prying ey« 
should watoli : r.-ning ear hear their \u.nb. 
be said he would show the white man his crystal, he being a 
doctor m his tribe. Tio ! clothing except 
his lorn cloth. He saw th . and then t!i.-p' 
gradually rose in his throat a little lump which ascended slowly 
to the man's mouth. He opened his mouth and spat out a 
«gW amulet He op in, replaced the 
'b-h. and the crystal returned down the throat. 31 r. M* 
as ' y ; ir " a h '^ auditors that he in person had seen what he related, 
and incredible as it might a fch< less time, and B 
be amulet he had no doubt i 
was now m the grave in the stomach of its owner. These crystal 
charms were supposed to render their owners invulnerable. W 
aborigines possess. ! , von ext< nsive knowledge of the property 

' -.■■ '■ ■ - ; ;--- . • . -- ■ 

afterwards they told to white 
whereas in truth they were but . 
mation they had picked up from 



Mr. Palmer said that his experience of the abori- 
era Queensland supported what had been stated in Mr. Manning's 
notes. He was quite convinced that there existed among them a 
belief in a Supreme Being. He offered to, at some future time, 
embody his notes in a paper to be read before the Society. 

Other members referred to the customs of the aborigines and 
their religious observances. 

A suggestion was made at the meeting that as it would soon be 
very difficult to collect any information from the blacks, who were 

they would soon be extinct, 
wise to collect all the notes in the possession of those white 
residents who had had i 

the aborigines in the early days of the Colony, in ord 
3 might be preset 

formant. 



On the Ashes of some Epiphytic Orchids. 



[Read be/ore the Royal Society o/N.S. W„ 



Last year I submitted to the Society _ „ 
constituents of some epiphytic ferns (Journ. Royal Society of 
N.S.W., XV, 173), and the present communication is a continua- 
tion of the same work on other aerial-growing plants. As there 
are considerable difficulties in the way of a resident of Sydney 
obtaining a supply of these plants, I have but few results to 
place before you— too few indeed to allow of much discussion, but 
I venture to publish such as I have, as the subject opens a new 
field in phyto-chemistry. , . 

As in the case of the ferns referred to, it was evident that in 
these plants the ich are present in consider- 

able quantity, are obtained from dust, as some was found in the 
axils of the leaves. This dust was removed as far as possible be- 
fore incineration to do so completely with- 
out cutting up the plants and washing them, which, from their 
succulent character was inadmissible. From this cause the cruae 
afb-es were found to contain from one and a quarter to nearly 
thirty per cent, of sand an< *** b ? * f™ 
reatment with i as has been deducted from 
the analyses, with the carbon dioxide and residual carbon, whicn 
™* not been done with the soluble alumina, M ,.™ ere .^V,, 
J^able ratio between the sand and it in the different plants. 
£«* a ratio would probably have been found to exist had no 
^n derived from adherent dust, as all the «f^2? ™£ 
^ed from the « brushes" on the ^^f^J^ 
3ut a further careful 

pffTI at a (luu red heat > aml 

f^ted at as low a temperature as i 



'-^iii^iri 



prevent loss oi u^» , . 
?2L« possible their acUon 



prevent as far as possible 



11 inches 
their a.llu.r. 



In the crude ashes 
ivhilst the roots, «fcc, 
;he plant had grown 



Phosphoric oxid 

Sulphuric ., 



n given 4-5b per cent. 

The small quantity of phosphoric oxide in this ash is peculiar, 
as is also the large quantity of soda; but second determinations 
te^ made by my assistant quit., ind.-pc-ndently, I have no doubt 
as to the accuracy of the numbers. 



A Fossil Plant Formation in Central Queensland. 



[Read before the Royal Society o/N.S. W., C December, 1SS3.] 
i ' i>n to l.i-inpr under the notice of the Society a fossiliforous for- 

>:«"a to Australia. Jt is situated on the central 

toe of railway, wlu.-l! ,. UIls w,-,st w.-ml from Eoekhampton to the 

towwai Range, a distanee of aUut 230 miles from the farthest 

: the Fit/my River, and nearly 300 miles from 

. ' sea - It is intended to carry the lim- i 

western watershed, but as yet it has not crossed the divide. It is 

this in tail ,1 in mnsid. tin- the relations of the 

cuttings. There is no part of the 

^tmeutwhereu ; .,s so far a curve inland 

2/? eSea - Even when th. 1) immond Ramie 

ud up- — -^ 



waters. 

■ i ■ ... ■ . • : '-. • ..,-,'. :;,•;;■ 

iper. In the Drummond J 

railway crosses is 1,840 
npton. 






^aon*? arou,ul - Th « '■'"■ k "»■"» low outliers from 
^d Range, g aot rU gged outhn 



180 A FOSSIL PLANT FORMATION IN CENTRAL QUEENSLAND. 

the country. The dip is very regular to the eastward, but the incli- 
nation is slight, hardly more than 10 degrees. At about 10 
miles from the range an anticlinal axis is crossed about 1,200 
feet above the sea-level, and then the dip is regularly to the west- 
ward, with the same or a less inclination. As the chain of 
mountains is approached, it is seen to consist of a - 
or escarpments facing to the eastward. The lines of bedding are 
very visible on all the sides of the valleys, and give the scene a 
remarkable and characteristic aspect. The sandstone is now ami 
then interrupted by beds of shale of a dark and earthy composi- 
tion. It weathers into a fair soil in some places, but is generally 
poor and sandy. 

A little beyond Bobuntungen, which is the last station on the 
railway, there is a heavy embankment, and the stones composing 
it are entirely derived from the sandstone range. At the first 
glance I was struck with the number of plant impressions they 
contained, none of them being sufficiently well preserved to adnut 
of their identification. There were some long, linear, narrow, 
ligulate leaves which strongly resemble the Cordaitt* •'■,'*!,•<«<* l : 
McCoy, to which r.t'eni,,-,. v! ill l„- made presently. It was found 
afterwards that these leaf-like impr-sions u-re in reality stems 
oiCala.nihs. The discovery of this much, however, encourages 
me to a closer and more extended expiation of ' 
and soon an immense number of fragments of stems of Lepidode* 
dron and Stigmaria, with CnJamib's, were obtained. I spent 
all a week at Be other wg 

■ : 

found an active co-operator in M 

who, since my departure, has been indefatigable in seeking 
well-preserved specimens from the abundance of fossils in 
locality. I have I :-,]■: r, -n ■ I tV..m him a small box o\*»~~ 
which are of ri hi.-h r.-vther witii - 

own collections. 

Before entering into a description 
to dve a retrospect of what lias be. . 

,...,r (Queensland. In i •■ 
the Rev. W. B. ( '! u k . F. K.S., in a pa; r read b. fore thf ^ 
logical Society of London (see vol. xvii, p. 354), 
<H'- UlTenee of shale, . lU( { ^rits <h: r-. I uth pi.i 
associated with ealeareous beds ! 
bonifcrous and Devonian zooh.iri<-al forms. Tl> 
Bowen Hi ver and other coal-fields. In 1872 v 
to the same Soci fcj ,, ski - -ii of th _ - log} 

; i' ^ ' ! ■ - ^ ..,- ; , , .' . '. ■ : -■'■■ 

hit. 18 degr© &&> C L, ^ 

stones, and cong bo a distance ot - u 



inland. These are sometimes overlaid by coal measures, sometimes 
by volcanic rocks, and consequently do not crop out on the sur- 
face over such districts * * * In the higher members of this 
group, which from their general analogy to the English group of 
that name Ave will term Devonian, specimens of fossil plants are 
abundantly met with." Mr. ( "an in in i >. I'.K.S . h i.-, ri« -, ril.. .1 and 
named those from three widely separated localities — Mount Wyatt, 
Canoona, and the Broken River — and refers them all to one 
form, Lepidodendron not/mm, Unger (not Salter's species of that 
name). To the same paper Mr. Carruthers added an appendix in 
which the fullest details of the plant were given. He states that the 
collections of Mr. Daintree were so full and complete, and so 
much more perfect than any previously at the disposal of paleon- 
tologists, that he was able to give a description of the whole plant 
and clear up every doubtful point of its structure. 

-Before giving details of the species I have recognized, it may 
Perhaps be as well to remind the members of the Society who may 
not have access to all the literature of the subject, of the progress 
that has been made in this portion of paleontology. The plants 
of the early geol og > completely from anything 

existing a t the piwut <lav rh.n thrv presented very puzzling 
;: '" ; ' Ul > to i«ahuontolo«nsts. This is not 

we remember how fragmentary were the specimens submitted to 
their examination, and how rare it was to find stem, leaves, roots, 
wrs, ancl fniks S1( . l>SM1 .i. irillI t0l , ( .ther that they could be 
Jjcogmzed as belonging to one plant. To add to the difficulty of 

** problem, it I tli^e ^tim-t form-, of 

Ration the various parts of the plant were moiv 
and specialized than they are now. Thus roots of plants in the 
P^ntday are v , rv ull if (irm and simple organs; in fact, so 

"Jtonn that only slight difference or no difference can be traced 
£™een those of shrubs or trees widely separated in every other 

2*. But the r °° ts ° f c ° ai p iants seem to have been . ve ' y 

the stru ctures. Stigmaria, for instance, is now known to be 



h ^es WollenH( .. -„ the rhizome, 

unrW? Peculiar 8car a in th > *'°° d y * is f ue 

minaJ ea • Furth ermore, they are forked or divided, and ter- 
foun Uv m aU ° bfcuse a P ex - No wonder that Sternberg, when ne 
e2 ^ ese «**!■ .pared them to arborescent 

pnorb laceous plants Von Martiug referred them to a fleshy 
the t! ( Cacai ™) or a tig-tree. Brongniart classed them with 
^ ^pods, but later as roots of such peculiar conifers asm 
SdT * tigrmria were - Corda regarded them as , 
^d Sf!? ersof houseleek, euphorbias, Cactus mdZamta. Lmdley 
H ^tton took them for the fleshy leaves of some horizontal 



182 A FOSSIL PLANT FORMATION IN CENTRAL QUEENSLAND. 

subterranean tree entirely different from anything at present 
known. In the course of time the discovery of true Lepidoden- 
droid trees with upright stems and with roots (Sti'jHwr'm) in ;b 
ground has manifested the true character of these remains. 

In like manner, different portions of the same plants liave tv. ; :. 
subjects of doubt and controversy until their nature ami oilier wa> 
known. The cones, or fro idron were 0P 

Lepidoslrobus ; Cyperites was the name giv 
Stembergia to the pith, and Knorria to the internal casts ot : 
trunk.* Other specific and generic distinctions were built upon 
the mode of preservation, which was subject to great variation.^ ■ 
the stems of these trees were soft and hollow, or at any rate r. . 
with a soft yielding pith; then, when the entombing rock j r - 
upon them in the course of time, they became 
sections of round stems, or the cast of the interior, ueiv ti.i ;. 
at each end, so that the section became like the section of a lentil. 

All these remarks are necessary to understand the character ot 
the fossils which I exhibit this evening. They hav* been sa 
jected to great pressure, and there are fragment rf W '■■ 
different portions of the plant. I will begin by describing the 
species to which most of them must be referred. 

Lepidodendron veltiieimianitm. 
Sternberg— Flor. d. Yorw. I, part 12, pi. 52, fig- 2. S« to 
" ~ deontologie Vegetale," vol. ii, p. 29, atlas, pi. J . 
Schimper gives a large list ■ ■: 
synonyms, which I need not quote here. See also * 01s J ~ j 
" Paleozoische and Mesozoische Flora cles oestlichen AUoU ^r\ t .; 
Cassel, 1878 and 1879, p. 151, pi. 5, figs 2 and 3 (though aou ^, 
fully referred to this species) : pi. 7. tig. 2 : \ - 
Apparently a moderate-sized tree, with dichot 
covered with a network of very nafro 
lanceolate, spreading, sliu'htlv im-urved: M-irM>itb 1'iai ■ 
r\ . 
keeled, fornithi 

r- :-.■: , . ^ ■ . ^ ' - . ■ 

flexed, and after the disappearance of the little cu 

This plant i rope of the loWer T ^° haS been 

tions, corresponding to the carboniferous limestone. ! ' ,'. _ ,. 
found in many places in Silesia, in 
M _• ; .. ;• ii 

Tharmsmd XiedurbunW-h ; in Finn 
in the coal-seams of the Black Forest 
to M. Geinitz, the same as Ulodendron ornatissim^>>^^_^^^ 



mper, « Pi 
6, 7, 8. 



jrria is now generally 
t with peculiar fleshy 1< 



v.rnc 



In the 3rd edition of the late Rev. W. B. Clarke's "Sedimentary 

Formations of New South "Wales'' (lt>7o), at p. 17. in.-nti.m_ is mad- 

of a species named Lp'vhxl ,vln»i rimo-nrni, of which m bSS 

t!_ (/ rlt.), ivi 'lii that it se< mi d m< n 

to resemble X. vdth'nv'f !„»>,*. Before this, in 1S7«>, as 1 shall 

state subsequently, Professor de Koninck had submitted about 

twenty plant specimens sent to him by the Rev. W. B. Clarke to 

the eminent Belg : Crepin, of the Brussels 

■Museum. Though the specimens wen; in a m r v Lad state _ol 

""'"'■ beaiae8 

■> and C. i-tinx,!*. all of which we shall see arc 

found in the Drmnmond Range. Dr. Feistmantel was urn awai 

rime he pronounced up"ii 

- of Murree, Russell's Shaft, Gl 
Burracrrwl „ M L .,, Dr. Feistmai . j 

t of Smith's Creek, near Stroud, and 
s examples found in the Drummond 
mpressed branches which have former ^ 




"unk there can be but little doubt," from the'mode in which thy 

J 18 associated, that they belong to the same plant. There 
-jcli seem 
d casts of the smaller branchlets The surface is 

: :■-- : . " :■ ■■ ■ . "- . ''■■ 

^onsriseg,,, imhnea,- 

. ^ • : . ^ : .'- : '■ - . 

^ BCileS - If We su PP° se the extemal ^f t0 -™TnZ 
ZT a wa y as to give ris. - pression in tue 

*er, tnen tne ^ casts would present the appear^ 
St;' ^ M ° reOVer ' *** ^ m - defin6d ' U ; e Tli°e stS 
^-e—to^theml. 

% are dl!^ 6 ° f th T ' Sot cylinders 

*hk 1 ays more or Iesi ,J nr f the 

W*^ been compres.,,-, 1 . Wl,-n,v,-r the exterior ■ ot 
^^eaxsexh. uce of concave cast,. 



184 A FOSSIL PLANT FORMATION IN CENTRAL QUEENSLAND. 

Cyclostigma. Haughton. 
The plants thus distinguished were first brought to the notice 
of science by Dr. Haughton, in a paper published in the Annals 
of Nat. History for 1860 (3rd ser., vol v., p. 444), entitled 
" On Cyclostigma : a new genus of fossil plants from the old red 
sandstone of Kiltorkan." * 

Cyclostigma australe. 

Feistmantel, loc. cit. p. 76. A tree trunk with slender terete 

branches, cushions or raised scars subglobose, pitted, approximate, 

spirally disposed, impressions oblong oval, rather deep, situate in 

v portion of the oblong ovate tubercle. ™* 



JK 



was so near O. Mltorkense that he could see little difference, 

but lest he should make a false identification in a plant where the 

details are so few and simple, he preferred to give it another 

\ name. He gives figures of a few specimens at pi. i, fig- M 

doubtful identification, pi. iv., fig. 3, pL v, fig. 1, pi xxii, M b 

! Amongst the Drummond Range specimens I have on!y one which 

I can be referred with any probability to this species, and in this 

case the impressions are so faint and worn that I describe it as » 

Stignuma < I [ lom the Rev. Dr. Haughton" 

paper somewhat fully, because his description corresponds so well 

with the strata of the Drummond Range that lit] 

may certainly be said to belong to one formation. The rose pwfc 

sandstone in which some of the fossils are embedded, and the 

| golden yellow colour of others, is especially remarkable. 

"The fossil plants of the yellow sandstone of the county 
Kilkenny occur, as they do in other parts of Ireland, in «* 
sandstone lying immediately under the great mass of the car- 
boniferous limestone, which constitutes the most important mem- 
ber of our Irish fossiliferous rocks. They are found at J«T ^ 
about a mile and a half south of the Abbey, on the roadside near 
the corn-mill, on the road to Ballyhale, about 90 feel belo*j* 
lowest bed of limestone, in rocks composed of red, whit , and MJ 
limestone, with triboliths formed of pink quartz, rounded pew» 
grooving the hone stone J and above the plant beds a «niarJ»° 
white grit conglomerate is found. The plant-beds, on the JJ 
geological horizon, are also found in the railway cuttings at tm. 
hale. They are found, however, in the greatest al^dance^^ 
* Other species have since been described by Hcer. Fossil Flora de BuflJ 
Ineel, p 43, pi. » . by Lesquereux, Geol. Survey of Arkansas, P-» & 

fig % ; 96 d Daw8pn ' Fossil Pknts * Geo1 - Surve y of Cana ' p ' 



1S5 

the best state of preservation, on the top of the Kiltorkan Hill, near 
' I railway station of Ballyhale. I believe the plant-beds on the 
summit of this to form an ' outlier,' and to occupy the same 
geological position with respect to the limestone as the beds at 
Jerpoint and those of the railway cutting. The fossil plants here 
found have never been described" except casually. They consist of 
remains of a large fern, called w, by Professor 

Forbes, associated with a large bivalve, named by him Anodon 
jukesii; of undescribed dermal plates of a cartilaginous fish, pro- 
bably a species of Coccosteus ; and of numerous unknown plants 
' .• h. d r., L ,, .Iron, and so named by Professor Forbes 
and M. Brongniart, the latter of whom has named a remarkable 
species, preserved in the Museum of the Royal Dublin Society, 
I i , se fossil plants have been 
^med Knorria; and a large undescribed group remains, to which 
1 propose to give the name Cycfostiyma" 

CYCLOSTIGMAC.E. 

A natural order of fossil plants found in the lowest beds of the 
carboniferous system, part of the oldest flora known to have 
existed on the globe, probably closely allied to the orders described 

;^ A "">v,' ( ,, Ij-phhnlr, ,,],■<,„, and SvtUhtria, known only by their 
' : -'->"trs and leaves, which were arranged in alternate whorls, 
d ,-u the whorls, the Imt sears perfectly circular, 
snowing rn many cases i m ut« i I well-u irk* 1 dot in the centre, 
Probably coinciding with a central bundle of woody tissue. Many 
the larger plants show traces of a thick central woody axis, like 
jjat found in Stigma ru, : stems much crushed and flattened, as if 



ad more distinct. There ai 

leST f0S8i1 ' showin g the alternate whorled arrangement of 

Port! « K ° ne of them are Perfect stems, but appear to be torn 

Boat; . of the rind of lar § e P lants which have been maceratetl h ? 

- time in water. In the quarry of Kiltorkan the 

found in layers different from those in which the 

mica occurs! In some specimens of Cyeloetiffma 

■ - ■ ■ 

d by lateral pressure of the mudstone 
each »L , ? fossi : of the Ieaves » 

well Jown eingalternate t0 that ahove and below it, is frequently 

rrt* Vi n ''i thers > ^ his appendix on the fossil plants (see Dain- 

^vonkn « Geol °gy of Queensland, loc. cit.), says :— " Among the 

Society^ S P re sented by the Rev. W. B. Clarke _ ' " 

museum there is a fragment of i 



which I cannot separate from tl 
Dr. Haughton gave the name oi 
wards of Cyclostignm kiliorkms. 



Order Calamity Brc 
(See Schimper, op, cit, vol. i, p. 291.) 



;■■:,,,.{■■ ■ . • - . ■ - • ' ., ; - :-:;.;. - - : 

character. This r^ler i> di n ■_.; !, 1 frm 

horse-tails, to v hieh iK«» 1 I. n_ our 1 il /' ill»th en. 1 >;• t 

ti< ill u h ives, whi li art < utin h free ore 

and by the - llary lifce Bwi 

Lycopods. Some of the genera of this order have bee a named 

< til In i i\ pal _\ ti m ft igi 

sUs,and, as investigation lias gone on. and betti 
specimens wetv discovered, just as in the ease < : 
tions of the Lrpi ><> i ,, h< „ t imilv. th< \ have proved to be diffei 
portions of the same plants. Thus ! 

3 of Calami*?* 
the spikes known under the name of Y»V:,„ 
hearing portions of the same genus. It is to Mr. 

the spikes are not anthers but sporangia. 



es. Suckow. 
tiles (in part), 



i 



whorls, with for 
distinctly sulcat 
shorter as they 



stricted i 

Cauline leaves" extremely fug 

their place, usually represented 



ities, oblong or elongately cylindrical, small for 1 



, lanceolate, erect above, below uniting into a disc. Sp 
te, and arranged in whorls of m 



g stalks, pelfca 



sporangia, four to each stalk, borne on the underside of :1s.- peltatt 
• >*^. -pore cas s, with cellulai walls; -pores <ph rii il, with 
thread-like elaters. The fruit-spike or cone bears a very strong 
resemblance to Equisetwm, but in the latter all the leaves of the 
cone are fruit-!., are fruitful mad 

y leaves of the plant. 

•us rocks, and no doubt the 
pat mass of the coal was formed by them. They may be said to 
have died out at the close of the paheozoic period; though some are 
•all found amongst the lower members of the mesozoic strata. 
We have only two quoted fr< se are from the 

lowest group of our coal strata. Smith's Creek, near Stroud. 

Calamites (Bornia) radiatus. 
Brongniarfc, Histoire des Vegetaux Fossiles, i, p. 122 (quoted I -y 
achimper as Bornia, vol. i, p. 3:55). Paris, 1828. This speeies 
£ lon gs to the subdivision Bornia, distinguished amongst 
ornating ribs, its free leaves, 
twice-forked, divided above, 
II" 111 ^iPtic spikes, scut. !, with a scar on the centre of the 
eternal face. U | : _Leaves of branches very 

S • free ' often forked - ( ' uuliiu * lf ' :iv,js much shorter - Th f 

^ a very wide-spread, being found in the lower coal and 
■r America. (See Dawson s 
^joman Plants, - , vol. xviii, p. 309 ; also 

^mper, atlas, pi. xxiv. where many figures are gr 

i p , N . /ur Fossilien Flora 

,. u of this f« w!. repre- 
opi-° me , leaves and certain portions of the stem. It should 

ight easily be mistaken f< 

u-s, h,,w» \.-r, tc a much lower horizon, and the 

■ 

k as follow* 116 a " thorit y of De Koninck. The passage referred to 
Vl S? re c °mmencing the study of the numerous animal forms 
^2L , e carboniferous "" s ? mc c ° n ' 

JJ^yplant . gam? time and also often 

p>1 ^Wches sur lea Foss. Paleoz. Nouv. Gallea de Sud. Australie, part 3, 



PLANT FORMATION IN CENTRAL QUEENSLAND. 

i rocks from the Rev. W. B. Clarke. I should s 



i'.i M. 



Crepin, who was kind 
3 them, or the abundant materials for comparison 
which he had at his disposal in the Brussels Museum, he was unable 
to determine any specimens 
nevertheless, some specimer 

/. Sternberg; others to Bornia radiata, A. .tSrogjaiio 
others to Calamites varians, Germar, and constitute the dominant 
forms. All these plants are contained either in a hard^ and com- 
pact greyish yellow or greenish limestone, the other in friable* 
easily powdered, grey or brownish sandstone. Many are assoo- 
ated with marine animal remains such as stems of Grmnd^rro- 
ductus, Cwnularia, &.c. By their characteristics they cannot be said 
to belong to the carboniferous formation properly speaking, but to 
the period which preceded it, being preserved in the rocks on 
which the carboniferous rocks rest. The principal l°j^* ™ 
which these different fragments have been collect. • 
quarries (Loder's Creek), Russell's Shaft, Glen William, *& 
Burragood." 

Calamites vaeians. 

Sehloth, Petrefac, p. 399, pi. xx, fig. 2. Artis, Antedehiv. 
Phytology, pi. 4. 

This species is distinguished by the very short intervals in te 
basal part of the trunk becoming suddenly elongated in the PFJ 
part. The shoots of the basilar portion were rather stout, 
disposed quincunically. II « und ' ^JL 

ribs near them converge towards them with their upper and w 
extremities. The same thing is seen in the leaf-scars, but A* 
the converging ribs are less numerous, and there are never ^ 
than three. From the Drummond Range I bave 
series of these plants, as will be seen from the accompanyj«g^ 
mens and figures, which place the nature of the t 
doubt. It is the first time that we have any record from Aua^ 
of the roots and stems of tl ' oz0lC . °° Q t the 

They abound in the strata, and there are some portions ^ 
stone which seem to be made up entirely from ."L m . in 
Nevertheless, leaves are rarely found associated with tn_ d 
fact, none of the more tender plants— such as ferns or org- 
plants— are found in these strata where Lepidodendron a rf 
In the neigh),, ^ns ana ^ w 

ferns may be found ; but these I have not as yet been 



; little doubt that they agree 



A FOSSIL PLANT FORMATION IN CENTRAL QUEENSLAND. 189 

Smith's Creek beds and those of Goonoo Goonoa , These, again, 
io&l formation 
of Europe. These Australian formations, for which I propose 
the name of Bobuntungen beds, because they are best represented 
at that place, are distinctly separated in their fossils from the 
Devonian beds of Gippsland and Queensland, with Lcp'ukuko.fron 
Mthum, L. aostvnhi (M'<'"> . -^ (MH/W), 

1 'in oft- 1 u 7 , ■■'■'( f't m-(\i\ ; 
N 

■ well-known flora of our New South Wales coal 
measures. I think we may also safely say that the Bobuntungen 
beds should be intercalated between them, which will give one 
more link in the series which gradually unfolds itself of our Aus- 
tralian coal-bearing strata. 

as to the horizons or 
ri ;W]iich I h.'i _, ,, ' j isionally to the formations 
CI H I think [the time lias conic when we may very safely rely 
u pon the following order in which they are placed, as marking 
«e relative age of their distinct and well-marked flora:— 
!• Devonian rocks, with L^.1,1,,,1, odron mist rale, L. notlmm, 
.v/« ,n<i, ^>* , „«,< /. Ani, mpt rii h untti, 
,'--i-: \"u n.u.i: l_'\:.i'.ci Creek, Gippsland. 
p e * Sou & Wales : Capertee 1 Mt. Lambie, Nyrang Creek (near 
^owiadra). Queensland : Mt. Wyatt, Canoona, Broken River, 
■J tympie, 

Kteradialus, Rhacopteris 

a Creek, Goo- 
fw. °° Creek > Liverpool Plains, Rouchel River, County 
r am. Queensland : Bobuntungen. 
• Lppe r p aljeozoic ( according to mo3t au thors), with Glossop- 

■-■;■■■. • / ' ' - " - --■■.-■:•. 

,,"' '• 

XenJ 15 il arsh ' • -ta, Raymond 

Qu<*Ti T ckltl »^ -Swamp, Bowenfels, Mudgee, Illawarra, &c 
^nsknd: Mackenzie and Dawson Rivers, Bowen River, Pelican 
.jj ^ j^ ^ thm *** tropics). Tasmania : Don River, Mersey 

<ds. Zamites, AlethorAri* mi*tr«lL<, l^uisitam, 
■ u ,hn„trcen. Palksya 
- " - 
°°liticfln blU - h WOuld a11 indicate *°- 

di «OT«rv^ asPr utedout The 

ks ki S0 " ell ' ll ^''l tnooli i 

(PeistnT? qUlt6 ri ' ( ,lth 1 "' 1,1, u m W no Win imlica 

Indii £j? a - ha' is a characteristic 

wai, has been recognized amongst some plant remains 



190 A FOSSIL PLANT FORMATION IN CENTRAL QUEENSLAND. 

sent to me by the Rev. J. Milne Cuiran, from Dubbo, where 
it was found associated with T. orfontoptrroides. Victoria: 
Bellerine, Cape Paterson, Wannon River. New South Wales : 
Mount Victoria, Dubbo. ' Tivoli, Bnrrum 

River (near Maryborough), Burnett River (near Bundab rg), Gfift i 
(?) on the Darling Downs. Tasmania : Jerusalem Basin, I mu.-t 
add that I do not think ti t the' Victorian 

with the Qu< i . worked out. 

(1.) Rosewood, 24 miles west of Rockhampton, with large Lyi- 
S'tv.ut, PtiloplujUnm oU> f o„eim(m (n. s. nobis. Ms.), a conifer is 
plant like Sequoin (Vo/iziu >) (2.) Ballinore, near Dubbo, with 
Ant-ca rites austral, (nobi < ; h:nopteris. ;■'■ 

Cooktown, North Australia. Plants not identified. 

I may further state that no coal has been found in connection 
with No. 2, at ►Smith's Creek. There; are beds of impure earth) 
shale, which will not burn. The same kind of -hah L notice! 
some of the outcrops at Bobuntungen, but no further exanimate- 
has been made. 

It will be necessary to make some altera si »ns v. ith r< f< r> i- 
these beds in the gi logi. il -b teh ip of Mr. Daiutreo ami 
own, as publi lV Gotch, in ''The Au?tra- 

lian Handbook." In Daintree's map, the portion of Drummonds 
Range here referred to is coloured as metamorphie, bord< n- • 
the edge of carbonaceous rocks to the eastward. In niy map i- 
appears as a granitic axis flanked by earlier paleozoic rocks, swfc 

It is stated in the earlier part of ■ 
range here makes t curve to tin sve.-t card ! 

of its course. The distance of the di 
point nearly 300 miles. From Rock) 
along a gently sloping open forest, with i 

•:;. ■■■ ' ■ . :. : • , ., ; . , , . ■ '' ■ ' 

:■'• ':. ■ : ... • . . . , , ■ " ■ • •--■''/ ' . 

also quartz reefs and a li:tl.- -old. This rai . 

being crossed, fch< 

Dawson River, which is not quite - 

this point there is a gradual rise to the i- ' 

;-■■ ._■■. ■ -..■ ■ . 

the sea-level. Then sue 

River at 140 miles. A 

elevation, succeed- with the basin I 

G20 feet, dista *& ** 



ENTRAL QUEENSLAND. 191 

W«/ith brigalow scrub ; but where they are basaltic, which they are 
n most cases, the soil is vcvy rich. Beyond Emerald a basaltic 

. terrace raises the table-land to 800 feet, and at 175 miles 
St, Helen's Range is crossed, at 900 feet elevation. This height 
is kept on an undid- tit g pi it. m i » i9.~> miles, where a sandstone 
or quartzite terrace raises it to 1,000 feet. The terrace bears the 
name of Anakie Range. Basaltic rocks of a modern aspect 
succeed. At Bla ■ Utiles, the basin is below 

900 feet, but 8 miles further the elevation of Woodbine Creek is' 
950 feet. Zamia Range is crossed at 217 miles (1,180 feet). 
The Medway Creek, 228 miles, is 1.220 feet above the seadevel, 
and then the rise is abrupt by escarpments of carboniferous rocks 
to the Drummond Range, which probably average 2,000 feet 

In more than one place in all this distance lower carboniferous 
marine fossils are found, many of the species being identical with 
those found in the equivalent beds of Europe. At about 10 miles 
from Rockhampton, in what is culled the agricultural area, careful 
collections were made by Mr. Charles de VU, 15. A., Curator of 
the Brisbane Museum. The locality is extremely rich in fossils, 
and the zeal and industry i : I were such that 

a complete series were obtained in excellent preservation. Many 
of these were kindly submitted to me for examination, and I 
propose, as soon as my other engagements will permit, to publish 
the residts. I am not as yet able to state the relative positions 
of these marine fossils and plant-bearing beds. Between them 
there occurs the Boomer Ra g.\ wi p . .zoic rocks, highly 
inclined, and of probabb, Cambrian age. West of this is the basin of 
the upper tributaries .,: il .., c0a l deposits 

occur. These are th. equi il nts it th Newcastle beds. They 
are so overlaid by r. ent vo ni • - s he. t it is hopeless to expect 
to find the relations between them and the strata of the Drummond 



fossils were exactly like those f. 






f this formation in ' 


described by Mr. Tenison-Wo 




showing the' wide-spread extent 


■■'■ 




Creek ami in th ■ Y\ per Hunter. 


also west of the dividing range 


re : and the beds were 


associated with purple," pink, t 




described by Mr. Tenisou-W'oo. 


: ' ■ 


rocks were met with, because tin 


'■ ■ ' -■■'■ 


tion referred to, in which coal < 


■xists in other parts of the world. 



s 



1U2 A FOSSIL PLANT FORMATION IN CENTRAL QUEENSLAND. 

Some of these were to be seen near Narranderra and Moun^ 
Brown. They all, as it were, represented islets of the same for-™ 
mation, the intermediate country being filled up by a newer for- I 
mation. At Smith's Creek, in the locality of these rocks, coal- 
beds had been seen, but they had proved to be of very little value ; 
still in some of these localities workable and valuable coal might 
be found, and therefore this subject became one of great import- 
ance as the railways extended into the interior of the country. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate XI. 

Fig. 1. Portions of branches of '■mum, half natural 

size. These exhibit the impressions of peculiar scale-like leaves tapering 



Better preserved portion of root end of Calamites radiatus. In 
us specimen the scars of rootlets are well seen at the senta. 
Fig. 6. Internal cast 
itural size. This was I 
trt of a tree-stem I !<;af-scars. 

Plate XII. 
F:-. 7. C'lhnnHei ,■•■//■■' . Stein natural size, showing septa and con- 
mity of the ribs. 
Fig. 8. Cast i 



inclined to regard 

surface with faint impressions of leaf-scars. 

This fragment la 
a root in the rock, subtending a stem, probably of L. 
was three times the length of the portion figured. 

Fig. 10. Stem half natural size, 

been an upper portion of a branch, as seen by the great 






M 




The Aborigines of New South Wales. 

By John Fraser, B.A., Sauchie House, West Maitland. 

The negro has suffered much at the hands of his fellow-man. The 

curse is upon him—" A servant of servants shall he be unto his 

brethren." Yet he is our brother, for his ancestry is the same. 

I re, introduce my subject by endeavouring to show, 

relations of the Austral-negro race to the others. 

In the far past, one man and his wife, his three sons and their 
*ives, were t £ e on |y gurv iving representatives of mankind ; the 
patriarchal home was in Armenia, under the shadow of Ararat; 
w soon the family peace was broken, and a son went forth, an 
outcast and a fugitive, carrying with him a heavy burden of guilt 
7 **&&>* curse. Gathering together their wives and little 
™«, their flocks and their herds, Ham and his son Canaan seem 
t T e have P a ssed through the gorges of snowy Niphates and 
o toye proceeded southwards along the course of the Euphrates, 
fating themselves first in the highlands of Upper Mesopotamia ; 

«i when, in the course of time, their families and goods had 
W !i they occu P ie d fresh territory further to the south, still 
liv J 1 U ■ tW0 rivers ' a Prolific region. Here, I imagine, they 
tbv g m peace ' the sole Possessors of the riches of the land, till 
o/B«- Were dlslod S e d by fresh bands issuing too from Armenia, that 
jj™u- gentium, where surrounding circumstances were unfavour- 
ed perman ent occupation by these infant races. The new- 
andl* T Fetlle Shemites > descending through the northern passes, 
of \\T . u J anian Scyths, probably from the north-east by the way 
H.w? f agrus and the Ti gris. Finding the way barred by the 
*?2 tl s? dy in Possession of all the country between the two 
from £ Semites and the Scyths hurled themselves upon them 
**th a J\ and scatte red them in fragments to the east and the 
black rT West Ac cordinglv, the position of the Hamite or 
ethaicX e l at the °P eni ng of history is, in Genesis x. 6, indicated 
»Suf 7 l he names Kush and Mizraim and Phut and Canaan 
and XTnk 0graphicall y are ^e countries we call Ethiopia and Egypt 
Wto b f, and Palestine - ^e Kushites, however, were not con- 
*°«s f a^' but w ere spread in force along the whole northern 
W er Arabian sea : they were specially numerous on tne 

-■■■■■■ '■ 

d the first ^erm whence came the great empue of 
k tradition (Odyssey I- 
jWfi?* 8 of botl * an eastern and a western nation of Ethio- 
^ ^use the black races, many centuries before tie Trojan 



194 

war, had spread themselves from the banks of the Indus on the 
east right across to the shores of the Mediterranean, while town - 
the South-west tole of Egypt and the Abys- 

sinian highlands. Thus they held two noble coigns of racial 
likely to give them a commanding influence in the making of the 
history of mankind — the valley of the Nile, which, through all 
these ages to the present hour, has never lost its importance— and 
the luxuriant flat lands of Mesopotamia. A mighty destiny 
seemed to await them, and already it had begun to show itself, 
for the Kushites not only made the earliest advances towards 
civilization, but under Nimrod, that mighty hunter, smitten with 
the love of dominion, they threatened at one time to establish a 
universal empire with Babel as its chief seat. And not without 
reason; for the Kushite tribes were stalwart in stature and 
physique, in disposition vigorous and energetic, eager for war and 
conquest. But a time of disaster came which carried them into 
the remotest parts of the earth — into Central Africa, into the 
mountains of Southern India, whence, after a while, another im- 
pulse sent them onwards towards our own is 
hither they came, as I thin) fore the Christian 

era, pressed on and on fr< ts by the waves o 

ion which were so common in those early days. 
Similar was the experience of the Celts, a very ancient tribe ; sow 
after their first arrival in Europe we find them occupying 1W*J 
and the countries about the mouth of the Danube; but ire* 
immigration from the Caucasus plateau pushed them up 
Danube, then into Belgium and France, thence into Britain, 
last of all the invading Saxons drove them westwards intolrel» 
and into the m< i J Scotland. So the success ^ 

steps of the K.: i my opinion, were the f/J 

First into the valley of the Ganges, where they were ^ e0 \ en 

then into the Deccan and into Further India, 
into Ceylon, the Andaman Islands and the Sunda Islands, * 
thence into Australia. Th< ue presently 

in detail. . , 

But, meanwhile, let us look at the old Babylonian W, ^ 
Its ethnic basi a ding dynasty contannea 

Kushite probably down to the time of the birth of AbtaJJ^ 
1996. But before that date, the Babylonian population W^ 

iged. Nimrod had conquered Erech ^a* 
and Calneh in the land of Shinar ; an Akkadian or JJJ^ 
element was thus incorporated with his empire; be "jjyjj 
Nineveh and Rehoboth and Calah and Besen (Genesis %■ ^ 
Shemite element was thus or in some other way superaddeo ., ^ 
Turanians and Shemites and Japhetian Aryans too, pj> ^ 
tracted by the easy luxuriance of life on these fertile pi 
" ' Chalctea and Babylonia. T ~ 



THE ABORIGINES OP NEW SOUTH WALES. 195 

fod that about twenty centuries B.C. the Kushite kingdom had 
Wme a mixed conglomerate of four essentially different races— 
Hamites, Turanian, Shemite, and Japhetian — which on the in- 
scriptions are called Kiprat-arbat "the four tongues. " Then, as 
♦■" ^bylonian worship of Mulitta demanded free ' ' 



» religious duty, a strange mixture of physical types must have 

w*n developed among the children of these races, the Ethiopian, 

. and Aryan all blending— a rare study to the 

<?e of a physiologist, who would have s 



s the other predominating in the child. This Chaldsean 
j_»y—the first of the five great monarchies of ancient 
History-was overthrown by an irruption of Arab (Shemitic) 
tabes about the year 1500 b.c. And now, as I think, another 
* a *e of population began to move towards our shores, for these 
Aims were pure monotheists, and in their religious zeal must 
thttv t0 pieces the Polytheistic and sensual fabric which 
ne Babylonian conquests had extended from the confines of 
«a» westwards to the Medio , mier's expedi- 

^, Genesis xiv. 9). Those portions of the OhalcUeo-Babylonian 
1 Pie that were unable to escape from the dominion of the Arabs 
B l e absorbed in the new empire, just as many of the Celtic 
newlf* ere m the sixt hand seventh centuries merged in the 
niaaVf 0rmed Saxon kin g do ms. But the rupture of the Babylo- 
comr.lt and the P roscri P tion of its worship must have heen so 
Peonl f Jf t0 drive fortl1 from their native seats thousands of the 
«J°P e ot the " fo Ur tongues" and force them westwards into Africa, 
^eastwards through the mountain passes into the table-land of 
. fuyaub, and thence into the Gangetic Plains. Here, I 
kT!.^ al ™ady located the pure Hamites of the Dispersion ; 
their | these t0 ^ 8"*% o£ a skin not exact1 ^ coloured llke 
Knshi!^* and uot understanding their language, these later 
them W T xt " ' : ' hem as enemies and drove 

hour th r? them int0 the mountains of the Deccan, where, to this 
races' v randians and Kolarians are black-skinned and savage 
Placed a g ' these Babylonian Kushites were themselves dis- 
4e An,? 6jected from the Ganges valley by a fair-skinned race, 
A* S nS ' anoth ^ and the last ethnic stream of invaders from 
cilablv n!" WeSt ,- These Aryans, in religion and habits irrecon- 
^lt PP ° Sed t0 th * earlier races of India, waged on them a 
earlip ^ Hemmed up in the triangle of southern India, the 

K«shife. ltes could esca P e onl y h y sea ; the Bab y loman 

-:■■■■ ' -■ : .< . : ■ 

~^_^JJeccan, as these were 

? h *2tS!L y ,. a c °PPer-coIourecI man has been found among the native 
| in Sydney many years ago. 

^ n 2/oA, watched one night till he was asleep, and cut off his head I 



into Borneo, and the Sunda Islands and Papua, and afterwards 
across the sea of Timor into Australia, or eastwards into Mela- 
nesia, driven onwards now by the Turanian tribes, which had 
come down from Central Asia into China and the Peninsula and 
islands of the East Indies. 

Thus, in my view, our island first received its native population, 
in two different streams, the one from the north, and the other from 
the north-west. 
■' 
(1.) Ethnologists recognize two pre- Aryan races in India. Tbe 
earlier I | he use of metals and used 

only polished Hint axes and implements of stone; the 
later had no written records, and made grave mounds 
over their dead. The Vedas call them " noseless," gross 
feeders on ilesh, '-raw eaters." "not sac-Hi 
out gods," « witiiout rites'-; they adorned 
the dead wit!! ^if'tsand raiment and ornaments. All this 
suits our aboriginals ; they are noseless, for they have 
very flat and depressed noses, as contrasted with tne 
straight and prominent noses of the Vedic Aryans, 
they have no gods and no religious rites such as t e 
Vedas demand. The Nairs in the south-west of India 
ur aboriginals in certain 



(2.) The Kolarian and Dravidian languages have inclusive 
and exclusive forms for the plural of the first perso 
So also have many of the languages of Melanesia an 
Polynesia. Probably also the dialects of the non 
western coast of Australia have this peculiarity, du 
have no information about them. .. # 

(3.) The aborigines on the south and west of A 

the same words for /. thon, h<:, ire, you as the nativ . 
the Madras coasts of India. , lt ],. 

(4.) The native boomer. [ m ^t^9 

east of India, ,• nd •, 1 ■ t, iced to Egypt—both ot 
Hamite regions. „ ;„„— 

(5.) Among the red races of America-who aye Turanian^ 
four is a sacred number, having i 
.•,r.ii:„i :,.;, ,. ■ . ' ^ -■ ■■ , -' . - 

bases, and fch< Gre 
]>ointing exactly to the four - 

lia-uiu, also huilt their temple-tow ers^PJ^!^ 
,i no temples, and no 



their partiality to the number four is seen in their four- 
fold arrangement of cities, &c. Their "tongues" were 
four. The castes of India are four, possibly an arrange- 
ment adopted by the Aryans from the earlier Kushite 
inhabitants of India, With all this, I compare the uni- 
versal division of the native tribes of Australia into four 
intermarrying classes. 
(6.) These class names form their feminines in tha, as Ipai 
(masc.), Ipa-tha (fern). This is a peculiar'-, 
inflexion. So also in Hamitic Babylonian, we have Mul 
(masc), Muli-tta (fern.); Emi (mase.\ Erin - 
seems to indicate that among our nativ. 
exist the same mixed elements as in the old Babylonian 

(7.) So also does the fact that several tribes practise eircinn- 
cision, that one tribe in Queensland has 
Shemite features, and that there are among the tribes so 
many varying types of men. Some are Hamite negroes 
in colour and cranial shape ; others are evidently mixed 
Kushites ; and others again seem to be pure Turanians. 

(8.) In some parts of An sti ! l» our natives 

erect stages— the Parsee "towers of silence"- -i ^ h 
to place the bodies of their dead, a custm 
ancestors, I believe, brought from Asia. In other parts 
of New South Wales they do not bury the body, but 
Place it in a hollow tree. and. even where they do dig a 
grave, the body is so wrapped in bark and so tied up that 
the earth does not touch it. In South A 
body is desiccated by fire and smoke, then carried about 
for a while, and finally exposed on a stage. All this 
corresponds with the Persian religious belief in the 
sacredness of the earth, which must not be contaminated 
D y so foul a thing as a putrefying human body. In 
Chaldaea also, the same ideas ; 
*ere not interred ; they were laid (1) on mats in a 
v ault, or (2) on a platform of sun-dried bricks, and 
this a huge earthenware dish-cover, or (3) in a 
earthen jar in two pieces fitting into each other ; ine 
body did not touch the earth. 

W {here is nothing h 

^t 'i hal it i r s ,,f \, ., t lj ,,,,,, fi ii 
tllat ^, from Hii.do.tai> or Further India. The native 
traditions of the Poly 
as th< 
KaM? ° of the i 

k^uirfkj. l find th ^' ™»^ in'lvam' (I'laek;, 
u 0I ^gypt, and in Ai-gup-t-os, E-^-t. 



i in a brick 



! THE ABORIGINES OP NEW SOUTH WALES. 

came. So also the Indias are to the north-west of our 

island. The distance from Madras to Sumatra is about 

1,200 miles, and from Sumatra to the coast of AurtnBl 

about 1,400 miles. Such a distance is not impi 

to a savage; for in January 1858, a boat, with a numerous 

family on board, was driven by the westerly winds from 

the Union Group in Polynesia to Mangaia, i 

1,250 miles, in a south-easterly direction, and other 

similar instances of involuntary emigration have 

occurred. In some such way, perhaps fleei 

conquering Aryans, some of the early Kushites of 

Southern India may have come to Sumatra, and thence 

also to our shores. In the woods and mountains of that 

island there are still two aboriginal race. - 

occupying the coasts), and one of these is i 

a name identical with our tribal class Kubbi 

terior of Borneo is also the refuge of three l 

races, and one of these is very like that in i 

of Sumatra. Of these Sir James Brooke says : "These 

people m: 

that not a single case of theft has come under mj 

notice; in their domestic lives they are ami 

out white vices j they marry but one wife, and the* 

women are always quoted for chastity." I may *w 

as a coincidence, that the native name for Borneo » 

Brune, and that Brune is also the name of a large islam 

in Storm Bay, near Hobart. ,. 

It thus apj, £theE ilirk 

Archipelago were at first inhabited by abor 
races, which had come from tl 
When the Malays entered, these blacks either fled in 
the interior or left the islands j and, as Java and i" 
especially are near Australia, a large portion oi 
native population must have come hither by that ^ 

(10.) The languages spoken by non-Aryan races on the s ^ 
east of Hindustan along the Coromandel coast 
Tamil and the Telugu ; the system of km ^fPr" tra . 
these races is the same essentially as among the 3 
lian tribes. . , t : tv of 

(11.) Identity of language is a strong evidence ot ^^ 
origin ; thus, I take the Australian tribes 
geneous, for some words of theirs are found 
over the whole continent ; for instance, the *oru^ ^ 
" foot," with only slight phonetic changes, eii i^d, 
native languages from Cape York ^^f^Z & 
New South Wales, Victoria, and South Austrau 
word mil, "eye," is also widely ?-*"*" 



riw SOUTH WALES. 190 

imes for the numeral "one," there is great diversity, 
in the Aryan languages, but bular, "two," extends 



from Cape River (Queensland) into New South Wales, 
Victoria, South Australia, and even as far south as 
Brune Island near Hobart. This last fact is rather 
remarkable, for, although I endeavoured for more than 
a year to trace a connection between the dialects of 
Tasmania and those of Victoria and New South Wales, 
I had failed until, quite recently, I have found in Tas- 
mania some remarkable correspondences with the Gringai 
language of New South "Wales; for instance, "ear," 
mung-enna (Tasmania), mug-u 

ana* (Tasmania), tung-anai (Gringai); also wee, "fire" 
(Kamilaroi), ?/• ,-,,l.„tt t ,, •• red h<>t end) r- 
viee^na-leah, "fire" (V. • ■. "hand" 

(Tasmania), rima (Polynesia), 'vma (New Guinea). 
These eleven points are the main features of an argument by 
Jtoch I would maintain that our black people came originally 
Jm the shores of the Persian Gulf, and that they came to us 
through India. 

triu 1 * Pass on to the proper subject of this essay— the aboriginal 
™ws of Hew South Wales. And now my narrative is founded 
^statements either made to me personally by the blacks wtth 
°m 1 have conversed, or communicated to me orally or m 
Titmg byfriendsf who have loner bee;- 

*,, cond jtion of our native races. In order to proceed methodi- 

3t give a sketch of the tribal arrangements which 

^ the three periods of life,— (1) youth, (2) manhood, 

; to ,-m.id needl* ^ n p. titi ■'.. which must pre- 

K-i 1 f rf * Were to describe the customs of each tribe separately, 

n*t«! T e a narr ative applicable to all ; but, wherever any 

triUTi.- rence of usa S e exists in an y particular among the 

htSJn differe ™e will be noted. I expect thus to give an 

of aboriginal life in general, without specifying 

be forf? wher " ' ire of the description is to 

but ir A11 that f °Uo w s is the product of original research, 

I shall y instan ce I refer to the printed statements of others, 

arr/Z ^ the authors whom I quote. The tribes 

^J^ted are chiefly those of the northern half of our territory, 



fl owb & ua . lingua), E. tongue. 

Igmrata to Mr. C. Naseby, 

, . - - . •; • 

*m tribes for more than thirty years. 



the Gringai, tli< < (oalaroi, and to tlics* 1 I ' :<■ !■] . 

slight knowledge of the VTi u s. As it is impos- 

sible within the limits of an essay to discuss fully so large a subject 
as this, I will dwell upon those points which seem to admit of 
original invest ; a ' altogether or touch lightly 

upon those features of my subject which are generally known. 

An aboriginal child is heir to a tawny skin, " the vellum of the 
pedigree they claim," and exposure to the air soon deepens the 
swarthiness. The depth of colour varies in different tribes, for 
some of them, according to my hypothesis, are more purely 
Nigritian in their origin, v. the mixed Kush- 

ite race j and tribes that have long dwelt in swampy regions IN 
darker, while those occupying the uplands are lighter in colour 
than others. 

The advent of the baby is not always a source of joy to the 
parents. The mother, in parturition, is left to the assistance ot 
one or two female friends, often left entirely alone, at a little 
distance from the main camp, and ere long she joins her husband 
with or without the baby. If the season has been hard and there 
is a scarcity of food, or if the mother is already burdened with 
many children or with heavy labour for her lord, the little one H 
left to perish. A native woman at Goodooga thus abandon* 
several of her children in succession, and then, after an interval 
of seven or eight years, suckled and reared another, which is no* 
alive. We condemn this inhuman practice of info 
the black races; but what shall we say of the intellectual 
and polished Athenians who, by law, allowed a father to order 
any one of his infant children to be exposed to death ? Our black* 
in the Ooalaroi country, soon after the arrival of the white man 
in that district, spared the females at their birth, but left all tn 
males to perish ; they feared that these half-caste males, it tn 
grew to be men, would have the qualities of a superior race » 
would be too intelligent, too strong, too dangerous for the w < 
and so they suffered none of them to live. mlke 

If a child should die, the parents and even the neighbours m 
great lamentation over it, weeping bitterly; when they a 
buried the body, they forthwith shift their camp. They have 
idea that an evil spirit, the Krooben, haunts the graves, ana 
fear to be near him. At Kunopia, when an infant dies, tney ^ 
the corpse in a thin sheet of bark and keep it over the ^^ 
fire for about a fortnight ; the smoke-dried corpse is came 
till twelve months after the rifld then) 

Mothers are very attentive to their children ; they n ^ ^ 
carefully and continue to show them every token ot an ^ 
They carry them on their backs, wrapped in a rug or man* 



Please insert enclosed Drawings o! I 
Journal Royal ^<vu-ly i' 



CORRIGENDUM for Vol. XV. 
Page 90, last line. After June 8, insert June 11. 



soon as the boy is able to walk, his fathi r an 1 his older brothers 
b him the elements of all manly accomplishments— 
to swim, to throw the boomerang and spear ; from his mother he 
Inns to dig up roots, to gather edible sedges from the margin of 
tie lagoon, and to become expert in other useful arts. Dawson 
ye of one or two years, but often later, 
tie Gringai tribe mark parts of the body of the child with scars 
in the form of some simple device, using for the purpose the sharp 
«g» of shells. I know that this practice exists in Queens- 
todmd ui New South Wales ; in the Kamilaroi tribe it is called 
■ nuns „„„„/„,,.„; ov -drawiim'.'' and assumes such forms 

38 000 or li ° r SSS or =3 and in Queensland $■ 

Jese marks are placed on the upper front of the arm near the 

Zv I ° r on the chest on e;ich si<lc of the breastbone ' or on the 
, A whlt e man, who had been bled by cupping on the back, 
h] V™ o, consequently, bore the marks of it, was believed by the 

IT L aw llh " l ' at,li "~- to have ,,,vu fo" ,u>rl y one o£ their 

uhlanee which the M-ars had to their mombarai. 

ly. although I have not been able to obtain 

-out!, is point, that each family had its own 

TKiVh? 1 ' ° r at least a Peculiar modification of the mombarai 

tells mth UPP0Se ' belongs t0 each clan in the tribe ' f ° r a frlend 

iiinby 6 n one occasion he had an opossum cloak mate for 

rto,Z a - man , of tlle Kamilaroi tribe, who marked it with his own 

black man some 

is hi*™ \ he at once exclaimed, - 1 know who made this, here 

re not so elaborate as the 

Papuan, +l Ma ° ri ' or so m ' at !ls t,Hl similar arm brands of the 

^LWv Y Can sca rcely be intended as ornaments, but they 

0r oth e ^i S e n ad ° Pted f ° r the P ur P ose of identification in battle 

ol( l e2 lIe ^ e trainin g of the boy proceeds. As soon as he is 

^fether t P f apS Seven or ei S ht J ears old ' he S° eS forth ™ th 

ateeon a l° th £ <***»<', and learns to stalk the kangaroo, to recog- 

*"* the • mark of an opossum's recent ascent, to knock 

inch, to follow the honey-bee to its 

*nd all otV ' euniW -resting-places, 

b *ttinclmi er i aCCOm P lishTl "'» ts . which inold England would have 

^to i; ■ m : hr the nam e h earf y ta "?l 

1'is faculty of observation, and he becomes quick 

_ i phenomena, and [in 

'■'"iiees whirl, tie- foot of man or of beast has 
^•^tne aspect of nature around him. Thus at a tender age 

t ^2,3. my «Pert a assure me that the mombarai is merely an arbi- 



202 THE ABORIGINES OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

he can tell by the faintest tread on the grass or on the bare soil, by 
the stones upturned by the foot, or the pieces of dry wood bwfcfli 
on the rocky ground, how many men have passed that way n A 
how long before : if ho sees a native bee lie catches it, fixes 
a little bit of white down on its body, then sets it free and 
follows it with his eye. running hard until he knows where its 
nest is ; his reward is a feast of honey. If he sees a pigeon 
perched on the limb of a tree and wishes to have it. he itiuk> 1 1 
great circuit until he is behind the tree, so that the trunk hides him 
from the eye of the 1 lied, he then moves forward very stealthily 
until a blow froj the prize. Perhaps he assists 

in hunting the kangaroo. "When the men see one quietly 
grazing, they spn -ad tiu-i,i-«-i\. -* in a circle, such as in the hunts 
of Celtic Scotland is called a tiomchioll, round about and at some 
distance, each carrying a leafy branch of a tree before him ; Wj 
these they cautiously advance, halting and assuming the appearance 
of rooted saplings whenever the kangaroo looks up alarmed ; at 
last the circle has so closed in, that when the quarry does at last 
detect the enemy and begins to hop away he finds a spear or a 
club everywhere near enou i ■ h blow. In the 

rivers where large fish are to be found the black boy learns to 
dive and remain for a time under water ;* walking on ^ G . m ^ 
the river, with his eyes open, he dislodges from their lairs tn 
lazy fish and kills them, or spears the smaller ones as they hurry 
past him. In this practice the blacks show wonderful precisio 
and dexterity. , 

When game is scarce, the black man must subsist on nsn o 
roots. At Brewarrina, on the lower Barwon, th< 
ingenious fish cage, constructed in the river by the Mm 
called by the settlers the - Fishery.' The cod-fish come i p ■ 
from the Darling of all sizes, from 4 to 10 H -. « '•<-' l > t - [ \ " 
lodge in the d< assels and sn 

fish of their own and other kinds, they attain to a huge size , 
body sometimes weighing from 120 to 150 lbs. To eaten 
fish of the smaller size the blacks took advantage of a tan 
shelving part of the river, just below the cros 
placed in the river, from bank to bank, a solid wall of stones, ^ 
about as large as two men could carry. Below this soi 
they laid in the river other stone walls at right angles 
other, much like the dividing lines of a chequer boartt, — 
forming open spaces, each 8 feet square and about 6 tee ^ 
deep. In these walls, which cross each other, they « ^ 
slits open from top to bottom and about 15 inches '# 
large enough to let a fish of 40 lbs. passthwigh^J^^l^ 

*In hot weather the boys and girls are very fond of "J"^*** 
diving in the river ; they throw themselves in doubled up, and w 
a great splashing noise. 



THE ABORIGINES OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 203 

wall next the crossing place was made the most substantial of all, 
to resist the force of the current in the river. It also rose higher 
out of the water, the others being just so much lower as to cause 
a slight ripple over them. This fish trap was used in flood-time, and 
thebuilders of it, knowing the habits of the < >d fish, whk-li al md 
here, have so arranged the slits in the lower walls that the fish in 
going upwards can proceed oi ■ and, as they 

never try to turn back, they at last collect in great numbers 
in all the squares, but especially in the uppermost ones, from 
which there is no exit, as the Jiout. Mean- 

while our tyro is getting experience in fish-spear practice, for the 
hlaekfellows stand in the squares and ply their spears with such 
effect that tons of fish are landed on the bank. The river is here 
about 800 yards wide. 

Our young boy also assists in an important operation, that of 
««^harpening. One of the earliest developments of civilisation 
js the stone axe, but the axe to be useful to the savage must be 
«Pt sharp, and this he can accomplish only by rubbing. Near 
laggabi, on the Gwydir, there is a great rubbing place, which must 
h^e been used by the tribes around for many generations. It is 
*» extensive deposit of sandstone of a gritty nature, fit for grind- 
stones. The rock rises out of a deep reach of the river, and slopes 
wctwapds for about 30 feet, and then terminates in a flat top, 
^a of which is now covered with grass. Yet over at least 2 
a^res of this top there may be seen innumerable hollows made m 
* e ^ by the blackfellow when sharpening his axe ; for as soon 
?° ne f°o y e became too deep he would begin another beside it. 
*J» only on the top but also on the sloping side these marks are 
** down to the water's edge, and below it as far as the eye can 
™ate. In 1841 there was a great drought in these parts, so 
A' Jf e the lar 8 e timber on the black ridges and elsewhere all 
J^over an extent of 10 or 12 miles. At that time the 
JT* m , the nver at the rubbing-place was very low, and yet the 
JJjarkg could still be seen far below the surface of the water. 
^ mjl 7 generations of Kamilaroi blacks had encamped there 

howtL ot - te11 ' but the rocks sti11 testif y wh y the ^ came there 

laboriously they had toUed* . . , 

^though these are the labours in which the native boy is 
^S, t0 j ° b ' ret it must not be supposed that his Ufe is solely 
' c ^% one of toil. When the pressure of hunger-bis 
S£f# yBiaa ene ^y~is relieved, the black man, feeling 
4 f0 ^le within, is disposed to be pleased with himself and 
.^l^d^Thia they lounge on the ground in groups, 



204 THE ABORIGINES OP NEW SOUTH WALES. 

and tell each other stories or recollections of former tinirs .' 
which they laugh heartily. The young people amuse themselves 
in various ways ; sometimes they propound riddles to one another. 
Here is one of their riddles : A long time ago, there lived an old 
woman of our tribe, who was so strong that she could overpower 
any of the men ; so she used to catch young fellows and eat them. 
One day she caught a young man and left him bound in her 
gunyah* while she went to a distance to cut some sheets of bark 
wrap the body in, before she laid it in the fire where it was 



to be cooked. 



> was away, two young women, 



observed her doings, slipped into the hut and release I tl 
prisoner; they then hurried to th riv< r and, rirst knocking soi 
holes in the bottom of the old woman's canoe to hinder hi 
pursuit, they all escaped safe to the other side in another canoe. 
Meanwhile the old dame returned and saw her victim was gone ; she 
hastily repaired the damaged canoe and crossed, but only to find the 
young man surrounded by his friends ready to defend him with 
their spears. She boldly advanced, heeding not the spears thrown 
at her, although they were sticking in her body everywhere ; she 
had seized the young man, and was making off with him again, 
when the great wizard of the tribe opportunely arrival. Bg 
giving magical power to the blow, thrust her through and through 
with his spear. Thus the young man was safe. Who was this 
old woman 1 Do you give it up 1 It was a porcupine. 

Now, although there is not much ingenuity in this riddle, jet 
it reveals two things :— (1) the existence of cannibalism, and (- 
the belief that a wizard's magic can overpower all natura 
strength and every opposing influence. , 

Until his formal reception into the tribe through the Bora-* J 
boy is wonnal and must eat only the females of t! • 
he catches ; the males he brings to the camp and gives them 
the aged and infirm and those who have large families. 

II. — Manhood. 
(A.) Initiation. 

When a boy approaches the age of puberty, a feeling oi resu^ 
anticipation spreads over his mind, for he knows t 
manhood has brought him to the threshold of cerem 
ious import through which he is to be formally r« 
tribe and thereby acquire the dignity of a man. - 
itiation are important, numerous, and prolonged, a: 
sion does not concern him- u * J "..." "- 

Ti-i- ; . ::., .,.:..... ; . _ . . - ■"-■ ■ ; 

occasion of general rejoicing. This assembly— t 
and unique in the tribal life— is called the Borajmdjome^_^, 

* A tent or hut formed of the branches and the bark of trees. 



THE ABORIGINES OP NEW SOUTH WALES. 205 

loKtora. I take Bora to be only a shorter form of Kobbora— a 
•name which seems to me to be identical with Cobra, meaning in 
the Ooalaroi and Gringai dialects a head ; thus the Bora is the 
'.■tribe.* 
The whole proceedings are interesting ; they are essentially the 
same everywhere in their general features and teachings, but the 
details vary anion ■_ & Therefore, instead of a 

separate narrative for each tribe, I wiU endeavour to present 
a full view of the Bora, taking the Gringai mode as the basis of 
tt y description, but introducing, from the other tribes, such 
features as appear to me to be necessary to complete the signifi- 



! chiefs of the tribe know that some boys are about twelvi 
j and therefore ready 






vbull or "public 



' and bid 



tod place, t 

"11 kim 



l the tribe that a Bora i 

he time being near full moon and the place beu 
. ^ known Bora-ground j they also send him away to invite the 
to tr m I tli s invit it >i i- lib accept.-a, 
for, although the tribes maybe at variance with each other, miivei >al 
brotherhood preva ks at such a time as this. 

Ahe day appointed for the gathering is perhaps a week or two 
f^t, and the intervening time is filled with busy preparations 

ig men of the novic 

? mm S °r lyinu I t wo circular enclosures— a 

*£?■ and a smalle of a mile from each other 

brack connecting them ; the trees that grow around 



the height of a man, often 
ith curious emblematical devices and figures ; the 
J'f^two rings is denned by boughs of trees laid around 
*} la tie centre of the larger one they fix a short pole with a bunch 
rit^.^^rsonthetop-.f ,,v ready for the 

bn, and there is a large concourse; the men stand by 
*** their bodies painted in stripes of colour, chiefly red and white ; 



^e description of the Gringai Bo] 

._..'-. :v- i: '" 






' " ■'- -^ . \ ^. • ^ -•- ■■■-■■: ■ 

disuse \T ° tam reli bhe Bora ' fOT 1S ; 

- 



Mi) THE ABOBIGINES OP NEW SOUTH WALES. 

the women, who are permitted to be present at the opening cere- 
mony only, are lying on the ground all round the larger ring with 
their faces covered. The boy* is brought forward, made to lie down 
in the middle of it, and covered with an opossum rug; such of the 
old men as have been appointed masters of the ceremonies now 
begin to throw him into a state of fear and awe by sounding an 



to what an English boy 
rail-roarer, "f The men use this on all occasions when they wish 
frighten the women and the boys, who cower with fear when- 
u "- it. It is made of a piece of thin wood or bark j it 



who prowls about the camp, especially at night, and carries off, 
tears, and devours those he can seize. The Kamilaroi tribe call him 
the Krooben. When the performers think that the boombat (so 
they call the novice) has been sufficiently impressed, tirricotii 
ceases to speak ; they then raise the boy from the ground and set 
him in the ring so that his face is turned towards the cleared 
track which leads to the circle of imagery; they paint him red ail 
over ; then an old man comes forward, breathes strongly in his faee 
and makes him cast his eyes upon the ground, for in this humble 
attitude he must continue for some days. 

Two other old men next take the boy by the arms, and lead him 
along the track to the other enclosure and set him in the middle of it 
(As soon as this is done, the women rise from their prostrate posi- 
tion and begin to dance an they go away to* 
distance, for they are not to see anymore of the ceremony at present) 
The Yuin tribe,§ on our S.E. coast, place along this path figures, 
moulded m earth, of various animals (the totems), and one ■ 
Daramulun, a spirit-god whom they fear. Before each of the* 
figores,thedev (docto ??2 
up out of his inside, by his mouth the jo-e-a ("magic ) ot w 
totem before which he stands ; for the porcupine he shows sW 
like chalk, for the kangaroo stuff like glass, and so on. M** 
while the boy L smaller circle with downfl» 
eyes ; he is told to rise and is led to the foot of each of the carr 
trees in succession, and is made to look up for a moment at m 
carvings on them, and while he does so the old men raise a sW» 




They now give him a new name,* which must not be revealed to the 
uninitiated, and they hand to him a little bag of stringy-bark con- 
taining one or more small white stones of crystal quartz :"this bag lie 
ry about his person, and the stones must not be shown 
to the uninitiated on pain of death, f This concludes the first part 
of the performance. 

The boombat is next conveyed, blindfolded, to a large camp at 
a distance of several miles, no woman being near, and food is given 

. :1 ; i! ; ^'lliell h •:.« y keep III 1 1 1 

: ribal lore bv showing him 
their dances and their songs ; these he leams, especially one song 
J Tluch l can tell nothing further than that it is important for the 
*oy to know it. These songs they say, were given them by Baiamai, 
tie great Creator. J At night, during this period, the boombat is set 
ty himself in secluded and darksome places, and, all around, the 
• "pe hideous noises, at which he must not betray the least 






3 Ridley says— " This old man Billy tol 

: s a mystery too sacrea to ue 
J^Wtoawhite man, that UVulrnmhuhnii; a stick or wand, is 
found n f u D6W name > " My father," says a correspondent, "sometimes 
id this they would get angry and chase 



T of these crystals ttllu u, 



f+^e tribal laws as 
^MaayyeS 

'-•t tiles, ..,_. 
iifc, kno ^tothe chief, of the tribe, t. 

!x*~ *»- 

lh ^ S' yo 21 make doughboy any more." For this murder one of the 
•°«aadJt afte 7 ards han S e <* at Dungog. A ; 

form ofth e tv* ustered on the trees near h y> ea e er t0 witness thls nmel 

Mother Zl man s retribution. 

the white crystals comes from 
Whe n sheE^J- Xear the B;l ' ' 

Purpose • \ht^ V [l ld hit $ but \l n0 

<ed'it V y "' r^ir blows, they 






*o* tl ° p *f g>ld, but the gin conlt 

n were too n 

; ' '■ - ■: , ..- ■« ■ ■ • >■ - - 

Se, £5$*° root *« means "to create," in Kamilaroi bma meau 



exhibited at the Bora, and that the sight 

with manhood. This sacred wand was the gift of Baiamni. T\\>- 
ground on which the Bora is celebrated is Baiamai's ground. Billy 
believes the Bora will be kept up always all over the country,— 
such was the command of Baifuiiai' 7 

These formalities being completed, the booi7ibat's probation is 
at an end. They now proceed, all of them together, to some large 
water-hole, and jumping in, men and boy, they wash off the colour- 
ing matter from their bodies, amid much glee and noisy merriment; 
when they have come out of the water they paint themselves 

Meanwhile the women, who have been called to resume their 
attendance, have kindled a large fire not far off, and are lying 
around it with their faces covered as before ; the two old men who 
were the first initiators bring rho boy at a run towards the fire, fol- 
lowed by all the others, with voices silent but making a noise by 
beating their boomerangs together; the men join hands and form a 
ring round the fire, and one old man runs round the inside of the ring 
beating a heelaman or shield. A woman, usually the boy s own 
mother, then steps within the ring, and, catching him under ■ tM 
arms, lifts him from the ground once, sets him down, and then 
retires; everybody, the boy included, now jumps upon the decays 
red embers, until the fire is extinguished. 

Thus ends the Bora, for the youth is now a man ; he is a ni 
ber of the tribe, undertakes all the duties of membership, and _^ 
a right to all its privileges, but may not take a wife for some l 
yet ; the restrictions as to food, however, are now removed, and 
he may eat anything he can find. . • , 

Although these are the formalities observed iri 
youth into the tribe, yet in the Bora, as in Freemasonry, 
novice does not become a full member all at once, but ^^. 
through several grades, and these are obtained by a cert ^ 
ber of Boras ; thus the process of quali 
may extend over two or three years. In his tend 
has horn taught that he • '" fc ' '„ 

or bandicoot, or other animals ; all others that he S 6 * 8 £ have 
brought to the camp and given to the aged and those 
large families ; when lie has attended one Bora > 
mission to eat the male, say, of the paddymelon ; 
Bora he mav eat the - sugar-bag. : ' that is, the honey, on* , 
bee ; a step higher and he may eat the male of the °P^f . fee 
so on until his°initiation and instruction arc complete and the 

may eat anything.* --" 

~ Some instances may here be given to illustrate these rules. ^CjJ 
occasion, perhaps forty years ago, a dray was traveling on ^ „ 
Northern Lad, and as the drive? was rather short of proves ^ ^ 
his black boy, "Georgie, go and catch an opossum; we 



Another conspicuous part of the inner Bora customs is the 

knocking out of one of the upper front teeth of the boombat. This 

does not seem to have ever b< < n pi i tis< d l>\ tin K mi ' roi tril <; 

although it prevailed among the coast tribes, both here and in 

Queensland, but among them also it is falling into disuse.* One 

ot my correspondents says : " One of the older fellows place., his 

• ■<>th, and gives a sudden 

jerk in such a way as to snap the lad's tooth. On one occasion 

*nen one of the black boys had been initiated, I noticed his teeth 

' broken.' In explanation he said, "Old Bony 

nearly broke his own teeth in trying ; he tried only three times." 

Another correspondent says with regard to the Yuin tribe, who 

w m our S.E. seaboard : "The tooth after being knocked out 

by the head gommera of the tribe to the head 

j : thence, I am told, it 

, thence round by Lake 

■ ' nd (bmdagai and round by way of Cooma to 

. v. her,, the head r/o.iuw ra < itln r kept it or gave 

^tsowner^ It is said that an ancient .shield (of. the sacred 

T m soon caught an opossum and brought it to the camping ground, 

^ r ^t d ° W11 '• ■'" don't you skin 

nob^f 6 ? f, Ust not ' ; : ' " **? wm ^ ow ' 

■ /V-'- ,:; ■ -■•■ ■- -.- ; . : : 

■ '.' '-' " ■-." : v -v.. -;;- , v-.' 

" < .".' ',' ^ : "■' e' '" ' ■ ■ r ■ ■.-.:■ 

■■■ - . 

off tbeivW' 0l ' ! " v 



Ancilia in Rom a past ages in the Yuin tribe 

— regarded as almost equal to Daranwhui himself— accompanied 
the tooth." 

These, then, are the ceremonies of the Bora ; but, before pro- 
ceeding, I wish to draw attention to the fact that the Hamite 
negroes of Upper Guinea had seventy years ago — long before etfcw 
graphy became a science — certain relig 

like those of our Bora, and I suppose they have them still. These, 
like the Bora, are ceremonies of initiation, and not only bring a 
youth to a knowledge of his country's gods, but quality Lim ' 
have intercourse with spirits and to" hold civil power and author- 
ity in the State ; all the uninitiated are to him a profit > u i < i 
who, on the least transgression of ordei s, ai hurried rw i) into 
woods, there to be destroyed by the evil spirits which the magical 
power of the initiated can control. As this assembly is convened 
but four or five times in a eentury, and occupies a period of five 
years, only a small portion of the male population can acquire the 
qualification necessary for power in the State. The king issues, 
when he pleases, an order for the holding of this assembly. The 
preparations are committed to the care of the old men, known to 
be best acquainted with the mysteries. These choose suitable 
places in the woods, and make ready I 

can produce surprise, awe, and chilling fear on the minds or tie 
novices. All women, childr. i, and strangers ; 
spot, and the novice believes that if he reveals any of the secret. 
of the grove, the spirits, know Lug ! '- t titlih snt ss_ and P™ taiu ^ 
will in one way or other bring destruction upon him. Ine co 
try three er four mil, - .-.■•.. ■■,.:. i> saered and inviolable, and tut 
evil spirits will earr< oil il o who intrude. . . 

The essential idea prominent in this negro ceremony of mitiat 
is that of a death and of a new birth,— a regeneration. a*" 
the catechumen, before he proceeds to the groves, gives away ^ 
his property and effects, as if about to die to the world, am 
the completion of his novitiate, when he returns to his kin 
he pretends to forgot all his past life and to know 
nor mother nor relations nor former fr 
his whole aspect is that of a new man, for he now 
head a cap ma 

and as a bnd-e of his new rank lie wears a ■ 
teeth round his neek. During the live years „i 
probationer is attended by some old an 



dge of his new rank ho wears a 

lis neck. During the five years ol 
— ^ ~3 attended by some old and' expert 
his instructors; they teach him all the ritual tf j 

1. Vari«nH srvnrr* nnrl h'mh nf nOfttrV, DlOStly Ulf "^ . 



• 



THE ABORIGINES OP NEW SOUTH WALES 211 

new name, and, as a token of their regeneration, several long 
rounds which afterwards become permanent scars, are made on 
their neck and shoulders. They are now conducted to some retired 
pke at a distance, where women may attend them. Here, their 
religious education being already complete, they are instructed in 
those principles or' . ike them use- 

ful as members of the State and fit to act as judges in civil and 
criminal causes. This done, they leave the groves and their t m o rs, 
■ - ith th^ir iu'Yv bade - <>t p. • h- tion upon them, they exhibit 
their magical powers in public by means of a stick driven into the 
ground with a bundle of reeds at its top, or they repair to the 
Public assemblies and join in the solemn dances of the wise men, 
onnthe duties of civic rulers.* 
Now, when I cast my eye over the Bora and its regi 

1 feel myself constrained to ask " What does all this mean 1" I, 
™ r one, do not accept the " autochthony of the Australian 
aborigines," nor can I believe that the Bora with all its solemnities 

r " rthp rites were sacred, andihe initiated were bound not to 
hey had seen and done) is a moaning- -' i 

Z ?f ailtoc hthoimus thin- still less thai the same thing can he 

Vustralia and in farthest Africa ; 1 prefer to see 

- in covering ancestral \, >■)]■. ts a >vmbolism m- 

2 ; e enou g n t0 the Kushite race at first, but now little ui.hr- 
desce d yet su P erstitiousl y observed by their Australian 

Wing at the ceremonies, I notice that in many respects the 
J^^nces resemble those of the religions of tl ce t 

i A ) There are two circles ; the one is less sacred, for the 
^men maybe present there, although only on the out- 
skirts ; in it certain preparatory things are done in order 
to bring tl 

a ^e for the reception of the teaching in the other circle,—- 
«* mfyunn, the : -- ^ t1 >- 

gods are to be seen : the worn* 






must not appr 


iner circle, for it is thrice holy ; 


! ' 


ire circle is an invariable symbol 




1 pure one, from whose presence 




1 Thing must flee away (cf the 




e .sun -rod in Egvpt, (.'haUUv.i. 


, 


China). This fact is so well 



seen in the Chaldean name (Genesis xxxi. 47) jegar 
sahadutha, "the circle of witness" — a name that bore 
witness to a solemn compact of friendship. In Persia 
to this day, in the southern parts of it, which were 
originally inhabited by a Hamite race of an almost purely 
negroid type, there are to be soon on the • 
circles of stones which the tradition of the oouafc] 
regards as set there by the Caous, a race of giants, that 
is, of aboriginals. Their name closely resembles the 
name Kush, as does also Outch, near the mouth of the 
Indus, and other geographical names along the Arabian 
seas. Then in the classic nations, both in Gi 
Italy, some of the most famous temples were circular in 
form, especially the Pantheon at Athens, and at Kome 
the temple of Vesta, the goddess of the eternal fire. 
Rome also, for 100 years after the foundation of 1 
worship of the gods was celebrated in the open air 
(cf. the Bora), often in sacred groves, and there also the 
temple of Janus, the oldest and most venerated of the 
Roman gods, was merely a saer 

building stood till the time of the first Punic W* 
The pomoerium, or circuit of the walls of Rome, was 
sacred ring, and the Circus was consecrated to the m 
and was open to the sky. In Britain too, the fire-worship 
of the Druids led them to construct nug-temp 
various parts, and especially at Stonehenge, where w 
are two rings as in the Bora, but concentric. Even tiie 
rude Laplanders, who are sprung from the same 1 
race that we found to be one of the earliest etojjj 
in the population of Babylonia, make two 
they sacrifice to the sun, and surround them ■ 
they also draw a white thread through the ear 
animal to be sacrificed. i ^la- 

(£) In the Bora, the two rings, both of them sacM 
municate with each other by means ot a na 
in which are earthen representations of cert 
of worship. The 
of the gods, carved on trees, and 
in the outer ring that he faces the passage ana w 
of the gods. jo jl 

(6) The inner shrine is an arrangement ^"jjj^ ^ 
religions. At Babylon, in 
was built in stages, the worshipper 



w - had * f t he< 
stages of Sabaeism before he re ff^ ied a 



each of these stages v 



213 

the worship of one of the Babylonian gods. In Greece 
and in Rome, the roofed temples were commonly 
arranged in two parts, an inner and an outer, and the 
statue of the god was so placed that a worshipper, 
entering by the external door, saw it right before him. 
At the very ancient temple of Dodonaean Zeus, in 
Greece, the god was supposed to reside in an oak-tree, 
and there is good reason for believing that 1 1 
or wooden image of the god was here and in other grove 
worships merely a carved piece of bark. The student 
of Biblical archaeology will also remember the Asherah 
of the Hebrew idolaters, a wooden pillar or statue of the 
goddess which could be cut down and burned (2 Kings, 
xxiii, 6.) 

As to the images in the passage to the inner circle, 
something analogous exists in Hinduism, for, on the 
birthday of Ganesa, the lord of evil spirits, clay ii iag<-s 
of him are made and worshipped for several days and 
then thrown into water. 

(C) In the Bora, the novice in the outer circle has his body all 
painted over with red, but at the close of his novitiate 
he washes in a pool, is thereby cleansed, and then paints 
himself all white. The other members of the tribe, who 
have previously been initiated, paint themselves red and 
white for the ceremony ; they too, at the close, wash in 
the pool and retire white like the boombat. This trans- 
lormation is to them a source of much rejoicing. 

y> Am °ng the black races the colour red was the symbol 
of evil, and so Plutarch tells us that the Egyptians 
sacrificed only red bullocks to Typhon, and that the 
animal was reckoned unfit for this sacrifice if a single 
^nite or black hair could be found on it; in certain 
their festivals, the Egyp 
any among tin 

t u r ' anC ^ * ne P e °pl e OI V^opwa iiau wi>= "— """T 

or throwing an ass down a precipice because of its red 
colour. The god Typhon was to the Egyptians the 
embodied cause of everything evil, malignant, destruc- 
J y e man-hating in the economy of nature, just as Osiris, 
the bright and beneficent sun, was an emblem of all that 
Wa * good. Set or Sutekh, that is, Typhon, hates his 
pother Osiris, and every evening murders him, the 
Jjrkness kills the light, the evil slays the good. In 
^umbers xix. 2, the red heifer is a sin-offering for the 
! f aelites, probably with some reference to the Egyptian 
«*>« about this colour. In India, Ganesa, the lord of 
^mischievous and malignant spirits, is symbolized by 



red stones,* and the Cingalese when they are sick offer 
a red cock to the evil spirit that has caused the sickness. 
The blacks of I b a corpse and then 

paint it red,f and their black brethren of Madagascar, 
when they are celebrating the rite of rarctuneMion, I 
wear anything red about them lest the child should bleed 
to death. The negroes of Upper Guinea— far enough 
removed from our Australian Boras to prevent even a 
suspicion of borrowing — make a similar use of the 
colours red and white ; for in Benin, when a woman is 
first initiated in the rites which the Babylonians 
sanctioned in honor of their goddess Mulitta, she seats 
herself on a mat in a public place and covers her head, 
shoulders, and arms with the blood of a fowl ; she then 
retires for her devotions, and these being finished she 
washes herself, returns, and is nibbed all over witn 
white chalk where the blood had been. 

The young ladies of Congo— also a black country-- 
have a similar custom, but they besmear their heel •' 
necks with red paint. 

Those who pass through the Bora paint tbeawW" 
white at its close. It is well known that in the ■M** 
rituals white was the colour sacred to the bun, 
benign god, before whom darkness Hies awaj ■ 
spirits must depart at the the crowing of the cock, 
harbinger of the dawn. 

The cock, that is the trumpet to the morn, 
Doth with his lofty and shrill-sounding throat 
Awake the god of day ; and, at his warning, 

Whether in sea or lire, i 

The extravagant and erring spirit hies 

To his confine." 

In India 'white agates represent Siva, the e ^ 
cause of all blessings; in Persia w 
sacred to the Sun ; in Celtic Britain, some ot tn^ ^ 
people even now whiten their houses to Keep 
devils; and so with many other examples. ^ 

In these senses the hoombat enters the J*>R. ^ 
the brand of Typhon upon him, exposed to , 

influences, to disease and death from annuals, n > ^ 
spirits, but after he has made the acquaintanc ^ 
fathers' gods and has. learned, the sacr ed sog _ ^ 
dances of his tribe, he comes forth anotner^^. 



washes a' il and assumes 

the livery of the children of light. The other men, 
whose mottled colour is a confession of mingled good 
and evil in their lives, also emerge new men once more, 
purified and devoted anew to the service of the good, and 
freed from the power of the evil. 

This felt subjection to unseen evil and aspiration for 
deliverance from it, in the minds of our native races, is 
not only natural to man everywhere, but was a marked 
feature in the whole system of Akkadian magic ; for 
these old Chaldaeans believed that innum.i 
each with a personality, were distributed throughout 
nature, sometimes in union with animate objects and 
sometimes separately. Existing everywhere they had 
each both an evil and a good aspect, at one time 
favourable, at another unfavourable, control 
life, and di the phenomena, beneficial 

wdestructi .water. A dual spirit, 

had and good, was attached to each of the celestial 
todies, and each living being; a constant warfare 
existed and was maintained between the bad and the 
good, and, according as the one principle or the other 
held sway, so did blessing or disasters descend upon 
nature and upon man. Hence the value of religious 
rites such as the Bora: for, the due observance of these, 
repeated from time to time, gave, for a while at least, 
the victory to the good 

the faithful. Thus, then, I explain the red colour ot the 
novice at the Bora, the red and white of the celebrants, 
and the white colour of the whole when the service was 

»ys that the Bora is Baiamai's ground. He 
adds«r );1 ; 

yet through Turramulan, a sulovdi - d-.ry. luna- 
mulan is mediator foi r P-aiamoi to 

^n, and from man to Baiamai." " Women must not 
g ee Turramulan on pain of death. And even when 
mention i ■ , or of the Bora, at wUicn 

'" P esides, the * onion slink a 

^lawful for them so much as to hear anything about 

matters." . p 

[a J W e have also seen that the Yuin tribe make an una e 

°f Daramulun.-n.d set if up at their Bora* In J^ 

^ringai tribe, the bull-roai 



this same instrument, a correspondent tells me, is called 
tumdun, a name which 1 think should be written 
durum-dun. All these names are identical, and only 
modifications of dara-mul-un, the original form ; thus 
with a slight ah tg we have dam- 

mul-un, turra-mul-im, di>i-ri<-m<\m\, durru-mhuhw, 
tirri-coty, tir ri-haihai. The root of all these forms is 
dara, dar, Sanskrit Jri, meaning to " protect," a root 
found in all the great branches of human speech «d 
furnishing derivatives which mean "a prince," "a 
governor," "a lord," a : ' supreme ruler." Of the other 
portions of these names I cannot at present give any 
satisfactory account. P.ut 1 lake the name Daramulun 
to mean something like "Lord of the mysteries," 6 r d 9 
evident that he presides at the Bora, and is the source 
of the blessings therein communicated The use of a 
fish-shaped roarer to indicate his presence leads me to 
compare him with tl (JhaU u god, Hoa, Ilea, half 
man half fish, who, in the ('halda-o-liaU Ionian ivli.i 
was reverenced as the rrve.de, ,,f al! lvli-iuiih and - ■■ 
knowledge. His abode was the sea, the Persian Gun, 
where he passed the night, but by day he remained 
among men to instruct them ; thus he became a legis- 
lator and protector, ilea, as a god, " sees that all u> & 
order," and, being »d sciences, he can 

baffle the powers of evil by his magic arts. (<* 
"magic" shown by the Koracljie in the Bora in 
presence of Daramulun's image.) The Akkadians, an 
from them the Babylonians, invoked the aid ot ^ 
when spells and enchantments were found unava . 
against the power of demons. So, in the Bora passa^ , 
when Daramulun hud been duly honoured and mV 
influence conjured op fcn I 

•spirits, the lad is taken into the inner circle ana 
the gods of his fathers, and learns re. know them anC ii 
attributes, just as ii tin- ■•:■ it r Eleusinia of trree 
duly Qualified were, after a course of previous prep 
tion, led into d * the dark^ 

night, and there by a din, light allowed to see and m 
the holy things. . , rr a and 

The Indian Ganesa seems to correspond with Be 
Daramulun, for the rite of marriage and otner ^ 
takings are comincn.nl b v the w. >rship of (*«» ^ 
drives away the malign effects of the malice or 
demons. He, too, must have come from the sea, 



clay images which have been' set up on l.i- 

festival are afterwards thrown into water, as it were his 

native element. 

vt step in the process of initiation is interesting ; 
the boombat is shown a sacred wand, he gets a new 

(*) (1.) The wand. In this there is the notion of consecra- 
tion and sacredness, for, on the Egyptian monuments, the 

deities are constantly represented as holding in one 
hand a long rod or ^s 
of it. Tl 

state, carry this •• c> 
regent of 

rod, and some reh< 
sanctity a " staff" and a deer's skin. The Magi 
Persia carried the JJun-rma wbarsom, a divining wand, 
as one of the Ualgi . ' ■ magieians 

of Egypt similarly had rods in their hands when they 
stood in the presence ii- 12). The 

traditions of Peru speak of a sacred golden wand borne 
by the son and daughter of the Sun. These are analogies, 
hut the nearest approach to the use of the wand in the 
Bora is, I think, to be found in the Finnish 
where there is reference to a " celestial wand ' (e\ id< ntly 
as in Peru a sun-wand), which protects its poss 
all spells and enchantments. Even the gods are glad to 
use it against the powers of evil. (2.) A new name. 
Having now a« • [iiir. 1 a knowledge of <ii< v< 
initiated is a now man, he is " twi< 1 .rn 
kinsman in Upper Gi n^ed, he will 

come forth to the world under a new character, re- 
' - former < state. In India, a youth becomes 
one of the "twice born'' by investiture with the sacred 
cord, reeei 

our boombat, he passes into the hands of religious pre- 
ceptors w! ravers, mystie w. nK 
and devotional ceremonies. In more moi 
^hen a monastic house or a nunnery received, from the 
Wo 'id without, one more recluse, a new name was u iven 
by which he or si: be known m 
lehgmn. The underlying idea in all these r - 
tnat a religious profession gives one a new 
and a new relation to the rest of the world. And who 
*"1 deny that this is true, whether the professor be black 
<* white? (3.) The white stones. I am inclined to 
Jhink thai only one of these at a 
tlQ ie, and that the number of them increases according 



to the number of Boras he at 

a full and accepted master of the craft.* In any om 
they are used as talism ins. i 1 re < u-rii <1 in tin 
for life. They are merely small pieces of quartz cvystas 
hut are so sacred that they must not be shown to the 
women. (See page 15.) The negroes of Guinea M 
small stones as fetishes, which they carry about th. ; r 
necks or under their armpits. These the priests -u 1 
after a formal consecration. The white colour is a sun- 
colour and is beneficent, as already shown ; hence the 
Hindus dedicated white stones to Siva, the <m a 
blessed one. 

Under this head may I venture to quote the solemn 
and sacred words: — "I will give him a white stone, and 
in the stone a new name written which no n 
saving he that receiveth it." 

(F) The initiated lad is next led to a camp at a . i 

kept there for eight or ten days, receiving instruction 
specially in songs and dances; he also eats here, and 
his confidence in divine protection is tested by hideous 
noises during the darkio ss of the nitdit. 

(f) It is rather' singular :l s a coincidence that the Djo- 
nysiaandthe -ivaier Kleu,inia of Greece also lasted 
as a solemn 
emn bathing or purification by wa or , 
thereafter instru 80 also a Brahman 

must reside with his preceptor for some time unt 
has gained a thorough knowledge of the holy books ; » 
must pass through certain purificatory rites vIuc °T 
move the taint of original sin ; one of these is the cu ■ ■ Jp 
off of the hair, and with this seems to correspont 
knocking out of a front tooth practised by so many 
our native tribes. c . pnt ; a ; 

The singing and the dancing are ever. 
parts of negro worship, and the dance is m 1 s 

e Wouhl that some one could gather toprther^ 
songs of our aboriginals as used in the Bora _ ^ 
native races become extinct ! I believe tna ^ 
songs we should find their religion and their my 
at present so little known. ^______ *" 



He says that Bora, ;uv not ..tV-n Ih-W n.w. 

'...?■ ] 
A :. . i. .. - . • • ■■..,.... 



VV SOUTH WALES. 219 

(G) Then come the washing and the purification, which I have 
already explained, but after that they join hands all 
round, dance round the fire, and then jump into it and 
through it. 
ig) To illustrate this I give a few quotations from Napier's 
" Folk Lore." " On May Day the Druids used to light 
large fires on the summits of the highest hills, into which 
they drove four-footed beasts, using certain ceremonies to 
expiate for the sins of the people. The Pagan ceremony 
of lighting these fires in honor of the Asiatic God Belus 
gave its name to the entire month of May." " Until 
very lately in different parts of Ireland, it was the com- 
mon practice to kindle fires in milking yards on the first 
day of May, and then many women and children leaped 
through them, and the cattle were driven through in 
order to avert evil influences." In Rome, on the feast 
of Pales, in April, the same forms of purification and 
dedication were observed. The Medes and Persians were 
fire-worshippers in the very region from which our 
Kushites came, and even the Hottentots of the present 
day retain the old customs, tor ( l„v make their cattle pass 
through the tiro as a preservative against the attacks of 
wild (logs. These observances came from the far East, 
and are widely spread there ; we may not ma 
that our Australian blackfellows, if, as I believe, they 
came f roi a B , ■ not forgotten them, and 

still trust i | he fire-god I If a black- 

fellow is going to the river for water at a spot to which 
Jus superstitious fears have given a bad name, he takes a 
ore-stick i i ,, av the Krooben (an evil 

spirit), and, if he thinks that the place where he is camped 
. ! te kindles a fire there and removes a 
httle distance off, safe in the protection of the fire. 

In India, the youth, when about to be in 
the sacred -re the sun and waits 

thrice round a fire, and in the marriage ceremony the 
fe ride is led thrice round the sacred fire. An i 
yed by the Chaldrean sorcerers has these 

May the god Fire, the hero, dispel their enchantments 
0r spells for the injury of others. 
J* Ve ^us considerprl .+. anma i*w.ti the institution of the 



W C hnsi considered u, s, 



*££*&* - universal distribution^ 

^s,T! t0 me a stro *g proof that our black tribes are Homo e- 
"> 0I common origin, and not autochthonous, as some aiie e. 



220 THE ABORIGINES OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Is it possible that so many tribes differing in language and 
fined by their laws and habits each to its own hunting-gro 
should have evolved from their own consciousness ceremonies so 
similar, and which, when examined, correspond in so many points 
with the religiousness of the ancient world % How is it that the 
blacks of Australia and the blacks of Guinea have similar ceremo- 
nie.s of initiation? Is it not because they have come from the 
same ethnic source, and have thus a common ancestry and common 
traditions ] 

(B.) Marriage. 

But let us now proceed with our subject. The last of the 
twelve Sanskfu ; h the young Brah- 

man has to pass is Vimht, man iag*-, an 1 this completes his equip 
ment as one of the ' ' twice-born. " Our boombat, likewise, as soon as 
his course of Boras is complete, is allowed to take a <ji"- M 
here again there meets us a very interesting field of inquiry—the 
manias laws of the aborigines— but as the whole subject has been 
fully discussed bv Messrs. Kison and Howitt, in their book on the 
"Kamilaroi andKurnai" systems,* there is litti 
research here, and I shall therefore content myself with status .. 
few facts known to me, and a few conclusions therefrom. _ 

Our Australian ni.Mi-i-in.-s know m.tl in- «»f those romantic pre- 
liminaries to marriage, love and courtship, which the higher an 
more civilized forms of lif< I. v. e.tnUidmd in society, 1*J 
marry, it is true, and are given in marriage, but not on tem ^ 
equality or mutual esteem ; for the woman becomes the proper? 
of her husband, is treated as his drudge, and often 
usage at his hands ; her position is that of an inferior ; when 
walks abroad, she follows, as a lackey does his master, two 
three yards behind, and if he speaks to her, or she to him as tiw 
walk, he does not stop or turn round to converse, b 
with an air of native dignity and conscious superiority, taiK h ^ n0 
the while. In forming this relation of marriage, the woman 
choice, unless indeed, when she elopes with some ; 
this is hazardous to both, for the male relatives of the worn * 
sue, and, if they overtake the fugitives, the man has to deten * ts 
self against their attacks ; if he displays superior P roW * SS s a urre]1 der 
off his assailants, he keeps the woman, but, if he h 
or is killed, the woman is taken back to her parents , " - 
manage to escape pursuit for a time, they are safe. . arr ying 

An aboriginal community is divided into four m ^, 

classes, which in the Kamilaroi tribe— one of the best 



Female Ip atha 

ltd Kurnai by Fison & Ho wit 



The first and second of these classes have each the same sub- 
btive animals, which they take as their 
M, viz., Emu, Bandicoot, Black Snake, while the third and 
fourth take Kangaroo, Opossum, Iguana. The Gringai tribe has 
the same class division*, except that Murri is with them called 
,: '■ . iiii'l their ,;n} )f li\ isions are Black Snake, Bandicoot, Eagle- 
hawk, Black Crow, and Stingaree. Other tribes elsewhere have 
still the four classes, but under different names and with different 
sub-classes. The law of intermarriage is such that there is no 
marrying between members of the same ch I t a Tj t 

wry a Kubbitha, a Murri a Butha, and so on. The rule of 
descent, as given by authors who have written on this subject, is 
this:— "Descent is reckoned thro».<jh tl mother. ' To this rule, 
however, there are exceptions, where the children follow the 
ma's classification. I am therefore disposed to offer this as a 
toore generally applicable rule :— '• ( 'hildr. /> take the class and 
W«w of their grandparents" and this rule, so far as I can see, 
^mits of no exceptions in the tribes which I have examined. It 
desponds also with ti natum! impulse among ourselves in the 
naming of our children. I tabulate my view thus :— 

Laws of Descent among the Aborigines. 

Rule :— « Children take the classification of their 
grandparents." 



Mun j (^garoo) is the son of Ipai (emu) : therefore hia sons are 
j> *Pai (emu). 

i is the son of Kumbo (bandicoot) : therefore his 

^&iair bo - (bandicoot) -- 

, r Murri < 



lurri (iguana). 

thfi son of Knbbi (onossuni) tl iefore 1 



the son of Kubbi (opos: 



' Kubbi (opossi 



(kangaroo) is the daughter of Kubbitha (kangaroo): 
refore her daughters a i Kubbit! (kangaroo). 

' the daughter of Matha (opossum): therefore 



-*""* opossum) is 

W& ters , areM ^(0P« m 



dai?^ " tlle darter of Butha (ew, . 

uau ghters are Butha (emu) 

* (black snake) is the daughter of Ipatha (black snake) : 
6retore her d;u, . .,,-k snake). 



For Males. 


For Females. 


Ipai 




Kumbo 


Kubbitha 


Butha 


Murri 




Knlbi 


Matha 


Ipatha 


Ipai 




Kibo 


Kubbitha 


Butha 


Murri 


on. 


K iL.«. 


and so on. 


Ipatha 



in the class with which he can marry ; thus every Ipai 
regards every Kubbitha woman as his wife in posse. Hence a 
young man of the Ipai class, as soon as by tribal ceremonies ne 
has acquired the right to marry, may go to the abode of a family 
of Kubbitha girls and say to one of them, in the presence ot Her 
parents — 

Ngaia coolaid karramulla yaralla 

I wife will take by and by. 

His demand thus made cannot be refused, and the „P ar ^j^ 
keep the girl until he comes to take her a 
;l. and his presence in the ca 
woman whom he has chosen retires to 

a gunyah, that is, a rude hut of branches and bark oi i 
kindles a fire, and sits down within. The bridegroom is tne 
to the spot by his father or some old man of the tribe, ot 
the hut with her, and without further ceremony they £ 



is recognized, 



nd wife. But the 



peaceful a fashion as t 



' ' ; for i 



^bloodfeudbetvreen 



this murri (black man) and the tan a 

although the parents cannot, according to tribal, law, ^ ^ 

demand when made, yet they do not allow the w 

signify her consent to the marriage b- 

thlfire. In this case the murri secures the ass 

young fellows of his own class ; ^>: 

seize the woman and carry her off by force : inn* w ^ 

seems to be by capture, but is really the assertion ^f^^ J 

which the law sanctions.* The man, however, is ,-, . ^d 

have quiet pn^i,,, „, hi, brid- - lb- >■!" ^f ^ the 

so the male I assemble andj«**» 






•:r; the murri is challenged to meet their champion ; if he is 

single combat, he keeps his wife ; if not, he loses 

uitl i ik j - is life ; thus the blood is atoned. But, if he 

• :i warrior and his superior prowess is known ami acknowledged 

ies, they do not encounter him openly, but sneak 

about and watch until they can take him unawares, perhaps 

eing to drink; then they pierce him through with, 

• lie blood is atoned. 

i >ff the wives of others. This we may 
^aboriginal abduotium vVlmr* the husl md has been oppressive 
or cruel, the wife probably expects to have greater comfort in her 
•-■■wndatioii. On one occasion two men carried offtwo^'/is. The one 
of tie men, being afraid of the consequences of Ins a. t. gave back 
Je woman he had. The other stood and defended himself with 
ist forty others armed with spears and 
boomerangs. He won the gin. 
sometimes they exchange wives, so as to assort ages better. 
One strange social custom exists among them. A man must 
not speak to his wife's mother ; they converse through a third 
Pejon. In the Ooalaroi country, a friend of mine one day said 
suddenly to his bhu < boy, -Tie n s Mary; call her; I want to 
s P?ak to her." The boy took no notice of the command, and 
You know I can't speak to 
^ fejow. " Bu ion on their converse with 

^ wife's father. 

A man's dignity and importance in the tribe are measured by 
«je number of wives lie lias, as ai i :.^-i us by the number of 
^ants or retainers. Thus the: chiefs have often three or four 
commonalty have to content themselves with one 
to?' f whit e man, who e's. 

"J ^J lived many years among the blacks, had four wives 
y®"* to him bv the head man of the tribe, to carry his bag- 
W and to do all servile work for him. 

■.:••': 

The «iurri is now subject to tribal government and tribal law. 
and • f SUmed the Position of a man and a member of the tribe, 
traK 18 hencef o"' : ° an admuus " 

^eandexe,: him for wrong- 

by tribal custom, placed 
abJ 6 , ndsof the chiefs -tin; old and experienced men— an 
■! ■, i.. nagemot. In the Kamilaroi tribe, at 
to have been hereditary, 
city i n Inan wto s howed conspicuous valour as a warrior, or saga- 
, a seat in tne 



without precedent in this f >r in mor. eiviliz. 1 communities 
where, in which here.iitary right was fully acknowledged. ;. 
heir to a throne has been sei bis unfitness for the 

duties of the office ; while, on the other hand, the mere force of 
worth and ability has raised a stranger even to the imperial purple. 
The general council of the tribe, then, consists of these chiefs. « - 
have the sole control of all its affairs, the determination of p.-* 
and war, the power to summon assemblies, and the right to enforce 
the execution of tribal punishments. The tribe, if not too small, 
is divided into several sub-tribes, each one occi 
taurai or hunting and food ground, within which it must strictly 
confine itself.* The head man of each of these suh-tribes i» a 
chief and a member of the Council. When a matter occurs which 
demands deliberation, thev a 

and resolve. ■• 1 on-." , m,s a friend, « came suddenly upon a M 
of the old men sitting in a circle in anxious consultation, as 
I passed on, one of them whispered to me not to tell anybody that l 
had seen them." In these meetings the oldest di- 
stich is the respect shown to old age that he could carry a 
measure by his single voice. The chief, sit as magistrates tc .decide 
on all complaints that are brought before them. The P™™fV 
they impose are various : i against tribal . 

such as the di ir f deat £ r ~L to 

spear ; if a man has spoken to his wife's mother, he ^ oongeu^ 
leave the camp a- d jut -h hi- <j> ■>»>/> at sojne d 




adjacent sub-tribe requeuing t j j %$ S^afSg 

e^en ITitiU 1 . . g ^ Jould c<tf»egj 

latter replied, i sections asse®^ 



THE ABORIGINES OP NEW SOUTH WALES, 225 

time and lie is warned each time of throwing ; his relatives stand 
by in his interest. In some tribes if the offence is not of any 
maeniui'k the offender's ;/u> is allowed to stand beside her 
ksband armed with a conny (" yamstick") ; with this she strikes 
down the spears as they approach. Many grievances, however, 
• fettled v.irhout the intervention of the magistrates, in the 
rough and ready way common among schoolboys. For instance, 
a man has been found stealing from his neighbour, or two men 
quarrel about women; a fight ensues, and with any weapons 
which may happen to be at hand ; the one or the other gets his 
head broken and there the matter ends. In a set duel, the one 
away at the other, who defends 
continues showering blows until he 
» tired; then his adversary sets to work with his nullah in the 
»me manner, until the one or the other succumbs. Sometimes 
M in more serious matters the chiefs are not required to inter- 
ne. If a man has by force; liiairi.-il a woman in violation of 
nbal law, the woman's relatives complain to the man's class ; 
«ey are bound to compel the man to give back the woman ; if 
wy do not, a party feud arises which can be appeased only by 
Wood. The following description of such a party battle was 
*mten nearly fifty years ago, and is copied from a pi : 
"*■ K>th September, 1833.— I was to-day present for the first time 
, a battle of natives, ten men being engaged on each side. A 
Ta ^ had been selected as the P lace of combat - The two 
^nds advanced to about thirty paces from each other ; then a 
JWey commenced in which words got higher and higher until in 
^asperation two or three boomerangs were thrown from the one 
"^presently the others returned the challenge in the same way, 
j™ then the parties gallantly closed and began belabouring one 
» heads unmercit ies : three or foui 



Z^ 1 howl ^ UC1 

ffr-f a otller ' but with more deadl y ^ ea p° ns than bef T' 

men.** the si § ht of blood arouses the valorous feelings of the 
for » e 7 den tly excites the softer sensations of the other sex; 
AaaeTf aU at 0nce ™shed between the parties a hag bearing the 
then*;* ? man ; her eloquence was great if we may judge from 
^K* * e * ad e ; she < suited faction to the word and the 

*6 int action ' > and as often as a man li£ted a Spear t0 '' 

terposed herself ; her violence was becoming outrageous, 

C^^e forward from the opposite side a woman also 

^ £" h a to mahawk, and seemed ] ,i - 



the backbone. The angry mood, however, of these two females 
.suddenly changed, for they erased to threaten, and agreed to 
endeavour to preserve peace between their friends. But the first, 
finding her efforts in this direction unavailing, abandoned h»rs.'.t 
t ) dt .pair, and, s< i/.ing i with it in am •" 

dreadful manner. Whether she intended also to cut short her 
existence or no remains an unsettled question, for the tomahawk 
was wrested from her hands. 

" The fi male affray was to me by far the most amusing part of the 
business, and no Londonfisherwomencould have assailed oneanother 
with greater seeming virulence, or with more ready languag'. 
_ "The one pai stuck in their hair— a sure 

deadly." 

In some tribes when a blood feud has to be atoned, the whole 
totem (say, black-snake) of the aggressor meets the totem (say, 
bandicoot) of the victim; champions are selected to repiv*r.t 
each side as above, and the remainder of the men of these totems 
are spectators. 

The council of chiefs also appoints the public officers of the 
tribe. The principal of these is the marbull, the "herald or 
iger. He must be a man fluent of speech and a good 
traveller. He passes in safety between and through hostile tribes, 
for his person is is known to be a herald by the 

red net which he wears round his forehead. Charged with a 
tiie^.-ig.' fn ia id, nil-, he approaches the camp of the eneity 
and makes his presence known by a peculiar cooee. This brm^ 
around him all who are within hearing of his call; he sits <to 
and remains silent for a long time,* nor do they *]'eak a v : ■ 
him till at last hi. to U -ne h,'lo..M-d „ 
a rapid torrent ; lie is listened to v. it i 

.several days to receive their reply. . .... 

A m/'i-ri v ' mans message 1 

allowed to pass safe even through a hostile territory. H e ^ 
in his hand a piece of stick with a notch at i ! 
this is a piece of white paper having the message 
To attack or injure * ' 
whole tribe of white ; 

In some parts of Queensland, the tribes use " nies 
These are pieces of bark or of thin split wood, oblong m 
nicks on the edges and marks on the flat side. In 
intelligible to them these nicks and dimpled mar 
the number of men and women about whom inforraatio 



S 






THE ABORIGINES OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 227 

Thus it is that the chiefs administer the affairs of the tribe and 
maintain the order of the community. Those whom they govern 
- I them in the highest estimation. But other classes of men of 
peat influence in the tribe are the koradjies or "doctors," and the 
'■vizards'' who are supposed to deal in magical arts. These men 
nave no share in the government, although a chief, if he is so 
practice as a Koradjie. 
Tin- favourite mode of cure in disease is the sucking of the part 
■ »ei And here the Koradjie is both a mountebank and a 
: • ! i ' ■ ii ; >n ■ . i..r there is no doubt that his method will 
'•- vni'k a cure, tor, like a sinapism or any counter-irritant, it 
draws the disease from its seat in the inner tissues and makes it 
depart through the pores of the skin. But, along with this, they 
endeavour to secure the curative influence of imagination and 
therefore work upon the cre< In ts. A man ha3 

a pain in his arm or a lump ii the Koradjie, 

w "0 sucks the part and in a little produces from his mouth 
asmall piece of quartz, which he savs is the pain or the magic 
ain, extracted from the arm ; or he shows a round 
FJ*We from the man's side ; the patient firmly believes that this 
«°ae was thrown at him and to 1 1 s I } before by the 

. whose grave he passed ; or 
S in, a boy has his foot burned ; the Koradjie sucks the wound 
■w brings out of Ms mouth a large piece of charcoal, and now the 
th„f mUSt heal The bla 

JmL meanS ° f CU1 * e > and d ° n0t like to be t0ld that [t 1S * 

;iv effective in the case of 



part of their profession :• 

,, n k < rdiuii to th n 1 
hath f IOns ' and a Pplies them externally. They also use the earth 
can fSr the y di S a hole in any loose moist earth which they 

w 2 * nd place the r at : earth ar 

^e W lt 1S ?P t0 his neck i h « continues in the bath four or 

*ater , ' and durin g this time he shouts for pain ; drinks of 

^WBBuppUed to him and a profuse sweat is induced The 

" S*"?' >JUt ^^ ;chaustion. 



tounitv +u , are a more dangerous and dreaded c 
^ l?r thedoc tors. They are believed to cause sickness 
0% ^*^ to bring or drive away rain, and to do many 
"Pfai^f thin g«- They pretend to have converse with the 
% £1 ^ de P art ed ; they can climb into the sky by ropes or 
^L tH r ;rh the ghosts 

«« knowk-f Erom them, Someunies the 



228 THE ABORIGINES OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 

spirit of an animal, such as the native bear, would enter a wizard, 
who thenceforward could speak corroboree songs as one inspired 
In all these experiences of our initiated aiv.rri, now that he is 
a member of the tribe, there is nothing unique, nothing so peculiar 
that it may not be found, in essence at least, in other savage com- 
munities. Having therefore thus stated a few facts to show 
the conditions under which the mwrri continues to live, I pass 
onto 

III.— The period op Old Age. 
Here we meet with an amiable feature of the aboriginal 
character j they never desert their aged or treat them with 
inhumanity. Many a time have I seen blind old Boko led about 
by the hand, as careful! v >. d pmi nrh :is a mother leads her 
child; if his guides wen ; ed his due share ; 

even the glass of rum was held to his lips that he too might 
have his mouthful of it, From their earliest years the yoiw: 
people of the tribe are taught to respect the old, and one of the 
duties laid upon the novice in his instruction at the Bora 
requires him when a successful hunter to 1, ring the best of his 
prey and lay it at the door of the aged and infirm. 

Some of our blacks are long-lived" I know of one or two who 
are supposed to be over eighty years of age ; " another," says a 
friend, "must be nearly a hundred 5 

but wherever they are broil &e vices of *S 

men, as in our larger towns, they die oft' very rapidly. I am to 
that in the V trs ago there was a warrior 

known as Jimmie Jackass j he and his son and grandson all dieo 
within thirty years. 

An old person, when no longer able to follow the camp as it moves 
about from place to place, and evidently near death, is left at 
suitable spot in charge of one or two others ; if a woman, she 
tended by a woman and a girl j if a man, by a man and i <; 
When death comes, they dig the grave and inter the body or otn 
wise bury it, and then rejoin the camp. ^ 

The blacks bury .' , . v, ,f- -.>., ..id which may ^PP^i^ r 
near, but some tribes, .-v^t!,,,,- on the Paterson and the tpP 
Bogan, have re- . been used ^ 

generations, and L To these a corpse vw 

brought from t! 

a correspondent, <• u ,,!■. . ... I ,. i ,„ ed where he was Te f xed { ] ^ fi 
need not compare with this similar practices and desires in mm 



THE ABORIGINES OP NEW SOUTH WALES 229 

practice, a grave is neatly dug, round but not very deep, and a 
friend goes down into it and tries if it is suitable. The body in 
the meantime has, while warm, been made into the form of a ball, 
bees to chin, anil tied up in bark ; it is brought to the grave, 
but before it is lowered into it, a wizard, standing by, questions 
the deceased and asks him who caused his death, and so on, to 
which answers are given by an old black on the other side. When 
the body is in the grave, weapons and arlirVs of dothim,' un- 
placed beside the dead man,* all present, and especially his rrla- 
ing; the women and men then utter 
Pitiful yells and cut their heads till they stream with blood; 
then all is covered up, and the company departs. The mourning 
tor the dead is continued for three or four months ; the relatives, 
mostly the women, smear thei • and at supper 

tune and at night raise loud yells and cut their heads with toma- 
hawks or knives ; the streaming blood is left to dry there. 

Elsewhere the grave is like ours in shape, and the body is laid in 
*H on a sheet of bark ; above the body is another sheet of bark 
«jd then grass, logs, and earth, the earth on the surface being 
'«" in a mound somewhat in shape like a half-moon ; the trees 
^ near the spot are decorated as in the Bora ; the chiefs are 
J°n»etanes buried in the Bora -round. In one part of Queensland 
P iu Mi- -round nr.ir the »rne; each is about 
- teet long, shaped like a nullah and painted red ; their tops 
? C0Ver ed with the fine white down from the cockatoo. In the 
r™roi country, not only is the bark of the adjacent trees 

wwd with devices, but another grave is dug and no body placed in 

k'JT they do ' the blacks sa y» " to cneat the Krooben -" The 

vZ ' asIha " nr s P irit th , at 

„ aers ab out at night and carries off little children from the 
'cheating the Krooben" seems to imply that he als< 




ABORIGINES OF NEW SOUTH ' 



pass into other bodies, but that the d 
state, and therefore they inter with him most of his effects ami 
valuable presents from his friends. They believe also that the 
wizards by their is . , .:■ i . . ,i raise the dead man, and make 
him hunt and fish and work as a slave for them ; therefore, they 
erect at the burying ground a wooden image of the god who is the 
guardian of their dead ; thus the wizards are foiled. Is this the 
meaning of the carvings on the trees and the red sticks at the 
graves of our aboriginals 1 

Our blackfellows desert their camp where one of tin m ha- d > 
so also do the Hottentots. An .explanation may he found in a belief 
shared by many am mat nati< i s, I mt t mst d< vt'lopcil union,' tl 
Hindus — that when the "gross body' is laid in the grave, i 
burned, the soul still lives in a material form, but that at first this 
is only a "subtile" not a real body, and therefore restJea *j 
miserable— a foul wandering ghost " unhouseled, disappointed, 
unaneled,"— so mi^ruM- a. to ha\ ■ d-li-ln in doing malignant 
Hence, also, of 
Idyllized, funeral rites were 
renewed at various intervals, for it was by these that the soul 
gradually attained to the possession of a real body capable of en- 
new life. . ., T 

To illustrate the funeral arrangements of the Gringai tribe, s 
again quote from the private journal to which I have alrea j 
referred— King Jackey's funeral, August, 1833. " A long «JJ 
of land is here formed by the junction of a creek with the » 
and the extremity of it, surrounded on three sides by the j 
was the place of interment, as pretty a spot for the purpose 
know of anywhere. When I approached I saw an old man ? 
ging the grave ■ this was a most laborious task, for the g™ff for]]1 
my laird, and the only tool he used was a tomaha 
of the grave was oval, and the depth when finished short oi 
There were about a dozen or more of blacks squatting or fJV^ 
around, and amongst them the father, mother, and several Dr g 
of the deceased. The parents were howling in ^company, ^^ 
resembling f" 

■ itself, trass** 



up in as small compass as possible and wrapped in TU fl relative 

ground about 4 yards from the grave, 

who, as they bent over it on their knees, gave full i h**^* J 

grief and affection. The digging being finished, the se ^^ 

to some of the youngest and freshesl : 

off the small leafy branches, proceeded to line the grave ' ^ ^ 

When this was done, the brother of the deceased descen 



■ flier the grave was comfortable, which he did by lying in it in 

:: - body was to occupy. Some slight alterations were 
required, and when these were made the younger members of the 
family came forward and, sui ; ftod it from the 

ground. While doing this they gave a great shout and Mew with 
their mouths* and waved with their hands over the body. Those 
same observances were repeated while the body was being lowered 
ttto the grave, where the brother of the deceased had already 
Placed himself ready to receive the body and to lay it careful lv so 
Jktnot a parti, I h it. The shout then set up 

b y all of them was awfully deafening. The old father, rushing by 
tT'^ med a tomahawk and cut llis h( ' ad m N' , vi'r.'d pl'ieosf until 
we blood gushed i rounds. Another old man 

snatched the instrument from him and covered his own head with 
gashes; three or four did the same, some most viciously, while 
«iers seemed to think that a v.rv little of that sort of thin- was 
«">ugh; the howling continued lth- while. Hark was no* 
placed carefully over the body, and the old men stretched them- 
*f v es at full length on the ground and howled dreadfully. One of 
™em at length got up and took a piece of bark which he placed 
ross the grave If on it, crying with all his 

J 8 ;,,. ! th en left them, not 
^filling up of the grave."| 

him *f tance of the affection of the black— savage (can we call 
not K° 5 attended tlie burial of King Jackey. His mother could 
0I1 ! lnduc ed to leave the a | ' '■ sing food until 

I . coming she was found dead on the grave ! ~* 

lae her SOU. and nnf. lrmo- nff™- r, K+f\o dorr th 

«* old womar 
__ y^ese, then, 

^. And now, as this essay has already swollen to unexpected dimen- 
°ns, 1 wiU conclude with Qne or Uyo KpecitU ens of aboriginal 
^thol 0gywhid , vuew _ 0m . Mtivi . races 

-servers of the stars; as they sit or lie around the 
star? file after ni ght-fall, their gaze naturally turns to the 

thhV vault above » and there tlie y see the likenesses of n f ny 

- s Mfi ' ' hi h the\ an < nv.-rsant in their daily life— 
looS mm dancin S a corroboree (Orion), and a group of damsels 
^gg^th^(the Pl eiades), making mus mto^the^dance^ 
Thlj^^ks do this also when they are driving away the rain-clouds. 

g up puff away the ram. 
whife |- mo( * e of h uorabl. than another, f 

"•"neanot* i kc - v jen buned at the 

.11 length. 



opossum, the emu, the crow, and so on. But the old men of 
the Gringai tribe say that the regions " above the sky" are the 
home of the spirits of the dead, and that there are fig-trees there 
and many other pleasant things ; many men of their race are 
there, and that the head of them all is a great man, Menu ; he i s 
not visible, but they all agree that he is in the sky. A greater 
than he is the great Garaboon, or Garaboong, who, while on earth, 
was always attended by a small man ; but now the two shine as 
comrades in the sky— the '■ I l.-u\« uly Twin-." Both Garaboong 
and Menee are " skeletons." In his mortal state Garaboong was a 
man of great rank and power ; he was so tall that his feet could 
touch the bottom of the deepest rivers ; his only food was snakes 
and eels j one day, not being hungry, he buried a snake and an 
eel j when he came back to eat them he saw fire issuing from the 
ground where they were ; he was warned by his companion, the 
little man, not to approach, but he declared he did not fear the 
fire and boldly came near; then a whirlwind seized him and 
carried him up "above the sky," where he and his companion 
still are and " can be seen any starlight night." 

These two legends are inter, stinjr. ' Menee is to them the father 
and king of the black races, whom he now- rules and will tw H 
•spirit land ; lie was onee a mortal, but now he is a "skeleton —a 
spiritualized being, without flesh and blood. I observe that his 
name, strange to say, is exactly the same as that given on W 
hieroglyphic inscriptions to the first king of Egypt, Menee— by 
Herodotus called Menes— the head of the First Dynasty of mortals. 
He was a public benefactor, for he executed several important 
works, and taught his people the worship of Phtah, the ^ 
1 m i g (1 «r F_ , 1 , „' , II ii) H< must have-; 
■■:■ ■■"■•■■■■ i I' hirion to the human race, for in Greece lie is h"" ■ 
king of Crete, « Minoia regi I -f i > us, ful " > 

afterwards a judge of the shades of the dead ; in Greece also, he 
Minyas, the founder of a race of heroes ; in India he is Menu, ana 
in old Germany Mannus. , x he 

The story of Garaboong seems to correspond with that oi i 
Dmscouroi— Castor and Pollux— who also were mighty ner 
and benefactors of mankind. The ancient Germans (M**> 
Germ. 43) worshipped them in a sacred grove and called tie 
Alcis, which may mean the "mighty" ones, tall as the dee{*. 

How have our blackfellows come to have the name Menee and 
such a myth about him. Are the name and myth ^["Lj 
them, autochthonously 1 Are- th.-v n. .t rather a survival—den^ 
from a common origin— of traditions which belong to the 
undivided human family. iffines , 

In conclusion, let any one ask me how it is that our aborie > 
if they are of such an origin as I assign to them, have sunk 



THE ABORIGINES OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 233 

in the scale of humanity as to be regarded among the most 

degraded of the races of men. I deny that this estimate of them 

founded : on the contrary, I assert that it was formed long 

w by those who imperfectly understood the habits and the social 

-■■i:iization of our native tribes, and has been ignorantly passed 

from mouth to mouth ever since ; that, when these are thoroughly 

examined, our blackfellows are not the despicable savages that 

■J are too often represented to be. They have or had virtues 

*wch we might profitably imitate : they are faithful and 

:indly; they have rules of 

r *mily morality which are enforced by severe pen.. 

jw the greatest respect to age; they carefully tend and never 

Jert the sick and infirm; their boys are compelled to content 

"jemselves with meagre fare, and to bring the best of the food 

™ch they have fi , the aged members of the 

™* and to those who have large families. I am assured by one 

T^ much intercourse with them for thirty years that he never 

. lie ;unl that his prop< rtv was always safe in 

them since lie 

"? e,11 H says :— " Naturally ih< v are an affectionate, peaceiul 

W and considering that they have never been taught to know 

J& from wrong their behaviour is wonderful ; I leave my house 

it est confidence m them. 

'H again, although the material civilization of the world was 

.fenced by the race of [bun, vei the task soon fell from their 

lly they were unfit for it ; for the conservation 

ination of a pure and undented religion we axe 

•Moth, fche sons of Japheth have 

jT***torule the earth 

. rood government and the arts anu 
the remotest lands. The 



other hand, have continued 



in the social 



that we had a full record of what they reaU 



On the Influence of the Australian Climate and 
Pastures upon the growth of Wool. 

(IN ABSTRACT.) 

By Andrew Ross, Esq., M.D., M.L.A., Molong. 

I confess that it is with the greatest diffidence that I approach 

-il'Va m,i;,- ;L T,,| 1 v t h title of this essay, knowing as I 

do that the question to be considered is one whose solution 

1 es interests of vital -' - s :U1,] V™*- 

Penty of the Colony— a Colo: 

: "'HMs and a^aitiim nnh the ,.-.p. nditmv of capital ai <1 mdii- 
t? to bring forth her in. d'lai -.tiUe nva,ur,s o 
imust at the outset crave it: mce l * :! ^ " v . 

hypotheses at variance with popular opinion or the expressions of 
liorities. . , 

« has been asserted that a change for the worse has. been 
^ng place of late in the character of Australian wool j and 
janous causes ha 

this alleged det-i ,1 to the wan 

of Proper care on the part of sheep-owners in the sel. to n ai 
crossing of breeds and in , the ilocks, while others put it 

•wwntoan insan he same class of sheep # in 

e " er y part of this immense territory under wid 
Jpfe and other conditions. But it seems to me 
ob ^us cause-one far more likely to produce the 

3 amed of than either of these ~ has been aimosteutii ' c y °' er " 



M ! 



that "the characteristics ot our ,vus , - 
:e:. " :'' 

; N -'"tn, S.unn, and „t1m r tii.U. 
Z fan t clim ate had effected for generations past i 
? ^ties fm- ■. Here, it wd 

**«>> the high degree of perfection attained by Au*braban 
"M is ascribed to the influence of climate £ 
ave been generally 
h j. wool-broker, ±,onaou 
!5 dY anDiemen^ : qualities, but 

£~g an extraordinary softness, which the manu fortes 
^ S0 *** admire that they are sought for far more than any 
; e ........ *'___ i-i.-* ™™W filial 



ription of wools, from that peculiar quality 



the climate, I am 



236 ON THE INFLUENCE OP THE AUSTRALIAN CLIMATE 

convinced, has undergone no material change since 1828, and why 
should not our wool present the same remarkable qualities now- 
a-days as then ; for surely the influences which produced these 
effects fifty years ago are capable of producing the same effects at 
the present time, and the sheep now being imported ought to be 
benefited just in the same way as the early English merinos 
were. If these authorities are correct, the introduction of a few 
foreign sheep need cause us no alarm. 

It appears to me, however, that these causes which have been 
suggested are quite inadequate to account for any great deteriora- 
tion in the quality of our wool, or in the type and character of our 
sheep; and I am convinced that if any change has really taken 
place at all, the true source of the mischief is to be found in the 
operation of a very different set of causes, to which until lately the 
majority of our sheep-owners have paid little or no attention, and 
whose importance even now they seem very imperfectly to reahze. 
I allude to the gradual but wholesale destruction of the native 
grasses and herbage all over the country, resulting from the prac- 
tice which prevails in almost every part of the Colonies of grazing 
immense flocks of sheep year after year on the same pasturage, 
without giving any rest to the land to allow of the renewal of the 
herbage or the repVodm-t ion of seeds. Every blade of grass, as it 
appears above ground, is immediately eaten down ; and thus those 
species which are best adapted to the constitution of the sheep are 
in time either entirely eradicated or become so altered in tne* 
growth and chemical composition as to be utterly unfitted w 
maintain the animal in the healthy thriving condition necessary 
for the production of a good sound staple of wool. If we , ca vJ 
our thoughts back for a moment to the profuse richness ot t 
native grasses g at the time we 

Mr. Macarthur first introduced Merinos into these Colonies, «u^ 
then look at the scanty juiceless roots and grasses that are to 
found on the majority of 'our runs now-a-dnys, a little considers^ 
ought to make it clear even to the most sceptical that the suici ^ 
policy so unremittingly pursued in our system of sheep-graz^ 
ruining our pastures, depm in- nur runs of then fertility, ana m 
inevitably have the most disastrous effect upon the product! 
our wool. Howcaait be expected tJ 
duce good wool when the v I r " 1 

such conditions scurvy or a cachectic state of constitution ^ 
readily produced in the lower animals as in man. ^tot ( 
gives imperfect stinted tieeees, with a brittle, harsh lmfe^ 
yolkless staple; and breaks or flaws in the wool truly m 
irregularities ii ' 
in the trunk of 
to think that s 
condition unless proper attention is paid to the i 



i] >ie ; and breaks or flaws in tne woo* "-v , ^ 
es inthequantity or quality of the pasture, just as t ^^ 
k of a tree denote variations in the seasons. U ^ QT& 
tiat sheep can ever be maintained in the same ^ 



AND PASTURES UPON THE I 



flock by crossing with a fresh breed and paying careful attention 
to culling, but this is not enough ; breed, import and cull as we 
may, if the supply of food be irreerular or defective in oualitv. on,- 



the increase in the number of our store sheep affords a too feme 
mdex to the real poverty of many of our runs. If we improve our 
grass lands we take the most effective measures to transform 
sheep; and by increasing the 
grazing capabilities of the soil the Colony maybe made to support 
» much larger number of sheep than 30 millions, as at present, 
"proper attention be paid to this subject, I feel assured that the 
™e will come when instead of allowing 4 acres to one sheep, the 

le to carry four sheep to the acre, 
ne ignorance of most of our site p -own* ? >. with respect to the 
finds of grass best suit«-l for the sustenance of their flocks is a 
"Wttol source of failure. I question whether many of our 
goers are able to tell what species of grasses are to be found on 
_ Jr runs j a great number of them, I believe, are even incom- 
2rt * *°- ^ istin g uisl1 between one species and another. A flock- 
e er ndin g over his run, and seeing abundance of grass in 

■ immediately concludes, perhaps, that there is no 
io^X ° f * ood for his sheep, whereas this very abundance ought 
gJS . hun su spect, if he were to think for a moment, that 
tinulll g WaS radicall y wr ong ; because, with his flocks con- 
nl« J/, 8 ** 211 ^ over the same ground, the grass should not be so 

n } in aim ° st ever y s ^ ch i^^i the cause ° f tMs 

PPosed superabundance of forage lies in the fact that it is not 
« »>od congenial to the animal's constitution— that it does not 
sisten th ° Se elements which the sheep require for their sub- 
group?" - The reall y valu a»le grasses are cropped down to the 

. '■ ."-■•'-'-■<■: ' •.-,' ; ,.■■■'■■■ : 

ntirely disappear, while the tall, worthless weeds are left to 
• and become permanent fixtures on the soil. If 
of the nature of our indi- 
of floi^ 8868 ' th ' " P asture > and their timeS 

now rt nng and seedin & much of the annual loss of sheep which 
^tes p l ace would be avoided, and stock-owners would not 
tell a,, So muc} i at the mercy of tl 

^d Ql ,!i^ re1 ^ on the flocks and affect so injuriously the yield 
P^^iP 1 thc W0Ql - S^ep must be provided with those 
eeon * blch cont ain the ol.>m-n». 1. i Miit.-d for their animal 
for *ool t a u the nom -isIinient of the wool. It is as imposssible 
yolk - -!° e s °und, health} . insufficiency ot 

"is for trees to flourish without sap; and this yolk can 



238 ON THE INFLUENCE OP THE AUSTRALIAN CLIMAT] 

only be derived from the grasses and vegetable matter c 
by the sheep. It contains a great quantity of potash, ar 
food be deficient in that substance, the flocks cannot tl 
produce good wool. 

The Governnu «; . fopt some meansof i 

and disseminating maintance with thi 

native grasses, th< ' growth, and their: 

qualities, in order that graziers might be enabled to disc 



noxious, and distinguish the early from the late varieties, and th- 
hardy from the too delicate. They coidd then take steps to pro- 
pagate or conserve those only which are valuaUe fur .^ra/iu' 
purposes. A proper classification of our grasses would furnish 
far more satisfactory means of describing the charactet • 
a run, by stating the nature of the pasture, than the present 
method of merely stating that it is timbered with g '■' '• 
pine, myall, box, or iron-bark, as the case may be. From 
a list made out by Linnams, in Sweden, of the grasses of 
that country, it app< r thai there are .387 different varieties, 
not less than 141 of which sheep will not touch A list 
of the grasses will be found in the second volume 
tate$ Academicice. There are scores of indigenous grasses m these 
Colonies that sheep refuse to eat. If not poisonous, they are at 
least instinctively avoided by the flocks as unsuited to the 
nature; and it would be a most advantageous thing if our graners 
had some relia bl in picking out these specie* 

so that they might do their best to < nidi rate them. If a School oi 
Agriculture should ever be established in the Colony, I W 
study of the grasses will form part of the curriculum^ In a yon i 
country like this, practical information on matters of this k 
of the highest importance, and unless some effort : 
up the standard of our pastures, our reputation as wool-grower 
the British markets will soon be gone for ever. 

The reason that sheep prosper so well on box-timbered count? 
is that this wood contains a large amount of potash, whicn, 
have before pointed out, is one of the , 

of wool. Of this fact any one may satisfy himself by v ^^ 
box-tree burning. However green it may be, it will be ^ 
consume readily, leaving behind a large quantity ot ^ 

ashes, which are to a great extent composed of V?™f & 
alkali in solution is taken up by the vegetation wnicni 
food of the sheep ; and it is found that the sheep m suet i . 

are remarkably free from disease and produce excellent &W ^ 
wool, requiring very little washing. The amoun ' J^ 
extracted from a run by a flock in the course ot < t&flD g* 
however, be something enormous — in some instance 



AND PASTURES UPON THE GROWTH OF WOOL. 239 

very large proportion of the entire weight of the fleece— and 
teasures are taken to supply the loss, the grazing 
capabilities of the land must be seriously impaired. 

Oleaginous and s X diarim pla its f rni h tin thief source of 
animal heat, whereas salt (chloride of sodium) is principally 
expended in keeping the organs of digestion in an active state. 
Its action is as folio - -T cliL me n s xvith hydrogen (from 
vater) and forms hydrochloric acid, an ingredient abundantly 
contained in the gastric juice, while the soda goes to the liver to 
aid in the formation of bile. The bile is to the animal economy 
wat tannin is to the vegetable— it is that which prevents a too 
ing place in animal or vegetable matter before it 
™ undergone a thorough process of digestion and assimilation. 
Without bile or tannin, all things would have a tendency to decay 
I hey are the chief agents, in fact, in the preser- 
ity. It is the presence of tannin in wines, for 
b causes them to keep so well. Who knows 
J..™ foot-rot, catarrh, and many of the other diseases 
men sheep are subject to, owe their origin to the absence 
a sufficiency of saccharine, oleaginous, and saline matter 
the food, reducing the vitality of the animal so that 
e various organs 'become incapable of performing their 
J*** It must be remembered, however, that an excess of 
n . J .J? s the effect of impoverishing the blood, and that if the 
j^tive element. -Ay to do more 

2 fan good. The degeneration of the grass which I have 
nl a robbed the food of the shee P of its natural sweet " 

^TH° UTkhin S properties, and yet as a rule nothing is sup- 
*ol h ) Q 0WnerS ' with the exce P tion o£ salt I think that '* 
fornix a m0re beneficia l if sugar, in some form or other, were 
this t0 the flocks > and I would suggest the cultivation for 
suffl,A Ur ?° Se of saccharine plants, such as sugar-cane, turnips, 
itt^ *' man S°Ws, &c These plants would be very valuable 
^ of such ailments as cat &* \ ^"^^ 

C ght be used with advantage. 

thesp ni aCtlCe of over-stocking unfortunately almost universal m 

^ Colonies, has had much to do with the falling off of our pas- 

iathl!f the consequent depreciation of the wool. Quantity 

andth qUalit y seems to be the aim of almost all our squatters, 

Is of sheep on almost un- 

h but little wool, where, with reduced runs, and 

^ L more select flock s, there would be abundance of 

Be* _J}, a ;8°od yield of wool. Good grass lands, in small divi- 

b! ocb A kee P a »d fatten many more 'sheep than when in large 

of Cw g ° 0d P lan to adopt ^ to subdivide runs into paddocks 

^ to?** ^ a ^ allow them in rotation intervals of rest; 

™ ^ tben have an opportunity of arriving at maturity, 



240 ON THE 

and time will be given for the production of seeds and the growth 
of new herbage. It is esp t some of the pad- 

docks should have a spell, say for a few weeks or months, so as to 
have abundance of grass for the ewes during the beginning of the 
lambing season. They will then have no difficulty in filling their 
bellies, and will not have to be continually walking from place to 
place in search of food. The milk will be found to be richer and 
more plentiful, and the lambs as a consequence will be stronger 
and healthier. It is only natural that sheep should suffer mate- 
rially if they have to be dogged and driven backwards and for- 
wards all over the run to get enough grass to satisfy their hunger. 
A good percentage of healthy lambs, with a healthy constitution, 



perhaps, a little trefoil. If proper c 
a great deal of trouble later on would be saved j for culling is 
generally simply an attempt to remedy defects that have arisen 
from the ewes being starved <>r n.-!<" '< I :it iambing-time. Best 
to the ground is quite as necessary for the growth of grass 
as for that of cereals. No matter how good grain may 
be, it will never come to perfection in exhausted soil, and 
the same rules holds good with regard to pasture. From 
carelessness in this respect on the part of sheep-own"*' 
many of the most valuable plants and grasses that grew so luxu- 
riantly in the early days of the Colony are fast disappearing, am 
the carrying capabilities of our runs decreasing enormous^. 
Take a ride over any of our squattages now-a-days, and tne 
experienced eye cannot fail to detect the absence of ™ er0U * 
grasses, and those the species most noticeable for their fattening 
qualities, our annuals or summer grass especially. . 

A great deal of harm, in my opinion, is occasioned by the i m 
ference of wool-brokers in advising their clients to cross wit 
breed or that, to cure imaginary defects in the wool. JO 
sheep-farmer is unable to transact his own business without ^ 
assistance, it would be far safer for him to sell out at once. 
he is anxious to obtain trustworthy advice as to the quality m 
wool, he should seek it of the manufacturer, and not of tne w 
broker, whose interest it is to be always fault-finding in oroe 
be able to buy to advantage. He is almost certain to una 
excuse to depreciate the clip, no matter how well the ^^ 
have been got up, or how good the breeds from which 1 to ^ 
shorn. Suggestions are gratuitously made to correct ^ 
and remedy that imperfection ; the breed is changed, l ^ 
year after year; and, shuttlecock-like, the unfortunate ow ^ 
tossed backwards and forwards from broker to stad-brej ^ 
his purse becomes exhausted, his flocks are ruined, ana w 
vency Court stares him in the face. 



AtfD PASTURES UPON THE GROWTH OF WOOL. 241 

The importation of new breeds is frequently resorted to for the 
purpose of curing evils arising from negligence ami n ismaaigCh 
rtess the root of the evil be 
attacked no improvement can be lasting. Any one who will 
devote serious attention to :1; r pa-ture may 

^'e himself the expense of going beyond his own district or 
Colony for fresh blood. Then-' M-.-ms to Ik- an i«l, :t that if sheep 
only possess breed, no matter how they are fed, the owners must 
turn out successful graziers and wool-growers ; and we find 
immense sums— 30, 300, or even 1,000 guineas— paid for a single 
»m of some choice breed by persons who think that in thi.s way 
toey will improve their flocks and secure for themselves a reputa- 
tlon ^ thorough sheep-farmers. With the immense amount of 
money that has been expended in the importation of so much 
'■ood and pedigree, our flocks to-day ought to shear from 6 to 
w lbs. of wool per head, whereas the average barely exceeds 
'i to 2 lbs. And - uniformity in the quality 

« the. wools from all parts of the Colony, because the same 
system of grazing is followed by nearly all our wool-gr. ^ers. 

* here an exceptional price has been obtained for a clip, it will 

y instance be found that the sheep hare been 

P«dock-£ed and supplied with artificial grass, or that the cus- 

mary old-fashioned methods of grazing have been departed from. 
" must be evident to every one that the same knowledge and 

peneace as regau - ' -d m 1828 

at the present day ■ and yet, notwithstanding all our boasted 

fiaT? m ever 7 direction, the wool produced in the Colon} then 

exceptaofia, 

3w. All our w^ools in those 

possessing a silky softm-s ; 



.' ' ' . 

ts influence upon the growth of vegetation. ^>* 
,;,• of the tree 
withered by tl *- the sun, bi 

ml reflection of the solar heat is far 
unenwd mountains or treeless yk 
superincumbent air. therefore, 



staining vapour in suspension is increased, and thus 

. - . - 

: - ■ ■ ': - ; - ' 

le breed of sheep suitable £< 

" of sheep will not thrive equally on 

™ scrub and salt-bush country, or in the districts 



212 



urke and Mudgee and those of Kiandra and New 1 
the 1 >n -ed should be one adapted to 






t\'_: ]■■-.- • ■■: ■ :•-... ■ ■ 

chosen it should be adhered to. Secondly, the flocks should he 
ded with proper shelter, plenty of good water, and an ahun- 
supply of suitable grass. In the next place, the land should 
be allowed periodical seasons of rest, so that the various grassa 
may have an opportunity of being renewed by the reproduction ot 
seeds. With this end, large runs should be subdivided into smaller 
blocks, which might be given a spell in rotation. Where tiu 
choicer varieties of our indigenous herbage are wanting, roots and 
artificial grasses should h I ture and grazing 

can thus be profitably combined. And finally, the ruinous prac- 
tice of ringbarking should be discontinued, as being prejudicial to 
man and beast, and injurious in its effects upon climate. If tn« 
rules are closely adhered to, I feel confident that our -wool wiu 
once more take the place which it so long occupied in the Lng^ 
and European markets. 

I have been actuated by no other motive in taking aptl* 
important subject, in response to the ii.t. i- 
welfare by the Royal Society of New S 

desire to make my humble services useful to the Colony;^ 
should this paper be the means of inducing a few of our squ ^ 
to try the culn . asses or the <* ns f?LA, 

the best of our indigenous ones, I shall feel well rewarded w* 
trouble I have taken in writing it. 



PROCEEDINGS. 



PROCEEDINGS 



JOYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES. 



WEDNESDAY, 3 MAY, 1882. 

H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., President, in the Chair. 

held on December 7th, 1881, were 

The Annual Report of the Council was then read as follows :— 
of ti?' aSbrds the Co uncil much pleasure to report that the affairs 
a L Societ F show increasing prosperity. The number of new 
rubers elected during the year was forty-six; one name was 

*w>«*l to roll. The Society lost by death three members, by 
i were struck off the roll for non-payment of the 

Tr subscription, the election of five new members was can- 
J^l on account of non-payment of the entrance fee and sub- 

"Ption. The actual increase is therefore twenty-four, and the 
^ aumber of members on the 30th April. 1»m\ 47.\ Hie 
^%s Journal, Vol. XIV, for 1880, has been dm.- 
X *e members entitled to it, and it is expected that VoL X\ . 

Ulbe ready shortly. 
inl^** 1 ? Council meeting held on 22nd March, 1882, i 



ou % resolv.-d to award t lie Clarke medal for the year 



1882 



aw 1 ? wi Sht Dana, LL.D., Professor of Geology and Miner- 
inX ° . YaIe College, New Haven, United States of America, 

in S ognition °* • and es P eci ry 

V&T ^ t0 k" ^ i0urs in A" 8 ^' T,- 

1839 United St ^es Exploring Expedition round the world in 






246 

" During the past year the Society has received 645 volumes 
and pamphlets as donations; in return it has presented 531 
volumes to van es, as per accompanying list. 

The Council has subscribed to thirty-nine scientific journals and 
publications, and has made important additions to the Library, 
notably ninety volumes of ' The Philosophical Transactions of the 
Eoyal Society of London,' thus completing the series from the 
• 1801 to the present time. In all the sum of £206 19s. has 
i spent upon the Library during the past year. 

" During the year the Society has held eight meetings, at which 
thirteen papers were read, and three of the Sections have held 
regular monthly meetings. A conversazione was held in the 
Great Hall of the University, on the 28th September last, which 
was attended by about 600 members and their friends. 

" The Council reports that during the past year the mortgage 
upon the building has been reduced from £2,000 to £1,500, ana 
during that period the sum of £25 4s. has been received towards 
the Building Fund, of which £10 10s. has been paid by those 
members who have kindly promised an annual 
one guinea ; the amount now standing to the credit of this tona 
is £35 12s. 3d. The Council hopes that during the er ^ m ° 
session the members will make an effort to greatly lessen, it n 
entirely clear off, the debt upon the Society's premises. 

" During the past year the sum of £23 18s. was received by the 
Hon. Treasurer, from thirteen members of the Royal Society ^ 
New South Wales, towards the Biological Laboratory, 
Bay, which, together with a co; 
Society's funds, making £48 18s., 

i meeting held by the Council c 



_,, Watson's 
"£25 from the 
handed over to that 



_ „a the 26th October, it i £ 
resolved that the Society should offer prizes of £2a ^J^ „ 
best communication containing the results of origina ^ ^ 

observation upon certain subjects to be set fo ™ *^ aition » 
time. A circular containing eight subjects, and J*e «» ^ 
to be observed in competing, &c, has been freely ais 
throughout the Australian Colonies, Europe, and Amenc 

"The Bill for incorporating the Society was W^f/V 
Parliament of New South Wales on December lb, * * fo r 
thanks of the Society are due to Mr. G. H. Beid, mem ^ 
East Sydney, for introducing the Bill ; the Hon. ^ r0I ^V ^d* 
altO, fo/taking charge of it in the Legislative^ 0^ ^ 
Mr. Heron, th r the preparation o i -^ 

and for his attention to all legal matters connected w» 
through both Houses." 



247 

The following Financial Statement for the year ending 30th 
as presented by the Honorary Treasurer : — 
GENERAL ACCOUNT. 

Receipts. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

To Balance in Union Bank, 30th April, 1881 8 15 7 

May, 1881, to^OthApril, 1882 659 14 

„ Government Grant on subscriptions, from 

1st January, 1881, to 31st December, 

1881, £701 8s 349 19 10 • Jg 1Q 

„ Government Grant to Building-fund 1 11 6 * 

„ hire of Rooms to sundry Societies 22 1 

..sale of Society's Journal 5 10 4 



Expenditure. 

15 

(twelve months) y ...° P "' 100 



Assistant Secretary's salary 

1882 (twelve months) 

{^logical Laboratory, donation for 1881 



r to Building-fund, in lieu of < 



■ _Jl-t±J?. 863 15 



Government Grant... 1 iL 
ak, 30th April, 1882... - — 

H. G. A. WRIGHT, Honorary T 



P« G. Murray. 
%'iuev I*.?; w ei«tkr. 
;uoe y, 1st May. 1882. 



248 PROCEEDINGS. 

BUILDING-FUND ACCOUNT. 

Receipts. £ s. d. 

To amount at fixed deposit in Union Bank ... 200 

„ Balance in Union Bank, 30th April, 1881... 118 15 7 






oOtli September, 



„ hire of Hall 2 2 

. „ ,, transferred from General 

, Subscription to Building-fund 

, Government Grant 65 1 10 



L from General Account n , 

■nee fees JOOJJ 

£840 12 I 



insurance on building 

amount deposited in Savings' Bank 



1 - 
Wales, in reduction of mortgage 
„ Balance in Union Bank, 30th April, 18S2 



i;t,,-i- 



H. G. A. WRIGHT, Honorary Treasurer. 
\V. U. WKBB, Assistant Secretary. 



o Balance in Union Bank to credit of General Accounl 



Liability; 
*?¥ney Daily Telegraph, advertising 
'• kings' Bank, loan on mortgage ... 



S >" di *y, kt May, 1882. 
1„ CLARKE MEMORIAL FUND ACCOUNT. 



G. A. WRIGHT, Honorary Treasurer. 
. H. WEBB, Assistant Secretary. 



^ 1st May,' 



fc was adopted. 

on? 1 *" A. S. Webster and F. Poolman were elected Scrutineers 
Action of officers and members of Council. 



A ballot was then taken, and the following gen 
duly elected officers and members of Council for 



HIS EXCELLENCY THE EIGHT HON. LORD AUGUSTUS LOFTUS, 
G.C.B., &c, &c, &c. 

CHRISTOPHER ROLLESTON, C.M.G. 



A. WRIGHT, M.R.C.S.E. 



I CHARLES MOORE, F.LS. 
I (I. D. HIRST. 
S. I W. G. MURRAY. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Corn well, Samuel, jun., Sydney. 
Dixon, Fletcher, Sydney. 
Milson, Alfred G, North Shore. 
Milson, James, North Shore. 
O'Reilly, Rev, Alex. I., B.A, Five Dock. 
Shewen, Dr. Alfred, Sydney. 
Traill, Dr. Mark W., Sydney. 
Want, Sydney A, Sydney. 
The certificates of five new candidates were read for the mfj 
time, and of ten for the first time. 
One hundred and sixtv-r. 

The names of the Committee-men of the different SSeew ' 
the Society were announced, viz :— 

Microscopical Section. — Chairman: H. G. .A. 
M.R.C.S.E., L.S.A, Lond. - 
Committee: Dr. Ewan, F. B. Eyngdon, G. v- 
and H. O. Walker. 
Medical Section.— Chairman : Dr. P. Sydney 
taries: Dr. H. N. MacLaurin, ML. A, 
M.R.C.S.E. Comi 
Edin., A. Roberts, M.R.C.S I 
Bedford, M.R.C.S.E., Dr. Craig Dixson, W- * 



PROCEEDINGS. 251 

Mr. H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., President, then read his 

_ A veto of thanks was passed to the retiring President, Hon. 
Treasurer, Hon. Secretaries, and other members of Council. 

Alxmt seventy members were present 

The meeting was adjourned till the following Wednesday. 

WEDNESDAY, 10 MAY, 18SS. 

Adjourned ordinary monthly meeting. 

C. Rollestox, CM. G., President, in the Chair. 

The Rev. J. R Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S., read a paper on 
«e "Geology of the Hawkesbury Sandstone." 

About fifty members were present. 

The meeting was adjourned till the following Wednesday, for 
be P^ose of discussing the paper. 



WEDNESDAY, 17 MAY, 1882. 
Adjourned ordinary monthly meeting. 
.. whaeston, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 
1J ie following gentlemen took part in the discussion upon the 
{feW. E. Tenison-W, ,n,W p :M ,,. r on the "Geology of the 
^esbury Sandstone " :— C. S. Wilkinson, F.G.S., Professor 
mis, and specimens in 
of slides of sands and 



i ReV ' J " R Tenison- Woods replied. 
bout f °rty members were present. 



WEDNESDAY, U JUNE, 1882. 

C Rolleston, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 

J e minutes of the monthly meeting held May 3, and of the 

■^Mrned meeting. M-.v ] . , ,| M v 17, were read and signed, 
of^^ng gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 

^llock, Chas. Cyrus, St. Leonards. 

^fPeland, H. P. R., Newtown. 

JJonkin, J. B., Sydney. 

J^on, Hon. Samuel Deane, M.L.C., Double Bay. 

Sla »tb, Bruce, Sydney. 



The certificates of ten new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of five for the first time. 

Eighty-nine donations were laid upon the table. 

Mr. H. 0. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., read a paper on "Tropical 
Rains." 

The Hon. G. H. Cox, M.L.O., and Mr. Ciiaeles Moore took 

About thirty members were present. 



WEDNESDAY, 5 JULY, 1SS2. 
H. 0. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary maU§ 
of the Society : — 

Carruthers, Dr. Chas. Ulic, Balmain. 
Duckershoff, Dr. August, Sydney. 
Hurst, Dr. George, Sydney. 

MacGillivray, Dr. P. H., M.A., Sandhurst, Victoria. 
Moss, Sydney, Sydney. 
Porter, Donald, Tamworth. 
Rothe, W. H, Double Bay. 
Russell, H. E., Sydney. 
Sinclair, Dr. Eric. 

Webster, Rev. Win, Wilcannia. , 

The certificates of five new candidates were read for the secon 
time, and of five for the first time. 

Eighty-seven donations were laid upon the table. ^ ^ 

Professor Liversidge announced that the Society's ^^ 
1881 had been received from the Government Printer, an 
be distributed to members without delay. _ ^ 

The Chairman exhibited and described an eye-piece w c 
had designed for facilitating transit observations. ^ 

Mr. G. Butterfield read a paper on "The rbit of* ^ 
Comet," illustrated by a model constructed from tne 
Dr. Lamp, of Kiel. . , i Foster" 5 

Mr. W. MacDonkei hL wntslio^ 

Incandescent Electric Lamps, also De la Reve s e*V en ™ 
the rotation of the voltaic arc around an electro-magn • 
Dr. H.G. A : one of Tolle's erectnr 



About forty members were present 



253 

WEDNESDAY, 3 AUGUST, 1882. 
C. Rollestox, C.M.G, President, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society:— 

Curran, Rev. John Milne, Carcoar, 
Lovell, Dr. Haynes, Sydney. 
Hammond, Mark J., Ashfield. 
Hankins, Dr. Geo. Thos., Sydney. 
Palmer, Edward, Parramatta. 
The certificates of five new candidates were read for the second 
nme, and of one for the first time. 

re laid upon the table. 
The following letter from Professor Dana was read :— 
% ^r Sir, New Haven, Conn. , June 23, 1 882. 

: • \ -■ - •■ ' 

r^m the Clark, \ ] . and with it 

ri m ^r l , itself - The honor is especially grai 

• ; memory* of 
gfWMi excursion. tyyeanaine* 

as medal is a remarkably beautiful one, and will be greatly treasured. 

Respectfully and truly yours, 
n. F JAMES D. DA?nA. 

lessor Archibald Liversidge, 

Honorary Secretary of the Royal Society of New South \V ales. 

tueT J ' S * ° H t RD read a paper ° n " A method ° f determinin S 
^ Chairman announced that Professor Liversidge had been 
^d a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. 
WeeQ thirty-five and forty members were present 



WEDNESDAY, 6 SEPTEMBER, 1882. 
% Rolleston, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 

nutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

u were duly elected ordinary members 



8 Society 
JWneron, Alex. L., Booligal. 
^onlan, Geo. Nugent, Grafton Club, London, 
ttemnck, Dr. Geo. Jas., B.A., Sydney, 
^bertson, Rev. J. T., M.A., Tumut. 
w ynam, Dr. Geo. Edwd., Pet.-i-.ih.aui. 



The following resolution was moved by the President, seconded 
by His Honor Judge Windeyer, and carried unanimously, 
"The members of the Royal Society of New South Wales 
having heard with deep regret of the deal 
Robert Darwin, one of their most distinguisl 
Members, desire to express their sense of 
with the whole scientific world have sustau 
desire that the expression of their heartfelt sym] at in ■>. 
be conveyed, through their President, to the widflfW . • 
family of the late distinguished naturalist." 
Dr. Leibius stated that Dr. Darwin was elected an honorary 
member in 1879, and that he had expressed himself as highly 
gr&tj led • ■ ' the attention paid him by his election. 

The Chairman drew attention to the following circular which 
would shortly be distributed to members, appealing for subscrip- 
tions to the Building-fund, in order to obtain the n — 
grant and clear off the mortgage upon the premises. 
The Society's House, 37, Eliz 
Sydney, August, I 



liie original 


cost ot the building ("01110 

ts and repairs 499 1* 

Total ibo^nno 


he property of £1,. 
The Council cons 


n £2,524 14s. lOd. has been paid, leaving a debt 1 
500 now borrowed on mortgage. « j^ avnnr sh 
iders it most desirable that an earnest endeavor » 

,,-,,- 1 , . 1 .. .!.„*■ fl, a ^line of the UK 



Trusting t 



Jus may 'be devoted to the true objects c 



Ki:>[i«'K. / M ,. v > • 
A. LEIBIUS, S 
s would be, 

; •:!..'■:.» ■ - ^ -'-- ' .V 

of the debt on th. buiklbig -ouKl b< • 



Your most obedient 
A. LE 

The promise on the part of members would be 
on the full amount of £1,000 i " 

successful the whole of the debt . 

ol! and dl futur. ..*. n I 

objects of tlie Society exclusively by increasing its 

other work. 

Sixty-one donations were laid upon the table. 

Mr.C.RoLi.KST..v,<!.M.<: , IV. i-l.-nt. »• ,d . j ! ' .-, 

the Progress of New South Wales during the \u 
1881." 



■ 
t. viz. :— Messrs. G. A. Lloyd, 0. S. \\ 
a. Dean, and W. G. Murray, 
tfr. H. G Russell, B.A., F.R.A.8., 

- 



WEDNESDAY, 4 OCTOBER, 1SS2. 
C. Rolleston, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentleman was duly elected an ordinary member 
of the Society :— 

Strickland, Sir Edward, K.C.B., 4c, Manly Leach. 
■ The certificates of two new candidates were read for the second 

' ■ and of live for the first time. 

Thirty donations were laid upon the table. 

Mr. Charles Moore, F.L.S., read a letter addressed to him from 
Melbourne, stating «n had been set on foot 

Jere for the erection of a memorial over the grave of the late 
Mr. Daniel Bunce, a companion of Leichhardt in one of his 
expeditions. Mr. Moore ex to receive and 

' '■ «'.l to Melbourne unx subscriptions the members of the 
%al Society might be disposed to make towards this object. 

Mr- J. F. Mann also spoke upon the same subject. 

{ The Chairman read a circular letter received from the President 
theLinnean Society of N.S.W., in reference to the destruction 
J the Society's property and the possible inconvennr 
«* caused thereby ; and proposed the following reso 
^seconded by Mr. C. Moore, and carried unanim- 

The members of the Royal Society desire to express their sym- 
f% *ith the members of the Linnean Society on t^ loss they 
^s ustaiued th h the buming0 f the Garden Palace ana 
*° °ffer the use of their rooms for the meetings of the Society 
P^dmg the acq- : lamodation." 

J»* Rev. J. E . Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S, 4c„ read the 
goring paper, ^S* 1 ?!!! 

...Fossils from 



Mr. G. Butterfield exhibited a paper model of the orbit of 
the Comet visible at present, and accompanied the same with 
explanatory remarks. 

Between twenty and twenty-five members were present. 



WEDNESDAY. 1 NOVEMBER, 18S2. 
C. Rolleston, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and confirmed 
The following gentlemen were duly elected ordinary members 
of the Society : — 

Madsen, Hans F., Newtown. 
Thornton, Hon. Geo., M.L.C., Sydney. 
The certificates of five new candidates were read for the second 
time, and of four for the first time. . 

AletterfromfI.il II <;-.-.-l.i <>r 1! .>!■■. S\\ itz-rhu:d v . ' 
by Mr. Dixon, stated that, having seen an abstract of Mr. Din s 
paper on the Salt bu.slc , ,.i \, w S..uth Whl. , h»' would e,t< in ' 
a favour if a pound or so of the seeds of each could be forwarded 

The letter was laid before the Society, in the hope that some of 
the members might be able to assist in the matter. 

Thirty-six donations were laid upon the table. 

The Chairman read the following letter from the Linnean 
Society of New South Wales, viz. : — 

Sir, Sydney, 2*0 

We are directed by the Council of 
South Wales to convey their wannest acka«. 



xpressed for their loss, i 
I Octobi 



.,!;""■•■.'."•.,:'■'-'.' — ■ ■' ; : 



WILLIAM MACLEAN 
W J STEPHENS, 

Honorary Secrete 

The President, 

Royal Society of New South Wales. 
The Chairmah drew attention to the circ. 

'• ■ ■ ■■ • . • ; ■ . ; ' 

with the Parliamentary grant) is required to enable the ^ ^ ^ 
clear off the entir : d-bt up-i n , .r i :— ; \ "^n pro*" 8 ** 
response to this application about .£220 had already bee p 



i that if each member 
i guineas the requisite amount would at once be 

He James Manning read a paper, — " Notes on til 
of Key Holland." 

A discussion followed, in which the following gentlemen took 
fart, viz. :— Messrs. J. F. Mann, Hon. L. F. De Salis, Dr. R. 
I Jenkins, P. N. Trebeck, Dr. Belgrave, E. Palmer, and the 
Chairman. 

About twenty-four members were present. 



WEDNESDAY, 6 DECEMBER, 1SS2. 
0. Rolleston, C.M.G., President, in the Chair. 



Atkinson, Jas. J. O., J.P., Oldbury, near Berrima. 
Chambers, Dr. Thos., Sydney. 
Eraser, Rev. John G., M.A., Glebe Point. 
Joirie, Dr. Andrew, Sydney. 
Steel, Dr. John, Sydney. 
The certificates of four new candidates were read for the second 
™e, and of two for the first time, 
"^as resolved that Messrs. J. Trevor Jones and P. Poolman 
i PP °S Lted Audit °rs for the current year. 
1116 President, on behalf of the Council, announced that 
-ments were being made for the delivery of a course of 
E?^ 11 the Oology of Australia by the Rev. J. E. Tenison- 

Mw G,S '' F ' ! ith the Ckrke Memorial 

|£ W . ■ A. Di x i . , « On the Ashea of some 

We Orchids." l F 

te^ e < f A eV - J - R Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S., &c, read a 
^ On a Fossil Plant Formation in Central Queensland, 
final C, , S - W ^kinson, Government Geologist, exhibited a 
jj""** of coraL oUected for him by Mr. 

th e 3>° f the Harbour and Rivers Department, on his visit to 
that a th Reef > ^ovd Howe Island, for the purpose of seeing 
_ «• Provisioned lifeboat kept there in the event of shipwreck 
WooTr- He h ad submitted them to the Rev. Mr. Temson- 



notes oa ft m spection, and that gei 

*t%?' Mr - Tenison-Woods said that the corals were all of 
^ ^rm seas and a3 Lord H lsland wa3 SO me 300 aides 



258 PROCEEDINGS. 

to the south of any place where such corals were known to he 
formed on the .*- must lie some pcculi-.u' <■ : - 

dition of temperature in that locality to account for their occur- 
rence — probably >m the north. The collection 
included several new sp< h -. among others that named the "brain 
coral," which would he subsequently described by him, and which 
were all found on the north-eastern Barrier Reef of Australia in 
warm seas. There was a coral reef off the coast of Western 
Australia named the Houtman's Abrolhos, in probably the 
same latitude as the Elizabeth Reef, Howe Island, and which was 
known to be in the midst of a warm current, flowing south from 
the Indian Ocean. 

The President announced that it had been determined by the 
Council that thi fc session be opened on week- 

days from 1.30 o'clock p.m. to 6 o'clock p.m., with the exception 
of Saturday, when it would be open from 9 o'clock a.m. to 1.30 



' THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 



The names of the Donors are in Tfclics. 
Tbansactions, Jouexais, Eepoets, &c. 
hmm :-Tho Aberdeen University Calendar for the Academical Year 1882. 
"The University. 
EUlD 18~ AnnUal Rc P ort of 1Iie South Australian Institut I 
Report of the Progress and Condition of the Botanic Garden and 



Australia. Vol. IV. 1880-81. The Society. 

ledeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van 
•Lweede Reeks, Deel. XVI, 1881. 
T. , >> » XVII, 1882. 

Jarboek van de Konink Lij happra, 1880. 

B Royal Academy of Sciences, Amsterdam. 

^■"'-Annual Eeport of the School of Mines, 24th January, 1882. 

S EE : - St ^thes from the Biological Laboratory, Vol. II, No 2. 
encaT1 Journal of Philology. Vol. I. Nos. 1 to 4. 

^eanChendcalJournal. Vol.1. NofltoG. 

mcan Journal of Mathemat ics. Vol. '.3. Nos. 2 and 4. 

^CrS" 3 ' 1 '"''" 5 Cir. . . -. V ;. 13 and 17.' 

; 
aAn «ualR n ; :,,,,- 

: -^belkria ad Litora Norvegiae Occidentalia. 1878^ ^^ 



Beriin :— Monatsbericht der KSniglich Preussischen Atadcmie der Wissen- 
chaften zu Berlin. November, 1881. . 

Sitzung^benchte der Koniglich Preussiscben Akadei 

scLften zu Berlin. Nos. 18 to 38 inch 13th Aprd to 27th Wy. 

1882 _ The Academy. 

Bisibitz (in Siebenburgen) :-Jahresberieht der Gewerbeschule zu BistriU 

Parts 6, 7, and 8. 1880-82. . ,_, 

Boole Industrielle a Butritz-en Trans,,- 

« ^erhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereines der Preussischen 

- ' und Westfalens. Folge 4. Band 8. Half to 2. 1881. 



310N (Mass., U.S.A.) t— Proceedings c 
and Sciences. 
New Series. Vol. VIII ) p , , 
Whole Series. Vol. XVI ) ^ artS L 



of Natural History 



iCHWBia : — janre 

Braunschweig, 1880-81. Gauss. Leben und Wirken v ^^ y> 



BBAimsCHWEm :-Jahresbericht des Vereins fur N ^ w ^™ a ^x 



Beisbane :-Eeport of the Council of the Acclimatisation &°ciety« **^ 

land for the years 1880 and 1881. . 

BEUSSELS: _Annales du Musee Koyal d'Histoire NatureUe de *el gl q • 
Tome VI. Part 3. i. t r Tie Konincl 

Paune du Calcaire Carbonifere de la Belgique ; by u. tr. u 

byEd-Du]*^ 



L'Origine des Calcaires Devoniens de la Belgique 5 
l'Originc des Calcaires Devoniens de la Ueig 



Origin 

Tevendication de Priorite ; by E. Dupont. -^ S% 

, Cartographique Militaire, . ■ _ , 

Confere.ee .u, .'A, ,, i SI. ^J^K* 

Victor Gauche z. lY±t 

Calcutta :-P Society of Bengal- 

No. 10. 1881. 
Nob. 1. 2, 3. 4, 5, 6. 1882. 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 
Vol. LI. Part I. 3 

„ „ » n. 

Descriptions of New In 

tinued ; by Fredk. Moore, F.Z.S 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XVI • ^j^iogia 

**" Vol. I. Part 3. Series XIII. 

ondwana Syster 
Geological Survey i 



XIV. Fasc.l. 
3 Gondwana System. Vol. III. *W; 
l i 4„„i a„™ nf India. ^ o\. 3.1*- 



261 
_ . entry-eighth Annual Eeporfc of the Cambridge Unive: 



B :— Twenty-eighth Annual Eeporfc of the Cambridge University 



Cambbidge (M\ s U.S.A.) :— Bulletin of the Museum of ComparatiTe 
Zoology at Harvard College. Vol. IX. Nos. 1 to 8 and Index. 
Vol. X. No. 1. 
Annual Report of the Curator of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

* Psyche," vol. 3. Nos. 87 to 98 (incl.) The Editors. 

Chki.tuma : — Memoirs of the Norwegian North-Atlantic Expedition, 1876- 
. Historical Account ; by C. Wille. 

mical Observe 

"■ 

3. Geography and Natural History ; by H. Mohn. 
VI. Zoology Holothurioidea ; by D. C. Danielssen and Johan Koren 
^11- » " Annelida : bv G. Armauer Hansen. 

The Edi 
j-beiten. Heft I, II, III. 

de la None 




-Zeitschrift des K. Sad 

ihrgang XXVI, Heft 3 and 4 

DtBus: -The Scientific Proceedings of t 

New Series. Vol. II. Parts 7. Nov., 1880. 
„,, a „ III. Parts 1, 2, 3, 4. 1881. 

I te Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society- 
Series 2. Vol.1. Nos. 13 and 14. Th 
CE ^ ^Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society^ 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh— 




262 ADDITIONS TO LIBRARY. 

GoBlitz .— Abhandlungen der Naturforschenden Geselkcl 

Band XVII. 1881. The Society. 

Haaelem :— Arcbi i et NatmrellM. 

Tome XVI. Liv. 3, 4, 5. 1881. 

Soci'lc Hullandaise des Sciences. 

HAHBTTEa :— "< 



Eeport of the 

Do", for 188L The Society. 

Ml :— Semiseh ausgegeben Ton da 

tr zu Jena. 
Band XV. NF Band VIII. Heft 4. 

i Ges Uechaft fur M i • ' 



Leeds :— The Journal of Conchology. Vol. '. 



Ln 


JOE :— Annales do la Sociofco Goologique de Belgique. 
Tome VII, 1879-80. 
„ VIII, 1880-81. 

iiurcs de Couches ; par Juliende 
Macar. The Society- 


Vol. VIII. 1830-81. 


Geologique^du 


Xord. 


The SocUtf 


Lo: 


f* ■ v :- \ 1 rait v, i Lords Commissioi 

: 

F.E.S., F.E.A.S. 


TkeL 


James Stone. M-A- 
md. Journal, Vol. 




Anthropolo^' 


of Great Britain and IreL 



Meteorological Charts of the Ocean District adjacent to the ^ P 
Good Hope. Official No. 43. . . - ,o 



Official No. 34. 
Eeport of the Meteorological Council to the B 

year ending 3 1 March, 1881. The Meteorotoff 



n VIII. „ 43. 
1 Record. 



) Meteorological Obsei 



; 




Monthly Notices. Yol. XLTL No*. I 
Memoirs. „ XL VI. lc»0- 

%al Colonial Institute. 

Proceedings. Vol. XIII. 1881-82. 
Discussion on Paper upon " The Conn 
ration" by W. J. Harris, F.S.S. 
%al Geographical Society. 

Proceedings. Vol. IV. Nos. 1 to 10, 

d Society. 
Iran-actions. Vol. X. 

•ion of Great Britain. 
Proceedings. Vol. IX. 



.II. Par 
iga. Vol. XXX 
Philosophical Transac 









No. 113, Appendix 



„ XXVI. „ 114,115,116. Ti*&*&*tum. 

^chestee -Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society. 

^- XVI. Parts 1 to 18 inch 1880-81 and 1881-82. ^ ^.^ 
V>r^ E . o f .. ,. . _ __ . _ _. . Yictoria . Parts VIII, 



girfer of the Colony of Victon; 



1 Eegister of the Colony of Victoria. Parts 






TO LIBRARY. 



Birthplaces of the People. 
Eeligions of the People. 
Ages of the People. „ IV. 

List of I 

Government Publications, 
Public Library. 
Eeport of the Trustees, 1881. 
Trustees of the T 

Keport of the Mining Surveyors and Registrars. 
Quarter ended 31 December, 1881. 
„ 31 March, 1882. 
„ 30 June, 1882. 
„ 30 September, 1882. 
Eeport of the Chief Inspector of Mines for 1881. 
Mineral Statistics of Victoria for 1881. 

The Son. the Minister of Mines. 
Transactions and Proceedings of the Re 

XVIII. The Society. 

Transactions and Proceedings of the Victorian Institute of Surveyors. 
F. Murray, Geological Surveyor. 
?, C.E., L.S. 



Topographical Surveying ; by E. A. 

The 660 feet Chain ; by O. Langtre< 

Victorian Institute of Surveyors' Sti 

The Adjustments of the Theo lolit. ; In N . <-'. . 

Notes on the Method of Entry in the Level Book j 

Some Eemarks on the Surveyors' Star Catalogue 

Measurement of Lines over Rangy Country ; by 

The Victorian 1 

Fragmenta Pbytographiro Australia;, by Baron 

K.Gr.M.C.i. 

Vol. XL 1878-81. 



• \ 
Mueller, K.C.M.G., M.D, 
A Lecture on the Flora of Au 

Ballarat, by Baron Ferd. von. Mueller, 2 

Metz :— Dritter Jahresbericht des Vereins fur Erdkunde zu M ^j£g£$r. 

Middlesbobo' :— The Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute. - °- -• ^ 

Mostpelxieb :— Memoires de la Section des Sciences, Tot 

Academie des Sciences et Lettres de Mo T— 

Mokteeai ^Geological Survey of Canada. Report of ^^J^Ca^ 

The Director of the Geological Survey oj ^ 

Moscow :-BuUetin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalises ^^ 



LIBRARY. 265 

i lustrielledeMulhousc. 
lj, 1879. 
tober, 1880. 

)tember to December incl., 1881. 

maty to August incl., 1882. The Society. 

-Sitzungsberichte der Math-Physik-Classe der K.B. Akademie 
1 Wissenschaften zu Miinchen. 
Heft 3 and 4, 1880. 



ibyschen Wiiste; by Dr. Karl A. Zittel. 

K.B. M a zu Munchen. 

Kaplks : -Mitthei]ungen aus'der Zoobeischen Station zu Neapel. Band III, 
Heft 1,2, 3,4. " 
Mettino della Society Africana. Anno 1. Fase. 2. 3. and 4. 



o della Society Africana. Anno 1 

Btle-took-Tt 
Report of ( 



The Society. 



of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers— 

V<,1. XXX. 1880-81. 
wrings and Sinkings, C-E. The Insiitut 

t :— American Chemical Society. Journal. Vol. II. Nos. 8-12. 



; Bodleian Library d 

Libra 

°J--Atti della Eeale Accademia di Scienze, Lettere e Belle Arti di 
Palermo. Vol. VII. 1880-81,1882. The Academy. 

-Rapport Annuel sur l'etat del' Observatoire de Paris. 1881. 



ure des Etres Organises. 



s Zoologique de France. 



VIII. 



1880 ntoniolo g ical Society. Transactio 

I^H-M^ Ceding, To.. Xttj K-J« 

^^lin Institute. Journal. Vol.113. Nob. 674 to 678 incl. 
„ 114. „ 679 to 684 „ 

° T ^t S P«ety of Philadelphia— „ . . ., 1W 

nth Annual Report of the Board of Directors. - ■ 



Abhandlungen der Math.-Xaturw.— Classe Philos., £c. F. :■ \ 
Band 10. TktSeM 

ROME :— Atti d< -I i. Vol. VI. Fuse. 2 to 13 (in ■ 

TheAcadem 
Atti < ; , 11 \ >. I i i 1' • "n , ,vi Lined. 

Vol. XXXIV. 8eaaiono la 5a. 
„ XXXV. „ 4 5. TheAcadem 

Eollettino E. Comitate Geologico d'ltalia. 



■ 
Tbl \\\ I No« 2 and 3. , . 

„ XXVII. „ land 2. TheJeadem 

Stuttgart j— Wftrttembergiijc 
herausgegeben von dem 
Band I. Ilalfte 2. 1881. 

„ II. „ land 2. „ 

„ I. „ 1. 1882. ^.-b^, 

Supplem 



tembcrg. Bui:d XX X VI 1 [. 
DNET :— Australian Museum. Catalogs 
Australian Museum. Report "of t 
Linnean Society o 



I Report. 18S1. ^ /; 

Ions in **> 



Observations 
Double Star'R^sidt s ri871-r88ir' By H. 0. ^^J&JJm*' 
Sydney Free Public Library. Report from the Trustees ic ! T ^^^ 
University. Sydney University Calendar, 1882-1883. jJ**** 

Toboxto :— Proceedings of t 

2. 1881. 
Tbuho:— The Mineralogir' 

Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. IV. > --,,' 

Voice :-Reale Istituto Venetodi Scienze, Lettere, cd Arti. 

Atti. Tom, V 1 1 a, r. \ . X-. 1 to 9 inch ^/w^* 



el Band XI. H 
i-*. i»»i. TheSocie 

XIII. 1880. TheSocie 

K G-eologischen Eeichsanstalt. Jahrbuch. Band XX XT. Not. - 



Yerhandlungen. Nos. S 


; to 15. 


1881. 




General Register der Biinde XI-XX. Dea Jahrbuct 


ies. 1860-1870. 


■■'■.'■■■:.:. ■.■■'■ 


ur Meteorologie ; Zeitac 


: - 












"wi^er 




h-Xatunv.— CLw 


ffitsungsberi 


. i.i;:.: 


d i \XXIT, II- 


aft 3—5. 




1 » 


LXXXIJI . 








LXXXFY „ 


1—5. 






LXXXIT , 








Lxxxni . 








lxxxiv •■ 






a " 


LXXXV . 


1—2. 






LXXXTI . 








1. XXXIII . 






3 "„ 


LXXXIV , 





Die Laubmoosllora v 



Jakob Juratzka, 1SS2. 



bilcher X.F., Band XV. 1878. Officielle publics 
^BIJ-gtoj,- :— Commissioner for Agriculture. Eeport fi 



rarallel (Clarence Kin,' m 
, TT.S. Armv> Xos. 1, 2, 3, 



° 0as * and Geodetic Survey, Xary Dept.— 

«** of „8. C-"^.™^ ^ erfl , ^ Ofic, 



Notice to Mariners 

" " Index 



i and Arctic Ocean 



West Coast of Mexicc 



rgeon-General, U.S. Army— 
Circulara, Nos. 5 and 7. i, t» H V 

Osteology of the North An* 
< 

Alpestris ; hy Dr. E. W. Shufeldt. , 

Osteology of L - uhitondes; by 



American I 

Shufeldt. 
The Claw of the Index Digit of 1 
Shufeldt, Ti 



3SJrs*» 



niaiMusemn— _ R1 

Reports of Geolon;, '. v \ ^jtoesPP^' 

Catalogues of the New Zealand Diptera, Orthopia, W 

— 1.M.Z.S-_ .. JM cw^tf Jfi-* 



by F. W. Hutton, F. 

New Zealand Institute— 



2%e Director, < 
.XIV. 1881- 



le Asiatic Society of Japan. Vol. X, Part 2. 
Oct., 1882. Tk***tdf. 

^l£FS a 2^? gictoga Druztva ' ** *** 

Miscellaneous. 
(Names of Donors in Italics.) 
Adams, George. Essays on the Microscope. (London, 1787.) 

J. Flavelle.per favour of EG A. Wright, M-R.C.8^. 
Chives of Otology. **°f"«* ^ W *^Lr 

m of the Pyramid Problem. , 9 

Canadian Antiquarian. Vol. Ill, No. 3 ; Vol. X, Nos. 1 and 2. 
Canadian Pacific Railway. 
Caiada, Dominion of, as a Field for Settlement. ^ ^ Suguet . Latour) M .A. 

Carpenter, W. R, M.D.,F.RS., &c. Introdu, A 

minifera. Alfred Roberts, ju-.^.k,. . . 

dark, Hyde, D.C.L., &c.- 

On the Financial Resources of our Colonies. 

OTie J«<4or. 
- 'iKTica. 

Diccionario de Numismatica Portugueza. Cade ^ a £ a J£^; o?| B. de Toro. 
ReldJTatumUstandScientificStudent.Nos.2,3, 4. July, Aug, ^,^1882. 



Th Son.F.G.G^ l,i>erfdv 

HE. Hepple, F.S.S.- 

Lands of Plenty in the New North-west. ,, 

Halifax Winter Port, Corres ; , ' fg£2 t M.A. 

HlL„F. & .s.- *" 

Geological Surv "»d, 1881. 

PreUminary Repc 3 , iqw_SO 

. - a pe York Peninsula, 1879-SU- 
Report on the Little River Coal-field near Cooktown. 

i dans la Vallee d'Ottawa. Information 

!• Province du Manitoba el 

II ^t^at5o^i^ te coUectuHi in the ^^^^ni^ F.E.S. 

HesWe :-Iirustr a tions of the Runic Literature of Scandinavia. ^^ 

^al Caxton Celebration; Condensed Catalogue of MSS., Books, En- 

Tiituml'society : Fifth ^f^ 



The Son. Jam» Won, M.LX 



1881. 

Roth, H. L. : Continents Irrigation. 

White. Kev. J. S., ALA., LL.l). : Five Trad. 

Uev. .i. ]•:.. r.L.s., F.a.s..&. 



PEEioniCAia 
American Journal of Science and 1 
Annales des Chimie efc Physique. 
Annals of Natural History. 



Chemical News. 
Comptes Rendus. 
Curtis's Botani i 



Fresenius' Zeitschrif fc f iir Analytischo Chemio. 
Geological Magazine. 



Philosophical Magazine. 
Portfolio. 

: :■:■..' 

Science Gossip. 
Scientific American. 



ADDITIONS TO LIB 






-1876. 85 vols. 






book, 1882. 






„ 'l881. 


Index 


45 vols. 


' ' . ' v 












' uvnt. (( 












7 i h J aastaT 


Bi*c] 


of. 3 vol 


and Memoirs ; by Tbomas 




, V.P.E.S 


iedtotlie Arts and Manufa 




■ 



. ilrorul'ro Tom =1 
ica. Vol. XIV. 
M _ / . lv.l -1S75. 
Geological Record, 1876— 1878. 

Hand-book of CI i ei GhneUn. IS vols. (Cavendish 



and Culture. ' 
Intellectual Observer. 12 vols. 

Journal of Anatomy and PhvsioloKV. Vols. 1 to 16 incl. 
f"nal of Science,'.' 7-1830. 30 vols, and Index. 

i I 
*& and Researches 'of John Dalton, D.C.L., LL.D. ; by Dr. W. C. Henry. 

f\he°Hot 7 orable Henry Cavendish j by Dr. George Wilson, 
Hoeiefv.) 
id Irish Press Guide. 
*«eoroIogical Societ; I -71. 5 vols. 

Palffioat " ' 5 VOlS " 

' G. Lehmann. 3 vols, and Atlas. (Cavendish 
s Society.) 

*?"* of the Scientific TV-ults of tlr E 



Is. 1 to 24 

C > et r a Aj -gentina, with Atlas (Gould). 



^CHANGES AND PRESENTATIONS 



)YAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 



1 of the Royal Society of Now South Wales, 1881. 



AMERICA (UNITED STATES). 



ajtimore.-* Johns Hopkins University. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
Jtat (Wi S .)-*Chief Geologist. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
Ston.—* American Academy af Arts and Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
» *Roston Society of Natural History. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

Cabr "~* Buffal0 S ° ci0ty ° f Natm ' al SdencM " Nos " h 2 ' 3 ' 

Wldge.— *Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College. 
™ " *Editor of ''Psyche." Nos. 1, 2, 3. 



tih v dowa.)—* Academy of Natural Sciences 

( iJ?? (Nj -)-Stevcns' Institute of Technology. 
5. J?* C % (l0Wa.)-*Director Iowa Weather Servic 

§ J^eapoi i8 _* Minno 
e ^ven (Conn.)-* 



• New York.-*A m 



Salem (Jtass.)- 



100I of Mines, Columbia College. Nos. 1 

* American Philoeopli 

"I I„-r t.t N .» I.^H. 



i ■;• nc . ZSV. 1, 2, 3. 
oner for Agriculture. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
Uayden, Geological Surveyor of Ter 



Museum (Department 
n (Department of the $ 
lire (Department of the Ii 



EXCHANGES AND PRESENTATIONS. 



f Brussels— *Musee Royal d'l 



02. „ •goci 

t3 - „ "Ac sdesLettres, etdes Beaux, 

65- „ *Societe Geologique de Belgique. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

& Luxembourg.— # Institut Royal Grand-ducal de Luxembourg. Nos. 

DENMARK. 
^■-Copenhagen.— *Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord. Nos. 1, 2. 



GREAT BRITAIN AND THE 
& Birmingham— Midland Institute. Nos. 1,2,3. 
P Cambridge.— "Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
i?' .. *J Nos. 1,2, 3. 

£ >, Union Societv. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

[ l - „ University Library. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

73 - Dudley.— Dudley and Midland Geological and Scientific Society. 

2- Leeds .—"Philosophical and Literary Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
JJJ- » 'Yorkshire College. Nos. 1. 2, 3. 

^- •• * Journal of Conchology (Office, St. Ann-street). Nos. 1 
'J- Liverpool.— *Literary and Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
I 8 - London.— Editor, Cms. //'* 7i»« >, •'.., .r Ua. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

Nos. 1,2, 3. 

Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
J » *Quek t - Jos. 1,2. 

.. at Britain aud Ir 



~ ;tion. Nos. 1, 2 






' Xo>, : 






:•.. NuS. 1,2, 






Museum of Pm 


No«. 




Nos. 


•Institution of Na 


. Noi 








,3. 




2. 


" 






;• Until 




p. ; , u 



AND PRESENTATIONS. 

London.— *Rojal College of Physicians. Nos. 1, 2. 
„ *Royal College of Surgeons. Nos. 1, 2. 
„ *Royal Geographical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
*Royal Historical Society. Nos. 1, 2. 
*Royal Institution of Great Britain. Nos. 1 
*Eoyal Microscopical Society. Nos. 1, 2. 
*Royal School of Mines. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
•Royal Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
Royal Society of Literature. Nos. 1, 2. 
*Royal United Service Institution. Nos. 1, I 
Society of Arts. Nos. 1, 2. 

War Office. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

Topographical and Statistical Depot. Nos. i 



ological Society. Nos. 1, 2 
rd Lindsay's 



i - ■. ; iv. Nos 1. 2, 3. 
South Kensington Museum Library. Nos. 1 
Manchester.— *Literary and Philosophical Society. I 
*0\vens College. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 



Middlesboro\-*Iron and Steel Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne.- Natural iii-tory Soeu-.y 

land, Durham, and JSewcastie-up" 

124. „ *Chem'iral Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

125. 

Mechanical Engineers. >os. 1, -= •>■ 

126. Oxford.— 'Ashroolean Library. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

127. „ #. 1, 2, 3. 

128. „ V.. 1,2, 3. 

129. „ *Radcliffe Observatory. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

130. Penzance.— *RoyaI Geological Society of Cornwall. Nos. 1, 2, KM 

131. Plymouth— *Devon and Cornwall Natural History Society 



[ Devon. 



134. Windsor.-The Qu 
13?. Aberdeen.— Dun E 



iversity. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 



EXCHANGES AND PRESENTATIONS. 



W- Hamilton (Canada West) -Scientific Association. Nos. 1, 2 

l52 - Montreal— *Geological Survey of Canada. Noa. 1, 2, 3. 

153. M Natural History Society of Montreal. Nos. 1, 2, 3 

15 *- Ottawa— Academy of Natural Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

155 - Toronto.— *Canadian Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 






I Calcntta.— *Asiatic Society of Bengal. Nos. 1, ! 

Geological Museum. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
!• ,, *Geological Survey of India. Nos. 1 



Societe d' Acclimatisation. Nos. 1, 2. 

New South Wales. 
• Sydney-Australian Club. Nos. 1, 3. 

'Australian Museum. Nos. 1, 3. 
Free Public Library. Nos. 1, 3. 

vofN.S.W. No*. 1,3. 
Mining Department. Nos. 1, 3. 
Observatory. Nos. 1, 3. 

Union Club. Nos. 1, 3. 
♦University. Nos. 1, 3. 



• Anckland— *Auckland Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

• Christchnrch— Philosophical Society of Canterbury. Nos 
' Otago.— Otago Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

• Wellington— Philosophical Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

♦Colonial Museum. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
„ *New Zealand Institute. Nos. 1, 2, 6. 

{Forwarded per favour of the Wellington Museum.) 



5 EXCHANGES AND PRESENTATIONS. 

South ArsTBALiA. 
- Adelaide. -*pbservatorj. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

•University. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

•Gov, m-nont U tsmi-r. Xos. 1, 2, 3. 
„ *RoyaI Society of South Australia. Nos. 

„ *Govermnent Printer. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

Tasmania. 
i Holjart.— *Royal Society of Tasmania. Nos. 1, 2, 3, 

VICTORIA. 
Ballarat.— *School of Mines. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
Melbourne.— *Govemtnent Statist. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 



187! 


•Obserratory. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 




Department. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 




♦Public Library. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 


190. 


•Royal 8 -• 1, 2, 3. 


191. 


* University. "Nos. 1, 2, 3. 


192. 


Eclectic Association. Nob. 1, 2. 


193. 


•Government Botanist, No*. 1, 2, 3. 


10i. 


•Registrar- General. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 


{For 


warded per favour of the Melbourne Public Library) 




PRANCE. 


195. Bordeaux.— Academie des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 


196. Caen.- 


•Academie Nationale des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 



198. Lille.~*Societe Geologique du Nord. Xos. 1. 2. 

199. Montpellier— *Academie des Sciences et Lettre 

200. Paris,— Academie des Sciences de l'lnstitut. Nc 

201. „ Editor Cosmos. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

202. „ *Dep6t des Cartes et Plans do la Marine. 

203. „ Ecole Nationale des Mines. Nos. 1, 2, 3 
20*. „ 1 Xos. 1, 2, 3 

Xos. 1,2,3. 



Jardin des Plantes. Nos. 1, 2. 
Editor Les Mondes. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
* L'Obsers it .ire. Nos. 1, 2. 

ire Naturelle. Nc 
Societe Botaniqne. Nos. 1, 2. 

lie. Nos. 1,2. 
opologie. Nos. 1, ' 



3 Biologie 

e Chirurgie. Nos. 1 



. , ..'..; 



86. „ Societe Zoologiqui 

•" Saint Elieniie— SociC-te de 1' Industrie 
•-*>■ Toulouse— Acadeir.ie clcs Sciences. Nc 

GERMANY. 

•^ Bremen— *Xa!u;'«i— "> l^ftli A rv Vcr 
- Berlin. -Ciicraiscl.e Gcsellschaffc. No?. 
31 „ *Koniglicbe Akademie der Wii 
** Bonn— *Naturliistorischcr ' 

y 3. Braunschweig —*Verein 
^•Carlsruhe--Naturv l is^n, t 'i 



•■- . ■-••-• 

- 12 - Frankfurt a/M.-*Sen ri . 1? Gcsell3chaft ' 

Frankfurt a/M. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

^Freiberg (Saxony).- '^^ife 



2t5 -Gittingen.— E amGoKmgen. 

Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
2 ' 6 ' Gorlitz.— *Na( urforschende Geaellschnf t in Gorlitz. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

* 17 - Halle A.S.-< : ^^tltlF^). 

2y - Hamburg— -i '-- haft in Hamburg - 0s " ' 

249 - *r ?' 3 r-- « * v«m«4.«hlH48 TJnterhaltung in 

•• 

Hamburg. Nos. . 



2 J ? na -~*Medicinisch Katurwiasenschaf tliebe 
" ji Honigsberg.— *Die Physikaliscb-okonomische Gesellsc 
? ^PZig (Saxony).-UniVersity Library. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
***■ *etz.-~*Verein fur Erdkund zu Metz. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 



280 EXCHANGES AND PRESENTATIONS. 

255. Marburg.— C-i H ? t ur Bef.irderung do G ^lmiitcn 3 i 

256. „ *The University. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

257. Jffulhouse. — industrial Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

258. Munchen .— *Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften in Munchcn. 

Nos. 1, 2, 3. 
250. Stuttgart. ''• Topographisches Bureau zu 

Stuttgart. Nos. 1, 2. 

260. „ *Dor Verein fur Yaterlandische Naturkunde in Wurtem- 

berg. Nos. 1,2, 3. 

HUNGAEY. 

261. Bistritz (in Siebenburgen) .— direction der Gewerbescbule. K* 

262. Zagreb (Agram).— *Sock'te Archeologique. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

ITALY. 

263. Bologna.— Aceademia delle Scicnzc dell' Istituto. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

265. Plorence.-*Socicta Italian, di Antropologia e di Etnologia. Nos. 1, 

2,3. 

266. „ Societa, Entomologica Italiana. Nos. 1, 2. 

267. Genoa.— Museo Civico di Storia Naturale. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

268. Milan— Eeale Istituto Lombardo di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. »• 

269. „ Societa Italiana di Scienze Natural!. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

270. Modena.-*Academie Eoyale des Sciences, Lettres et Arts de Mo e 

Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

271. Naples.-Societa Eeale Accademica delle Scienze. Nos. 1, % 3. 

272. „ *Societa Africana d'ltalia. Nos. 1,2. 

273. „ *Zoological Station (Dr. Dohrn). Nos. 1, & jM 

274. Palermo— *Accademia Palermitana di Scienze, Lettere edAr i. 

1, 2, 3. 

275. „ Eeale Istituto Tecnico. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

276. Pisa.— *Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

277. Rome.— *Accademia Pontificia dc' Nuovi Lincei. Nos. 1, . 

278. „ "So 1 -2, 3. 

279. „ Circolo Geograpliico d'ltalia. Nos. 1, 2, 6. 

280. „ Osserrotorio del Collegio Eomano. Bos. I, *■ 

281. „ *E. Accad - *• „ „ 

282. „ *E. Comitato Geologico Italiano. Nos. I, *, »• 

283. Siena.— E. Accademia de Fisioeritici. Nos. 1, 2. 

284. Turin.— R \ delle Scienze. Nos. 1> 2 > 3 - , 2 . 

285. i: . B g» Universita. *os. _ 



' 



. Venice.— * B 

l, 2, 3. 

JAPAN. 
. Yokohama.— * Asiatic Society of Japan. Nob. 



edArti. 



288. Batavia— Batavia Academy. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

NETHERLANDS. 

289. Amsterdam— *Academie Royale des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

290. Harlem— *8ociete Hollandaise des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

291. „ *Bibliotbeque de Musee Teyler. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

NORWAY. 

292. Bergen.— *Museum. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

293. Christiania.-*Kongelige Norske Fredericks Universitet. Nos. 1, 8, 3. 

RUSSIA. 

294. M03C0W.-*Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes. Nos. 1, 2 3 

295. St. Petersburgll.-*Academie Imperiale des Sciences. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

SPAIN. 

296. Madrid -Institute Geografico y Estadistico. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

SWEDEN. 

297. gtockholm.-*Kon S liga Svenska Yentenskapo-Akadeinie. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

298. „ University. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

SWITZERLAND. 

299. Beme -*InBtitut Geograpbique International. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

300. Gkjneva.-*Institut National Genevois. Nos. 1, 2, 3 

301- Lausanne.-*Societe Yandoise des Sciences NatureUes Aos. i, , ■ 

302. Nenchatel.-*Societe des Sciences NatureUes. *os. 1, 2, 3. 

STRAITS SETTLEMENTS. 

303. Singapore-Royal Asiatic Society. Nos. 1, 2, 3. 



Number of Publications e 



o Great Bri 



. LIYERSIDGE, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECTIONS 

(IN ABSTKACT). 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECTIONS 

(IN ABSTRACT). 



MICROSCOPICAL SECTION. 

PRELIMINARY MEETING, HELD 25 APRIL, 1882. 

Dr. Wright was voted in the Chair. 

W was decided to hold the meetings of the Section on the 

Jiangs of the second Monday in each month. The following 

gentlemen were elected office-bearers for the ensuing session :— 

"airman: Dr. Wright. Secretarj : Mr, V. EL Pedley. Com- 

"Jttee: Mr. G. D. Hirst, Mr. F. B. Kyngdon, Mr. H. O. 

Talker, and Dr. Ewan\ 

8 MAY, 1882. 
Dr. Wright in the Chair. 
The Chairman exhibited a Tolles' 1-inch solid eye-piece, being 
^ first eye-piece of that character constructed by Mr. Tolles, and 
also a pair of Tolles' 1-inch orthoscopic oculars. Dr. Wright 
. ted that he had lately used the balsam of copaiba as an imnier- 
81011 flu id for v, ! . res, and had found that for 

fentral light illu -able to any other medium, 

. tnat for oblique light the sulpho-carbolate of zinc and glycerine 
Jj*Wed the better ? ht also called the attention 

ot the meeting to Dr. J. Axd ^ value of the 

jeolations of Isthmia nervosa as a test for high-power objectives, 
yould appear that the hexagonal areolations seen in the appa- 
rent openings in Isthmia nervosa are valuable for trying the 
qttalitiea of objects £ of an inch in focus and upwards. The areo- 
i not small, but so delicate as not to be viewed at all by 



J .Poor object-glass. Dr. Wright was, however, of the opinion 
gHorteel I ms were even 

.'. ' ' 

an I R ' Frasek Emitted a number of miscellaneo 

*|a very int.-n sti i- slid.- <»t ./;W-/< 
. **> Pkdley pxhibitrd t mm l».-r of beautifully moui 
^cal preparations, mounted by Dr. L. M. Eastman 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECTIONS. 
12 JUNE, 1882. 



Dr. Wright in the Chair. 

The Chairman read the following paper by Mr. Henry Sharp, 
"On the mounting of objects in cells with Canada balsam medium"— 

There are many objects, such as whole insects and parts of 
insects, "v\ Inch show better when mounted in Canada balsam than 
in any other medium ; but when mounted in the usual way they 
are often so much squeezed and flattened by the pressure employed 
that they no longer present the appearance they did before the 
pressing process. 

The only way to avoid this when the object is thick is by the 
use of a cell of some kind ; but mounting in cells with balsam as 
the medium is, or at least I have always found it, a troublesome 
business, requiring also a long time for the balsam to set suffi- 
ciently to prevent the covering glass from being shifted. 

Many of the difficulties attending balsam mounting in cells 
have succeeded in avoiding by a method which I hit upon six or 
seven months ago, and which I will now describe. 

1 make the cells of rings of paper or cardboard of different 
thickness to suit the object I wish to mount. These rings i 
fasten to the slide with strong gum mucilage. 

My practice in preparing a cell of this kind is to cement a piece 
of paper or can!. -s, on the slide- witn-mu. 

and, when sufficiently firm, I place the slide on the "turn-table, 
and with a sharp penknife make two cuts right th 
on to the glass, while the turn-table is revolving, so that when tn 
central and outside portions are removed a truly-centred ring 
remains on the slide. . . 

Other plans will of course suggest themselves; the rings, wr 
instance, might be cut out by different sized gun-wad puncnes, 
and afterwards gummed to the slide. i t it a 

Having the card _- ■ land he slide nicely cleaned 1 cu 
small piece of the card awa 3 J the nnS . { Zn) 

be seen by inspecting the slides I have submitted for examinaao „ 
the use of which I will describe further on. , hpcm e 

In preparing an object for mounting I never allow it to t> g 
dry, but transfer it from the water, glycerine, or dilute J^to 
which it may have been dis.seeted or otherwise arrange .^ 
strong spirit, from the spirit into oil of cajeput, then into _ 

for a few minutes, and finally into turpentine, where 
remain until required for the final putting up in balsam. 



Having the object all ready for mounting, I proceed thus : I 
place the object in the centre of the card cell, arrange its position 
to my liking, and place a single drop <>£ turpentine on it to keep 
it moist, then with a small brush lay on some gum mucilage on 
the top of the card cell, not too much, and carefully put un the 
cover (previously cleaned, and which should he of the same 
diameter as the outside of c ; ' ' the gummed 

surface of cell, put on a light spring clip, and set aside for a short 
time for the gum to set. 

If the cell is the right depth for the object the coyer should 
only just press on the latter enough to retain it in position. 

When the gum has hardened, and the cover is quite linn and 
8ecure, I take up with a small pipette a little benzine, and apply 
ittooneof the openings cut in the card ceil, when the ben/.n.e 
instantly runs in and tills up the cell, and in a few minutes the 
card is saturated with the benzine, which has not the slightest 

When the benzine has thoroughly soaked the card ring, I apply 
a bit of blotting-paper or linen rag to one of the 
withdraw all the • whicb s '"" 1 -' 1 

be soft enough to drop readih fr.ua a bit of wii i y ■ 1 " !! ' 
of about 60°, to o le gently, and 

t' ■ kdsam soon tills up the cell, ai.d, if any bubbles appear, they 
■n.Lshina few hours. 

When the cell is quite full and th 
both openings, 1 ■,; -a :n with a hit «>1 yf a 

*>und the cell, and put the slide .. . ' " - 
balsam to harden. In summer if place I 
tbesunthe balsam will in a day be i 
*bich is done on the turn-table by "tun 

fluous balsam with a sharp i 5 t with 

The slide and eo - "' ' " ! 

nit, a- e l,,ii taken n t to alio* th spirit to attack th< i u- 
of balsam. 

I When all this has been done it will be seen that tbe»^« 
^ is dull and scratcl ^ £tu£m 

etches at its « I * touch 1S d<m ® 7 f™Z 

^e slide, cover " ' «f °* f ^A^^eJ 

°ogle instant n.t th* same 

» that : the7ame j^Z^^ ring all round, leavrng it 
^en and smooth as glass. 

^e great advantage of this method of mounting is that when 
*™*M^£*^ ^ting °r the oHect being 
. d finishing and cleaning the slide. 



The accompanying slides will show the result of this plan of 
mounting, which I hope may be taken up and improved upon by- 
some of the micro-mounting men of our Section. 

Should any one wish for any further information as to details 
of process, I shall be delighted to reply to any queries. 

Some slides which Mr. Sharp had prepared were exhibited, and 
were much admired by the members present. 

Dr. Wright exhibited one of Tolles' erecting stereoscopic 
binocular eye-pieces, intended to be used with either a microscope 
or telescope. 

Mr. Pedley exhibited one of Seibert's A-inch 



U AUGUST, 1S82. 
Dr. Wright in the Chair. 
Henry Sharp exhibited a Tolles' camera lucida in the form 
prism, in place of the ordinary Wollaston prism. 
Mr. Sharp elaims that it is far easirr t . il .1- 

~~i structure of an object than with th «> h J 

prism, and exhibited a series of drawings <>t objects in which the 
detail was more perfectly depicted than is possible with the Wol- 
laston's prism. , 

Mr. F. B. KYNGDOS exb i I '.jectives, by Carl 

Zeiss, of Jena, viz. : A new vari'able low-power object-glass, 
magnifying from 6 to 20 diameters— a 1-inch, ;}ths, jths, -Jth, dr\, 
and a ith water immersion. These objectives were remarkable 
for the great beauty of their performance, and compared ma 
most favourable degree with the corresponding productions ot tne 
pticians, . , 

Mr. G. D. Hirst exhibited a diatomaceous gath.-r.n-. n 
Bondi, and also a specimen of Xib:V<i tran-J.ucens, showing 
fructification . 

The Hon. W. McGheoob exhibits 
parasite, and Mr. Pedley some injected preparations of the tong 
and spinal cord of a kitten. 

11 SEPTEMBER, 1SS3. 

Dr. Wright in the Chair. • 

Dr. Wright exhibited and presented to the Section a copv o 

' V,U,n " * t! V ' ' " ' 1,uhAV tf P the^ry 

; , ::' : - 7 -. 5 ;'. ■ V : ' ":'. : : : ; - -: - 

Dr. Wriuhf ;: -of an inch ob]- -gh • 

having an angle of G;V, and fitted with an internal prism tor 

m T ,u . , i: , ".; rf , n:« 1 .« ,j : >'.;;.«.,■ **» ****** «-»-** 



PROCEEDINGS OF ' 



Dr. Ewan read some extracts from a letter by Dr. Maris, 
I the performance of Messrs. Powell and Leland's -h homogeneous 
objectives on tuber< 



and presented all the appearance of milk in an 

fce of decomposition. 

Dr. Ewan exhi iaicro-spectro- 

■cope, 

13 NOVEMBER, 18S2. 

Dr. Wright in the Chair. 

Dr. Sinclair exhibited OUlhr„r tuckeri, the coiridiiferous 

mycelium of an Erysiphe or Vine Fungus in an early stage (tour 

tof development. 
'. G. Martin exhibited slides of diatomacoa? and marine 
g^ropoda, Dr. Mac kixlaii a Swift's be h t challenge microscope 
**&, with all improvements, and Mr. Pedley a number ot 
logical preparations. 

MEDICAL SECTION. 
,> seBsion of the Medical Section of the Royal Society for 
! 8 82 began with ^S on April 19th, caUed 

» obedience to a iM.ms.t , n, l,.r the purpose of considering the 
^ability of incr I members of Committee. 

It was decided that there should in 
of Committee instead of fou r. "' - should retir ° 

dually 

. ^meeting then resolved itself into the preliminary meeting 
» electing office-bearers. _ -p a^ncr 

.** following were elected :-Chairman : Dr. P Sidney 
^ Secretaries: Dr. MacLaueik, Mr. Tnos. Evans. ^ Com- 
Jttej: Dr. Cecil Morgan, Mr. A. Roberts, Dr. Mackellae, 

^•Bedford, Dr. Craig Dixson, Dr. Ewan. _ . ^ ^.^ 

• ^en general ™, 



} general meetings we 
tiug papers were read. 



6th - December, 1882. 



APPENDIX. 



ABSTRACT OF THE METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 
TAKEN AT THE SYDNEY OBSERVATORY. 



' . ' ; 



JANTJAKY, 1882.— General Abstract. 
^jieter^ ^ Highest Heading... ^ .„ 30-102 inches on the 6th, at 7& 8 a.) 
19-287 „ on the 11th, at 1 a.m. 



... Greatest Pressure ... 22 -4 lbs. on the 5th. 

Mean Pressure 09 lh. 

Number of Days Calm ... 

Prevailing Direction ... S. 

ftttperature Highest in the Shade ... 923 on the 23rd. 

Lowest in the Shade ... 583 on the 3rd. 

Greatest Eange 28"1 on the 5th. 

Highest in the Sun ... 1475 on the 14th. 

Lowest on the Grass ... 499 on the 3rd. 

Mean Diurnal Eange ... 129 

Mean in the Shade ... 723 



Bmnidity 



: *•«••. ... Number of Days 11 rain and 1 dew. 

.li 0176 inches on the 13th. 

( o-323 „ 65 feet above grom 

Total Fall | 0626 3- 

lB <% 2-852 inches less than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 23 yew 
* ?a POratioil Total Amount 4-831 inches. 



•U followed. A few of the northern eteta 

: .'.^.. :.: :■:. ..:.,.;■,::.::,::. :,:.:: 

^land 4-78 inches fell, and at Glen Innes 4-47 inches. 



C OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 



Mean Height 



30-172 inches on t 



mth for the preceding 23 y< 



Temperature Highest in the Shade 
Lowest in the Shade 
Greatest Range ... 



Evaporation Total Amount 3'610 inches. 

Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 

Cloudy Sky ... Mean Amount 51 

Number of Clear Days ... 3 
Meteors ...Number observed ... 

Bemarfa. ftheta^ 

Abundant rains fell in the northern districts about the 5th and 6th of t ^ t 
the greatest fall bei] 'lose to Coonamble. ^ H"^* 

usual tropical downfall, extending down from Queensland ; on W^* doni t 
heavy, and seems to have folio* b*T> » nd 1,! the«^ 

Darling and Macquarie to about Canonba, whence it turned to tne eas , ^ 

was well marked,- . at Mount Poole, and at uw 

100 miles west of 1 1 * steadily "J^b* 

N.E. toS.E. On I began January 30th, ^ Jt ^ t 

the 4th, Bourke on the 5th, Boolcarrol, near Narrabn, on tfle ««■ ^^ « 
extend to Cobar except the margin, and all the southern parts oi *■» 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 
GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 

MAECH, 1882.— General Abstract. 



Barometer ... Highest Reading... 
At 32" Faht., but not corrected to sea-le 
Lowest Reading ... 
Mean Height 


... 30146 inches on the 2 


Wad Greatest Pressure 

Mean Pressure ... 
Number of Days Calm 
Prevailing Direction 


.. 260 lbs. on the 14th. 
... 0-8 lb. 
.. 

... NJE. 


Temperature Highest in the Shade 
Highest in the Sun 


.. 89-1 on the 29th. 

'.'. 217 on the 29th.' 
.. 1380 on the 29th. 
.. 52-6 on the 22nd. 




«>meter this month has been low, and the average 0089 below the i 
month ; but the temperature has been high— 1-3 greater than the* 
«aam» , where hl -' 'have fallen. A good illustra 

«C 7 e 8eea in th e records near Sydney. At the Observatory, 530 mche 
fed at r y ' *" 94 wehes ; at Moore Park, 6"87 inches ; at Crown-street, 6"18 i 
troydon, 4 miiea weit from Sydney, only 3 35 inches. 



GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 

3' 51' 41 I x in t 10 4 )M Mi mi. \ u mio\ 9 

APRIL, 1882.— G-enebal Absteact. 

Highest Reading 30'103 inches on the 1 



Greatest Pressure 
Mean Pressure . . . 
Number of Days Calm 



Temperature Highest 

Lowest in the Shade 
Greatest Range ... 



Total Amount ... 
Electricity ... Number of Days Lightnii 
Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount ... 

Number of Clear Days , 
Meteors ... Number ohscrve:l 



and 5th of April yery heavy rain fell : the 

whole of this fell between 330 p.m and 8 p.m. uenerauy iuu ^""George 
or moderate, exet 3j lney southwards, tape ^ a 

19-53, which was the greatest of all the stations for this month. 



the average at Sydney^ U *J%X 



GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 
MAY, 1882— General Abstract. 

Barometer ... Highest Reading 30205 inches on the 31st. 

At 32° Eaht., but not corrected to sea-level. 

Lowest Reading 29164 „ on the 30th. 



Temperature Highest in the Shade 
Lowest in the Shade 

Lowest on the Grass 
Mean Kb 



*^pOratioil Total Amount 2 062 i 

^ectricity ... Number of Days Lightning 1 

^dySky... Mean Amount *3 

Xr Number of Clear Days ... 7 

* ete °ra ... Number observed ... 



• 






GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDN1Y. 
JUNE, 1S82.— GrENEEAL ABSTRACT. 



on the 24th. 

- 



'. 3802 inches on the 9th. 

<\3fi05 .. 65 1. 
■{Ilii l5in.abovegrou^ 

lt h on an average of the preceding 23 y^ 
. 1-284 inches. 
Electricity ... Number of Days Lightning 2 

ClOTldy Sky ... Mean Amount 51 

Number of Clear Days ... 4 
Meteors ... Number observed ... 



the rainfall nearly equal to the average, the qx 

especially south-western'districts, the month has 1 
rain of the month amounted to <J'3'J inches. 



Barometer ... Highest Reading... 
At 32° Faht., but not corrected to sea-h 

Mean S HeighV '.'.'. 


Wind Greatest Pressure 

Number of Days Calm 


Temperatur 


e Highest in the Shade 
Lowest in the Shade 

Lowest on the Grass 
Mean Diurnal Eange 






Humidity 


... Greatest Amount... 
Least 


(Being 1-7 




Rain ... 


... Number of Days... 
Greatest Fall ... 




Total Fall 


(Being 0-1S5 inches less than that of the same n 


Evaporation 


L Total Amount ... 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



■ . 



fATORY, SYDNEY 



JULY, 1882.— G-enebal Abstract. 

Highest Reading 30325 inches on the 19th, i 

f ... ..." 29366 „ on the 25th,! 

Mean Height 29-892 

Greatest Pressure ... 21 1 lbs. on the 25th. 



Highest in the SI 
Lowest in the Sh 
Greatest Range 



Greatest Fall 
Total Fall... 
^3-743 inches less than that of t 






^dySky.".' 



Number obserred 



ometer this month has been rather I 
Itnen,,,-- At Sydney the rainfall was 3743 i 
beeo v2L^ Ter the colour (with the exception of t 



e weather has 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 
GOYEENMENT OBSEEVATOEY, SYDNEF. 

AUGUST, 1882.— General Abstract. 

Highest Beading 30-244 inches on the 

Lowest Beading 29"371 „ on the ! 

Mean Height 29-879 



Temperature Highes 





Greatest Eange ... '.'.'. 24-0 on the 16th. 
Highest in the Sun ... 1241 on the 24th. 

rnal Eange ... 13-9 
Mean in the Shade ... 559 


(Being 0-9 | 


greater that of the same month on an average of .the preceding 24 rears.) 


Humidity ... 


Greatest Amount ... 1000 on the 24th. 

Least 46-0 on the 2nd. 

Mean 74-5 


(Being 24 gre 


ater than that of the same month on an average of the precede » f-» 


Kain 


Number of Days 13 rain and 3 dew. 




rea eS a f9-<*qf> inC C 65 ft. above ground" 

Total Fall [|.|£ J l5 in. above groud 


(Being 0-259 inch 


greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding U ye 


Evaporation 
Electricity ... 
Cloudy Sky ... 

Meteors 


Total Amount 2 '100 inches. 

Number of Days Lightning 3 

Mean Amount 48 

Number of Clear Days ... 6 
Number observed ... 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 
GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 



: ading 30-246 on the X4th, at 8 a 

-U&i j-'aht„ !. u t not omvted to sea-level. 

Lowest Reading 20313OD the 29th, at 4 a 

Mean Height 29-835 



... Greatest Pressure 
Mean Pressure ... 
Number of Days Calm 
Prevailing Direction 


... 25-2 lbs. on tho 25th. 


(Prevailing directio 


during the same month for the preceding 24 j-eai 


attire Highest 


in the Shade 
n the Shade 


.['. 43-9 on the 15th. 
.. 33-4 on the 24th. 



Humidity ... Greatest Amount 

&!»•.. ... Number of Days 

Greatest Fall 

Total Fall ( 

^e 3-261 inches less than that of the same month 

^Oration Total Amount 

Jtoctricity ... Number of Days Lightning 

^dySky... Mean Amount 

y Number of Clear Days ... 

*eteors ... Number observed 



e leather this month has been very warm. On I 
>8e ^ 89-1, and the mean was 29 greater than tJ 



OBSERVATIONS. 
GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 

OCTOBEE, 1882.— General Abstract. 

Barometer ... Highest Reading 30-131 on the 2nd, at 8 a.m. 

. At 32° Eaht., but not corrected to sea-level. 

Lowest Reading 29 283 on the 23rd, at 2 p.m. 

Mean Height 29-801 



Greatest Pressure 
Mean Pressure ... 
Number of Days Calm 



Greatest Amount.. 



Evaporation Total Amount ... 
Electricity ... Number of Days LightniE 
Cloudy Sky... Mean Amount ... 

Number of Clear Days . 
Meteors ... Number observed 



; inches on the 29th. 



t fall was 4235 inches c 



GO\ ERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 





NOVEMBEK, 1882.- 


-GrENEEAX ABSTEACT. 


Barometer ... Highest Reading 30-241 on the 7th, at 

At 32° Paht., but not corrected to sea-level. 

Lowest Reading 29-434 on the 22nd, a 

Mean Height 29930 


(Being 0-138 i 


ich greater than that in the same i 




Wind.., 


... Greatest Pressure 
Mean Pressure ... 
Number of Days Calm 


.. 23-1 lbs. on the 27th. 
.. 0-9 lb. 



Temperature Highest in the Shade ... 83-7 on the 22nd. 
Lowest in the Shade ... 545 on the 8th. 

Greatest Range 178 on the 22nd. 

Highest in the Sun ... 1475 on the 22nd. 
Lowest on the Grass ... 43 8 on the 23rd. 
Mean Diurnal Range ... 125 



92-0 on the 18th. 



1 0-879 „ 15 in. above ground. 



^POration Total Amount 35 

^ectricity ... Number of Days Lightning 2 

U °%Sky... Mean Amount 60 

I Number of Clear Days ... 4 

^rs ... Number observed ... 



»££° nth the baTOm <^r has been higher than usual, the ir. 
t * b ^n the average. The humidity has been high, 08 above t 
•*y little rain fell, only 0879 inch. 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 



GOVERNMENT OBSERVATORY, SYDNEY. 



-General Abstract. 



Barometer ... 

At 32° Fabt., 


Lowest Reading ' 29292 on the 31st, at 4 and 5 p. 

29-703 


(Being 0-039 inch less than that in the same month on an average of the preceding 24 yea* 


Wind 


Greatest Pressure ... ITS lbs. on tho 21st. 

Mean Pressure l'O lb. 

Number of Days Calm ... 
Prevailing Direction ... S. 


(Prevailing direction during the same month for the preceding 24 years, N.E.) 


Temperature 


Highest in the Shade ... 99-9 on the 19th. 

Range ... ... 39-1 on the 19th, 

a the Son ... 160-0 on the 19th. 

Lowest on the Grass . . . 48-2 on the 3rd. 

Mean Diurnal Range ... 163 

Mean in the Shade ... 697 


(Being 0-1 gre 


ter than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 24 year*) 


Humidity .. 


Greatest Amount ... 96'0 on the 6th. 

Least 300 on the 19th. 

Mean 66-0 


(Being 3-9 le 


ss than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 24 years.) 


Rain 


Number of D»yi 18 

Greatest FuU 0-758 inches on the 7t h - n4 

Total Fall (^ » g£ltbSepowi 


(Being 0050 inch 


greater than that of the same month on an average of the preceding 24 y- 


Evaporatiou 
Electricity ... 
Cloudy Sky ... 

Meteors 


Total Amount 4'729 inches. 

Number of Days Lightning 3 

Number of Clear Days ... 
Number observed ... 1 



y close to the averages, both for 6 



CURVES SHOWING THE HEIGHT OF THE WESTERN RIVERS OF NEW SOUTH WALES DURING THE YEAR 1882. 




Diagram for Mr. Russell's Rain Map, 1881 




NOTE Th& diameters (-not areas) of Black Spots ar& proportional to the ajnomuL of 
Incomplete returns cure sJuewrv by cuBlouch Grdjes roxwjcb the Spot, 
for quxuxtdx^s for each rrvonfh arid, for 0\e year see, aJtJxichjexL toubb 
Beech xd is 25 miles JT. of "the posiiuorv plotted. 



LIST OP PUBLICATIONS. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF NEW 
SOUTH WALES, 1862-1865. 

Contents. 
On the Vertebrated Animals of the Lower Murray.} 
and Darling— their habits, economy, and geogra- ^ Gerard xxan. 

-ibution . 



numerous ne wl ' complete £ Martin Gardiner, 

Solutions to celebrated Problems. Paper No. 1 ... ; 
Researches concerning n'gons inscribed in other "> Martin Oardiner, ( 

n'gons. Paper No. 2 . ■) 

Researches concerning n'gons i Martin Gardiner, ( 

the second degree. Paper No. 3 ... ... •••) 

Researches concerning n'gons inscribed in surfaces ) ^ &rt ] ja Gardiner, < 

of the second degree. Paper No. 4 ... •••; 

On the desirability of a systo 

observation of, variable Stars in the S< 

Hemisphere .. 

On the Comet o 



Remarks on the preceding Paper, 
Meeting of 7th September, 1864 .. 
Onthe /aye Temple's of India _ ... - ••• £ %^*L 



... JohnTebbutt,]unr. 

"at the) Rev.W.B.Clarke,M.A... 

...) F.G.S., &c, V.-P. 



Dr. James Cox. 



Ou Snake bites and their antidotes . 

On the Wambeyan Caves nio^LTMnnre F.L.S. 

On the Fibre Plants of New South Wales ... ... Charles Moore, JB.i*d. 

On Osmium and Iridium, obtained from New South j A Le ibi ug , Ph.D. 
On the 8 Projects of "the Civil Service under the S Lieut .. C olonel Ward. 

Superannuation Act of 1864 -J 

ibution of Profits in Mutual Insurance ) M B> Pe u. 

Societies ... ... ■■■ •£> c EoUeston . 

On the Agricultural Statistics of New South Wales i. 

On the Defences of Port Jackson ... ■■■ 'V Eev .W. B.Clarke, M. A, 

On the Transmutation of Rocks in Australasia ... | F.G.S., F.R.G.S. 

On the Oology of Australia - „' R " g ma iiey. 

The Theory of Encke's Comet , . ■•• ^ *' B 3 

On certain possible relations between Geological j a>E , Sma ney. 

Changes and Astronomical Observations ... ■ • • > 
The present state of Astronomical, Magnetical, and) 

Meteorological Science ; and the practical bearings j cr. . 
On theMannlrs^and Customs' of the Aborigines oil ^^a Krefft. 

the Lower Murray and Darling —J 



LIST OP PUBLICATIONS. 



Inaugural Address, by t 



II.— Kemarks on a paper by S. H. Wintl 
Esq., on tlie bones found in a caye £ 
Glenorchy, Tasm 

Clarke, 



, M.E.C.S. 



1 [on of Life in New Sout !i Wales, as f fessor c 
compared with England and other C tics in tl 
) of Sydn 
fEev. W. 



Vol. II. 



Opening Address by George E. Smalley, B.A., F.E .A 
Article I. — On the value of Earth Temperatures ... j 



, : 



:. 



Causes and 

Earthqu;/ I ' [ M.A., JP.fc 

shocks felt in Australia ) T -P. 

V.-On the Water Supply of Sydney ... Professor Smith, M.V. 
, VI.— K -.. - : W ■ •' « ■ : -^ ■ N,uth I Christopher Eolleston, 

Wales during the last ten years ... J 
, TIL— Bemarks on the Dry Earth System of > Edward Bedford, 

Conservancy 1 i"V, C _. 

i TIIL— On Pauperism in New South Wales—"} Alfred Eoberts, 

past, present, and future ) M.K.C.S. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 807 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH 
WALES, 1869. 

Vol. III. 

Contents. 
Opening Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.G.S., Vice-President. 

(G. K. Holden, Senior 
Article I.-OntheoperationoftheRealPropertyAct j ^^. ner of Title8 ' 

Article II.— Analytical Solution of SirW. Hamilton's) 

Problem on the Inscription of Closed j Martin Gardiner, C.E. 
NVoii*inany quadric J 

„ III.— New Theorem in the Geometry of three \ Martin Gardiner. C.E. 
Divisions ) 

„ IV.— Exposition of the American Method aT\ 
Levelling for Sections. The supe- 
riority to the English and French ! Martin Gardiner> C .E. 
methods as regards actual field prac- 
tice and subsequent plotting of the | 

„ V.— On the ! -nEngO 

land C. Cracknel! [.Super- 

the Austen ' ut of T 

grapliic systems of Europe and | graphs for N.S.W. 
America J 

„ VI.— Notes on the Geology of the country j A _ M ThomsoIlj Sc. D. 

: us of the) 

yncsian Nan ,_';.. 



„ VIH.-Im] 

Trigonometrical Surveying ... ; 

„ IX.-On the Water Supply of Sydney from } CharIeg M 

George's River and Cook's River ... j 
„ X.— On the R--- l!!11 -> , c ., 

nation of Waters for the Sydney V Professor gmit 

W T ater Commission J 

„ XI.— On the Refining of Gold by means of J p -g jjin erj J 

Chlorine Gas % — } 

„ XII.— On a new Apparatus for Reducing j A Leibius, Phi 

Chloride of Silver j 

„ XHI.-Remarks on Tables for Calculating} H Q RusscU 



Vol. IV. 

Contents. 

Opening Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, M.A, F.G.S., Vice-President. 
3n Post-office Savings Banks, I 
Societies, and Governmen 






E. Bell, M.I.C.E. 

n<n H A Tllomson 

w South Wales ) H ' A ' in <™ 

u > By Norman Taylor and 
) Prof. Thomson, ScD. 



TEANSACTIONS OF r . 

Vol. V. 

Contents. 

Opening Address by Professor Smith, M.D., Yice-President. 

Article I.— Eeniarks on the Nebula around Eta j -g- c Eusgellj b.A. 

„ II.— Magnetic' Variations at Sydney*' ... H. C. Eussell, B.A. 

„ III.-Eemarks on the Botany of Lord Howe's j Charleg Moorej F#Il .g. 

„ IV.— New Guinea— a highly { 



Vol. VI. 

Contents. 
Opening Address by the Eev. W. B. Clarke, M.A., Vice-President. 
icle I.— On an Improved Method of Separating - ) 

Gold from Argentic Chloride, as ob- V Dr. Leibius. 
tained in gold-refining by chlorine gas J 

method of Assaying Antimony Ores > Dr. Leibius. 

given by some Manuals of Assaying ) 
, III.— Eemarks on Tin Ore, and what may| Dr Le ibius. 

aPPearl ; kei ' j George Milner Stephen, 

, IV.-On Australian Gems | F- §. s . 

, V.-Astronomical Notices H. C. Eussell, B.A. 

, VI.— On the Coloured Cluster Stars about j H c Eusse u, B.A. 

Kappa CrUdS } Archibald Liversidge, 

t VII.— On the Deniliquin Meteorite ^ p.C.S. 



New South Wales 
years, 1862-71 



the Progress < 



list or publications. oua 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE EOYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH 




V. — Note on the Bingern Diamond Distno 

„ VI.— On our Coal and Coal Ports James Manning. 

„ VII.— Appendix to "On our Coal and Coal } James Manningi 

,, VIII.— On our Coal and Coal Ports James Manning. 

„ ix.-Tbe y. .•_ -. 

deification Parti. Ornithodelplna £ Gerard Kreftt. 

and Didelphia J P diner C E 

„ X— On Geodesic Investigations Martin traroine , . . 

TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH 
WALES, 1874. 
Vol. VIII. 

Contents. 



New South Wales, j ChriSi Eo Ueston. 

" IV -~ D ^Sal°anf 7^1^] **» B « ****' 

north-east Australia ^ J. Latta, Esq. 

" V— Iron Pyrites ... ••• •" .;; r Manning, Esq. 

:: ^SfcHMS.'SfirU Ss5£ &£- K2 

I >re and Coal Deposits at Wallera-") p ro f ess0 r Liversidge. 

wang, N.S.W .-J 

„ IX.— Some t>i vat . lon < H. C RusseU, B.A. 

N.S.W... .J 
„ X.— The Transit of Venus as observed at| ReT Wm . gcott, M.A. 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY 

OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 187o. 

Vol. IX. 

Contents. 
(Edited by Professor Livcrsidge.) pAGE _ 

Article I.-Idst.v ' k* By-laws, and . ^ ^ 

List of Members ... ••• __ xxxi to xlii 

» II. — Proceedings ... •" '* " xliii to xLt 

. IU,— Additions to Library • 



Article IV.— Armiw- Rot. W. B. Clarke, 

M.A., F.G.S., Vice-President ... 

„ V.— Note? < p. By Rev. W. B. 



( I -ke. -M 


A.,F.O.s. 








,rican Mining. 


IU S. 






]l .,,.,, • 


p,v s. ir. '■> 


tVintle, Hobart 


T.HMl 




-IV' .M.nt V 


• 


o Sycb 


;;'y bv'i 


tioii. By 








-Metropolitan 


"■ ' 


. I: : 


James 'i 



Notes. By H. C. Russell, ] 

, XII.— Examples of Pseud ' 

Professor Liversidge 

, XIII.— The Minerals of New .South Wales. 






0. EusseU, B.A., Sydney Observatory ... 1 to U 

JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 

1876. 

Vol. X. 

(Edited by Professor Lirersidge.) 

Article I.— List of Officers. Fu: -.and 

List of Members i to xxx 

II.— Anniversary Address, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, 

M.A., F.'RX. \'i.rlV.ii IU> U 

III.— Notes on some Remarkable Errors shown by Ther- 
mometer ( Diagram). By II. C. Russell, P. V., 

F.B.A.S.. 6o t0 

„ rV.-On t qs of the Polynesian 

V.— On the Deep Oceanic Depression off Moreton Ray. 

By Rev. W. B(hk, M\ TUn . . 75 to 8w 

„ VI. — Some J i- Opposition. By 

G. D. Hirst 83 to ys 

„ VII.— On the Genus Ctenodus. Parts I to IV. (Five 

plates.) Bv \V. J. Parkas, M.R.C.S 99 to 1-* 

„ VIII.— On the Formation of Moss Gold and Silver. By 

Archibald 1 \ <> _- I' . -or of Mineralogy ^ 



: 

Bv Rev. J. E. Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S. 
i - ■ _■ 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., Government 



OP PUBLICATIONS. 



Article XII.— Effects of Forest Vegetation on Climate. By Rev. 

W. B. Clarke, M.A., F.R.S 

„ XIIL-Fossi it, Eiclimond River. 

„ XXf.—Betia I ted Slate. (Zteo 

■plates.) Bv Professor Liversidge 

„ XV.— Proceedings 

„ XVI.— Additions to Library 

„ XVII.— Donations 

„XVIIL-Reports from the Sections 

Papers bead before Sections. 

1. Macrozamia spiralis. By F. Milford, M.D. 

(Two plates.) - 

2. Tran^ Human Tooth, 



4. Etching and Etcl; 

;\- •■. 

rations taken at the Sydney Observatory. iN ' 
H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S n ~ 



JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 

Vol. XI. 

Contents. 
(Edited hy Professor Liversidge.) ^^ 

Article I.— List of Officers, Fundamental Rules, By-laws, 

and List of Members — •■• lton 

„ II.— Amu ■■ 0. Russell, JJ.A., ,. n9Ci 

F.R.A.S., F.M.S., Vice-President ■■■■- lto2 ° 

III.— The Forest Vegetation of Central and Northern 

New Enj • a Geological „ 

T „a. — ZZ g, , vcyor. Zi. ww 

• ,.,',, t new i ssil gigantic 

01 Australia. I ' .. . - 

M.A., F.R.S., &c. Vice-President ... ... 41 to 50 

Y.-On the Si.-,-: ■!■!. Cranial Bones, Operculum, arid 
sum-..". I , Cm tne 

Scapula BofCtenodus. 

BvW.J.BirkriOI.H.e.S. ... ... •■■ 51tob * 

vi-onf,, ** g5to82 

VII —On -m,\."v \u,tralian Polyzoa. (Two wood- 

-t) By Bey. J ^ 83 & 84 

VHL-Onlh'e oecurr'ence of' Chalk' ^ ^ »^J^ 
Group. By Professor Liversidge, F.C.S.,F.G.b., 
F.R.G.S./&C - 80t ° 



e Eev. J. E. Tenison- 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 



F.C.S. ... 
„ X.— The Palseontological Evidence o 

tiary Formations. By t 1 - T> 
Woods, FAi.s.. F.E.G.S 
XI.— A Sy] ; r! iary Polyzoa. By 

„ XII.— Ctenacanthus, a Spine of Hybodus. By W. J. 

Barkas, M.E.C.S I 45 t« 

„ XIII.— A System of Notation adapted to explaining to 

Students cert MM, By the 

Hon. J. Smith, C.M.G., M.D., LL.D., M.L.C. 157 t< 
„ XIV.— Notes on the Meteorology, Natural History, &c, 

of a Guano Island ; and Guano and other 



A. Dixon, F.C.S , ••• 

„ XV.— On some Australian Tertiary Corals. (Two 

plate*.) By the Eev. J. E, Tenison-Woods, 

F.G.S., F.E.G.S , ■■• 

XVI. — On a new and remi 

ConstelhV -.F.EA.S.... 

,. XVII.— On a Dental peculiarity of the Lepidosteidse. 

By W. J. Barkas, M.E.C.S 

„ XVIII.— A New Fossil Extinct Species of Kangaroo, 

Sthenurus minor (Owen). By the Eev. W. B. 

Clarke, MA., F.E.S 

,, XIX.— Notes on some recent Barometric Disturbances. 

By H. C. Eussell, B.A., F.EA.S 



i«;.:i 



„ XXI.— Additions to the Li 
„ XXII.— List of Exchanges £ 
„ XXIII.— Eeports from the S 

Papebs bead beeobe Sections. 

1. Eemarks on the Coccus of the Cape Mul- 
berry. By F. Milford, M.D., &c 

2. Notes on some local Species of Diatomaceae. 
ByG.D. Hirst 

„ XXIV.— Appendix : Abstract of the Meteorological Ob- 
servations taken at the Sydney Observatory. 
ByH. C. Eussell, B.A, F.EA.S., Govern- 



JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 
Vol. XII. 
(Edited by Prof. Liversidge and Dr. Leibius. ) ^ & 

Article L— List of Officers, Fundamental Rules, By-laws, . . „_— 

and List of Members ltoXXX 



icle II. — Anniversary Address, by Christopher Rolleston, 
Vice-President 

i:;. 

Value. By Rev. J. E. Tenison- Woods, F.G.S., 

F.L.S 

IV.— The Mollnscan Fauna of Tasmania, By the Rev. 

J. E. Tenison-W oods, F.G.S., F.L.S 
V.— On Borne I obb3 Corals and 

Polyzoa. (One plate.) By the Rev. J. E. 

Tenison-Woods, F.G.S., F.L.S. 
VI.— Proposed Correction to the assumed Longitude 

of the Sydney Observatory. By Job 

F.R.A.S 

VII.— On the Meteorology of the Coast of New Smith 

Wal. • 

desirabil; - rm W am- 

;:: < ■■ ■ . ,. : • 

of the ship " T. L. Hall" 

VIII. —Storms on the Coast of New 8 

(Four ,/;„„ ,* i ll\ II ( llussell, B.A., 
F.R.A.s 
IX. S« , ,. i .„ t- • ■ r the Great Tidal Wave, May 
1877. (Three diagrams.) By J. P. Joseph- 
son, C.E 

X.— Some Results of an Astronomical Experiment on 

the Blue \ ww». J ByH. 

M.S., 4c. ... 

XL— On the I md Cobalt. By 

W. A. Dixon, F.C.S., F.I.C 

XII. -The Do v. By W. A. 

Dixon, F.C.S., F.I.C 

XIIL-Note ou I W. A. ton, 

F.C.S., F.I.C., Lecturer on Chemistry, Sydney 

School of Arts 

XIV.— The Rise and Progress of Photography. By 

XV.— Proceedings 

i,,ns to the Library 

XVIL— Donations to the Cabinets 

XVII 1.- Li.t of EvliauA- and I 'refutations 

fca from the Sections 



By H. C. Russell, 



LIST OF FDBI 



The Triangle Micrometer. By H. C. Russell, 

X,,t t V on Juicer .lurinif his Opposition, 1878. 
B\ <:. D. Hirst ■ 

. ,.■ ■ ■■ ■■■ ' [ ■■-'- ■ ■ 

■ ' ■ 

Venus. By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S... 

. Xote; on the <Wvntnr (^junction of Mars 
and Saturn, 1879. By John Tcbbutt, 



14. Note-;. me. By A. W. 

Dixon, F.C.S , - 

15. Notes on the Incri 

Ve.t.1 Main. I '■> Dr. Morris ... 

; 

f p.. Is of Art and 

Science. ' t'.v Ludovi.-o Hart 

17. On Mn- leilhan ... 

v\. ,\ ■ ;-•■'; '; , : 

!. 



JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 
Vol. XIII. 



II. - \ -, by the Hon. Professor 

Smith, < M <. . \ I lent ... 

III. -The "Gem" Cluster in Argo. By H. C. Russell, 

I\-._. ■;■■ 

i ■:-. 

Sydney 

v. . 



'■■' - 

/.iV.s., i-Vls.. 1 ! 
Formations of Ne 



the Rct 

i- Woods, F.< 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS. 

:Ie IX.— Photography, its relation to Popular Education. 

X.-Ottelia prseterita, F. v." M. By Baro'ii von Mueller,' 
K.C.M.G., M.D., P.H.D., F.R.S 

• ■ : 

r 1880. ByH.S. V " 



the Hawkesbury Rocks. By C. S. \\ 

L.S., F.G.S 105 to 107 

XIII.-The A\ < : ; i. ('. Russell, 

B.A., F.R.A.S 109 to 118 

XIV.— Proceedings 121 to 188 

Jbrary 189 to 149 

tions 150 to 157 

Papers read refore the Sections. 
XVII.— Reports from the Sections 161 to 226 

1. On a mm -Maps. By 

H. ('. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 163 

2. Occult lupiter, Sept. 

14th. ByJolm'lVl.l.utt, F.'K. V> 165 

3. Note on the conjunction of Mars and Saturn, 

July 1st. ,11, B.A., 
F.R.A.S 167 

4. The River Darling, tlu 

pass through it. By H. C. Russell, B.A., 
F.R.A.S.. ... 169 

5. Notes on some recent i 

by Carl Z i Grst ... 175 

6. Notes upon Tolles' duplex front one-tenth 

imp. km- : '.iparative 

trial of the same with Zeiss's oil immersion 
one-eighth (No. 18), by both oblique and 

q. ISO 

7. An impro oope. By T. 

185 

8. Art Criticism. By E. L. Montefiore 189 

9. The Black Forest. From notes taken by L. 

Hart during a tour in Germany in 1S61 ... 1 97 

10. Art Instruction. By John Plummer 205 

11. Ten vcar- 

Manning, M.D 213 

XVIII.— Appendix : Abstract of the Meteorological 
Observati- • servatory. 
By H. C. Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S 229 to 240 



JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES 



Vol. XIV. 

(Edited by Prof. Liversidge.) 
Article I.— List of Officers, Rules, and List of Meml 



PUBLICATIONS. 



Russell, B.A., F.l 

Jupiter. By H. i 
(Two ~ - 



■ 



XITI.-On Rimd.arkiiu: and its Effects. By > 
XV.-On D tlie a Aoi!is'of the Xati "'r'urrant '" 

XVn.-On Salt-bush and Xative Fodder Plants 

W. A. Dixon, F.C.S 

XVIII.— Water from a Hot Spring. Xew Britain 

XIX.— Water from a Hot Spring, Fiji' Islands 

Prof essor Liversidge 

XX. — The composition of Cast-iron acted up 

Sea-water. By Profe- 
XXL— On the Composition of some Wood en 
in Risalt. By Professt 
XXII.— The Composition of Coral Limestone 
Professor Liversidge 

Xew South Wales. By W. A . Di x< >n, I 



OP PUBLICATIONS. 



B0t»» 



JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL mm IKTY 
Vol. XV. 



viii, -t; 

IX. — OnCc 



93tol5S 

m, 1831. By 
H. C. Russell, I : : 

159tol73 



3.M.G.,M.D.,Ph.D..F.R,S 

XIV.— Notes on Wool. By P. N. Trebeck 

XV. — On the importance of a Comprehensive Scheme 



Papers read before the Sections. 
On the Star Lacaille 2145. By John Tebbutt, F.R.A.S... 
On the Variable Star E. Carina?. By John Tebbutt, 

F.R.A.S 

On some Observations for Longitude at Lambie. By W. 

J. Conder 

. . : 



349 to 365 
366 to 373 



List of Publications.. 



JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, 
Vol. XVI. 

(Edited by Prof. Liversidge). 
Officers for 1882-83 ... & 

Rules, List of Members, &c XV to xlvii 

Article L— Pr. C.A., 3Q 

„ II.— On the Deniliquin or Barratta Meteorite. 

(Second notice.) By A. Liversidge, F.R.S., , „„ 

... B : 31 to 33 

„ III.— On the Bingera ,V ales. ,- 

By. JB. [Om Plate) 35 to it 

IV.— On the Che:;.: iuRocks, 

New South Wales, &c. (Preliminary notice. ) 

F.R.S., F.C.S. (Two a 



LIST OP PUBLICATIONS. 

V.— Rocks from New TJrit.-iin and New Ireland, 
(Preliminary notice.) By A. Liversidge, 

VI.— Tlu-Hawkt'.sl rySaiuMn,,', By the Rev. J. E." 

VII.— Tropical Rains. ' By'jL C. Russell, B.A.',' 
F.R.A.S., Government Astronomer. (Hue 



yor 

ioies on tne Progress of New South Walt i 



XTII.-Oa ., 

W. A. Dixon, F.I.( 
XIV.— A Fossil 1 i at r 

F.G.k, F.L.S>\, &" 
XV.— The A! 

Fraser,B.A. ... 

ndrew Ross, M.L.A., 

Proceedings 

Additions to the Library 

List of Presentations made by the Royal Society of New South 

Wales, 1882 

Proceedings of the Sections 

Appendix: Ab si , 01 servations at the 

Sydney Ol«en-atr>ry. Bj H. ( . Russell, B.A., F.R.A.S., 

_ Government Astronomer 

Rainfall Map for the year 1882. By H. C. Russell, B.A., 



F.R.A.i 
f Publications.. 









- 

is. v.; ~ So l^rr; Hh' ! 'v'.!' u .'.":! L . ie ] [ ':. Cu . v ." 



Ashes o 


' S0111 ■ 






W. A. Dixon 








nioi-.Ii! 














Ansi 


:-,nClii 










Wool.,. . 






















B 












Barrier Reef Is 




^ontlic... 



*Z.Z. n 3, us 






Carboniferous 5 
Cardium 



Chemical composition of the Denili- 

Binge ra Meteorite 

Newstead, New England District, 
'iva'f'rom 



reland .!.! 



ews of the Ha^ 
L porphyry fr< 



Epiphj ' 



>ck" 








; '" J 


: ' 


67,9 




: :..' 42 












...:......:..:. : « 












:,-ti..i!uf 97,08 










. mo 


UlaiK-lu- But 51 












H 






Hardening of sand 77 




. 27^ 


: . 




!•:,;-. n -\Vo. Is. F.U.S., F.L.S 53 












F 






B R7 




VJl 


, 112 






115 






92 




-Hi of t 1 Jl, ,k * , 


78 


P f C93> 103 ' "2 








: 


tz 


I^ZZ rocks— lamination " 69 










11-7 






56 





1-2 Wool, V'Andr 



Method (new) of da 



i Wales 39 I Nff 



. . "• -■ - ..'".::::: ^ tiono^^:!""!'.!". 1 .!^'. 1 .^.. 



. 



alluvial deposit from the 

ition of 








. — ^mSS 

■rins"! 

Quien^aiulMainllanse. .- --• •- 

■■■•■■-■••••- •-'■ u ' t '' r' 


.....1", 293 

' ' ' ■ ' ' ■ .... t: :. :■'..•■"'" 
Urifain 50 


f, vac , i e bori- 








P 

Palmar "River, mesozoic fossils from... 147 

7 


E 

Rain, artificial production of... 11, 14, 




Remains V^reeks and streams in 


,;;'::::: "I 


1 tlieHawkesbury rocks 


Palmer Queensland, meso- 


■ ' >-. ■■■■■ 

Yn'atui 145 








Wal -. chemic il 


.. »■: 


■ CQmP0S stratified, not nii aqueous ... 



.0., M.L.A., on I 
and Pictures upon the growth 



• 



New Ireland 

Un."kVu'>..n'.'.s' 



.. in China... 

i'.iti .7. 

<r,h IVsort, 

iLngsor::::::::: 

ingande 



; ; 















TilI ind : 




Tt:;;r<::r;;;:;r,r: 


— 







.oris Tonison-, Rev. J. K, F.O.S., 
?.L.S., on the Hawk^bm-v Sand- 



Marine Fossils 



— A 1; 

Wool produced 



Z \ xma °" 

49 Youth (a